DNA - Bcsc.K12.in.us

gooseliverBiotechnology

Oct 22, 2013 (4 years and 16 days ago)

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Bellwork:

Homework for week of March 5
th



9
th


Mon.

Good Luck!

Tues.

ISTEP

Math/L. Arts Applied Skills

Weds.

ISTEP

Writing Prompt

Thurs.

Recombinant DNA Pre
-
Lab

Friday

Modeling Recombinant

DNA Lab

Chapter Intro
-
page 336

Learning Goals:

Evaluate the importance of plant and
animal breeding to humans.

Summarize the steps used to engineer
transgenic organisms.

Analyze how mapping the human
genome is benefitting human life.

13.1 Section Objectives


page 337


Predict the outcome of a test cross.

Section Objectives:



Evaluate the importance of plant and animal
breeding to humans.


1.
Evaluate the importance of plant and
animal breeding to humans.


2.
Summarize the steps used to engineer a
transgenic organism


Chapter 13: Genetic
Engineering

Chapter 13: Genetic
Engineering

This genetically engineered plant
Glows
-
in
-
the
-
Dark!


A genetically engineered mouse that can
grow a human ear!


13
-
1 Applied Genetics


Selective Breeding:

Allowing only animals with
desired traits to reproduce
.


In 1947, an average milk
cow produced 4997
pounds of milk per year.

In 1997, 50 years later, an
average milk cow produced
16 915 pounds of milk per year

Selective Breeding

Hybridization


Crossing (reproducing) different
individuals to bring together the best of
both organisms


Produce a Hybrid which are often hardier
than parents.

Inbreeding


Breeding of individuals with
similar characteristics to
maintain these
characteristics

Test Cross


Cross of an individual with unknown
genotype with an individual with known
genotype


Used to determine genotype


Summarize the steps used to
engineer transgenic organisms.

Learning Goal:


Give examples of applications
and benefits of genetic
engineering.

13
-
2: Recombinant DNA Technology

1.
DNA Extraction



taking
DNA

out of the cell

2.
Restriction enzymes
: are special
enzymes

that cut DNA in specific locations

3.
Gel electrophoresis:

DNA is separated and
analyzed


Some tools we use to change DNA:

Scientists use our knowledge of
DNA

to study
and change it!

Genetic Engineering
:

making changes in the
DNA of living organisms


4.
PCR

(polymerase chain reaction):
making
COPIES

of a particular gene that
is
CUT
(by restriction enzymes) out of the
original DNA


PCR animation


5.
Cutting and Pasting
: we can make new
DNA by combining DNA from different
sources


this is called
Recombinant

DNA

Description:

DNA polymerase (blue)
makes many copies of DNA (red) in a
cycle of the polymerase chain reaction
(PCR).

Section 13.2 Summary


pages 341
-

348

What is

?

1.

recombinant DNA

2.

transgenic organism

3.

restriction enzyme

4.

plasmid


Cleavage

Cut

Insertion

DNA Fragments

Plasmid

Plasmids are circular DNA molecules that are
separate from the chromosomal DNA .

They usually occur in bacteria

Action of

Restriction

Enzyme

Foreign DNA into Plasmid

Gel Electrophoresis

DNA

Unique pattern created by the
movement of the DNA through
the gel
-

can identify an individual

DNA Fingerprinting


Help Jimmy Sweet solve his
candy mystery!


Who did it?

Click to Solve

DNA Fingerprinting: Who did it


Transformation



a cell takes &
incorporates DNