Early History of Entomology in Egypt

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Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Biotechnology Research in
Egyptian Institutions


by

H. S. A. Salama

National Research Centre,Cairo







Biotechnology

can

be

an

efficient

catalyst

in

improving

the

economy

of

the

country

and

ensuring

a

better

quality

of

life

for

all
.

Biotechnology

is

always

giving

the

impression

that

its

potential

impact

on

medicine

and

human

health

care

,

industry

and

agriculture

is

almost

limitless
.
Miracle

drugs

for

cancer,

heart

attacks

,

Alzheimer's

disease

and

other

incurable

diseases

are

already

on

hands

or

soon

to

be

developed
.


In Egypt:

Research and
development has been possible
through a network of Universities , and
Research Institutes. Institutions
concerned with Biotechnology Research
are:

*
Agricultural Research Centre with

16 institutes including an institute for
Agricultural Biotechnology (AGERI).


*

An institute for vaccines, antibiotics,
and enzymes production (Ministry of
Health).


*
A Centre of Biotechnology including
labs. for agricultural, industrial and
medical biotechnology (GERC) (Cairo
Univers)

*
A Centre of GE.& B including
4
Labs.
for tissue culture, molecular biology
and tissue culture( Ain Shams
Univers.)


*
Labs. of GE. & B. concerned with
agricultural, industrial and
environmental research (Alexandria,
Suez Canal and Menia Univers.)



*
A Centre of GE. & B. (Menoufia
Univers.) concerned with agricultural
and medical research



*
A multidisciplinary National Research
Centre having departments concerned
with agricultural , industrial and
medical biotechnology.



*
Mubarak City for Scientific Research
including an institute for Biotechnology
(GEBRI)





*
Theodor Bilharziasis research

institute including labs. for
immunology, biochemistry and
therapeutical chemistry.




*
NAMRU
-
3 concerned with
immunology and diagnosis of
infectious diseases research.


Biotechnology Research in
Universities




In

the

Universities

there

exist

satellites

(centers

and

labs
.
)

mainly

concerned

with

Biotechnology

research
.

Various

successful

achievements

in

this

area

have

been

recorded

.

Departments

and

special

courses

for

teaching

Biotechnology

at

the

undergraduate

level

have

also

been

established

since

1996
.

Research related to Genetic
Engineering and Biotechnology
at the National Research
Centre.



Among

the

Egyptian

research

institutes,

the

multidisciplinary

National

Research

Centre

(

NRC

)

of

Cairo

is

heavily

engaged

with

research

in

fields

related

to

GE

&

B
.

in

the

areas

of

Agriculture,

Medicine,

Health

and

Industry

.








This

Centre

(NRC)

is

the

largest

and

most

competent

Research

Institution

in

Egypt

which

can

support

multidisciplinary

research

programs

in

the

field

of

GE

&

B
.

It

was

established

in

1956

as

a

national

center

to

conduct

basic and applied research of national
interest in its 13 main research divisions
and 107 research departments and
these are:







1
-

Agricultural and Biological Research
Division



2
-
Food Industries and Nutrition Research
Division


3
-

Pharmaceutical Industries Research
Division


4
-

Environmental Sciences Research
Division



5
-

Medical Sciences Research Division


6
-

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Research Division


.

7
-

Human Genetics and Genome Research
Division


8
-

Veterinary Research Division


9
-
Engineering Research Division

10
-

Chemical Industries Research
Division



11
-

Inorganic Chemical Industries
and Mineral Resources Research
Division


12
-

Physics Research Division


13
-

Textile Industries Research
Division


Over

2200

research scientists

(with Ph. D. degree) supported by

3500

research assistants,
technicians , and administration
staff are engaged in research and
development in this Centre .

The NRC occupies an area of 15 acres on
which laboratories, pilot plants, fermentors,
green houses, central services laboratory ,
growth chambers, excellent library,
documentation centre, instrumentation
centre and computer services are located.



Activities in the area of
Biotechnology run along the
following lines :

1
-
Plant Biotechnology



classical

genetics

for

breeding

with

high

yielding

,

early

maturing

,

pest

resistant

and

high

protein

crops
.

Techniques

of

plant

tissue,

cell

and

organ

cultures

are

now

well

developed
.

In

vitro

propagation

of

banana,

potato,

strawberry

,

date

palm

,

mulberry

,

artichoke

and

ornamental

plants

.


Also

In

vitro

production

of

secondry

metabolites

such

as

tropane

alkaloids

and

antineoplastic

alkaloids
.
Molecular

characterization

and

finger

printing

of

plants,

plant

improvement

through

gene

transfer

and

preservation

of

plant

genetic

resources

represent

a

part

of

the

current

activities

.


2
-

Biofertilisers



Transfer

of

the

characteristics

of

N



fixation

by

Rhizobium

to

non



legumes

is

carried

out
.

Production

of

biological

fertilizers

for

various

crops

is

highly

successful
.

The

prospects

for

improved

agriculture

by

use

of

microbial

inoculants

are

good

leading

to

better

yield,

lower

costs
.

and

reduced

dependence

on

chemicals
.


3
-

Biopesticides



Development

of

microbial

pesticides

for

pest

control

to

reduce

environmental

pollution

Examples

are

Bacillus

thuringiensis

and

virus

diseases

which

play

a

great

role

in

insect

control
.




4
-

Cytogenetics and Genetic
Toxicology



Effect

of

pesticides

in

inducing

chromosome

aberrations

in

bone

marrow

,

micronuclei

in

polychromatic

erythrocytes

in

bone

marrow

and

sister

chromatid

exchange
.

5
-

Bio
-
fuel research



Municipal

digesters

used

in

the

treatment

of

municipal

sewage

sludge

,

with

the

evolved

gases

satisfying

part

of

the

energy

needs

of

the

municipal

treatment

plant
.


6
-

Veterinary medicine



Preparation

of

vaccines

against

endemic

diseases

that

affect

both

animals

and

humans
.

Studies

to

speed

up

genetic

improvement

of

farm

animals

and

to

increase

production

using

embryo

cloning

and

sexing

and

production

of

genetic

mosaics


7
-
Fermentation technology




Production

of

cell

matter

or

biomass

of

cell

components,

metabolites

.

Use

of

molasses

and

ricebran

to

produce

ethanol

,

acetic

acid

,

ethyl

acetate,

butyl

acetate

,

acetone

and

butanol

by

fermentation

.

Production

of

bulk

chemicals

such

as

citric

acid

(
Aspergillus

niger

),

lactic

acid

(
Lactobacillus

spp
.

)

is

progressing

.

8
-

Enzyme production



Preparation

of

new

enzymes

from

different

organisms

and

also

medicinal

kits

for

diagnosis

of

human

diseases
.

Research

on

microbial

and

plant

enzymes

of

significant

importance

in

various

industries

.


9
-

Antibiotic production






Isolation,

identification

and

characterization

of

new

antibiotics

from

Egyptian

environment
.

Production

of

conventional

antibiotics

required

for

combating

common

bacterial

and

fungal

infections

prevalent

in

the

middle

east

area

.

10
-

Biomedical Technology




*
Development

and

use

of

molecular

cloning

and

nucleic

acid

analysis

techniques

for

infectious

organisms
.



*
Defining

some

genes

suffering

functional

disorders

during

the

process

of

carcinogenesis

.



*
Utilization

of

biochemical

and

immunological

techniques

in

production

of

diagnostic

kits

for

various

diseases

.



11
-

Recombinant DNA
technology in the diagnosis
of hemoglobinopathies



Use of genetic engineering (DNA) probe for
accurate diagnosis of prevalent genetic
disorders, its use in prenatal detection of
diseases that cannot be diagnosed otherwise.


(

e
.

g
.

thalessaemias

and

other


haemoglobinopathies

and

leuchenne

muscular

dystrophy)
.

Highly

qualified

research

staff

in

clinical

genetics,

human

cytogenetics,

biochemical

genetics

,

prenatal

diagnosis

and

population

genetics
.



Research

on

mental

retardation,

chromosomal

aberration,

primary

amenorrhea,

male

infertility,

intersex

problems,

inborn

errors

of

metabolism,

multiple

malformations

and

recurrent

abortions
.

There

is

an

outpatient

unique

clinic

receiving

patients

with

genetic

disorders

referred

by

specialists

from

all

over

Egypt
.


Scientific manpower at NRC



NRC

has

qualified

and

experienced

scientific

manpower

resources

in

all

fields

including

those

related

to

GE

&

B
.

i
.

e
.

genetics

(plant
,

animal,

human)

biochemistry,

microbiology,

virology,

physiology,

plant

and

animal

breeding,

food

technology,

industrial

fermentation
,


medical

physics,

biophysics,

tissue

culture,

mammalian

cell

culture,

cell

physiology,

molecular

biology,

biological

pesticides


.
etc
.

Many

scientists

have

been

educated

in

well

reputed

European

,

American

and

Canadian

Universities
.



Foreign Cooperation




NRC

has

signed

several

bi



lateral,

and

international

agreements

with

developed

and

developing

countries,

some

international

organizations

and

the

International

Centre

for

GE

and

Biotechnology
.

This

include

joint

research

projects,

exchange

of

information

and

scholars,

training,


etc
.



Mubarak City for Scientific
Research
-

Genetic Engineering
and Biotechnology Research
Institute (GEBRI )

-
It aims to develop new solutions for medical
pharmaceutical, industrial and environmental
problems through molecular biotechnological
techniques .

-
Designed to cover advanced biotechnological R&D
in the Biodiversity, Bioinformatics ,

-
Germplasm

conservation

,

production

of

novel

biotechnology

products,

genomics,



-
Stem

cell

technology

and

tissue

engineering
.


It

consists

of

6

departments

:


-
Nucleic

Acids

Research

.

-
Environmental

Biotechnology

.


-
Medical

Biotechnology

.


-
Bioproces

development

and

Pilot

Plant

.

-
Pharmaceutical

Bioproducts

.


-
Protien

Research

.


THANK YOU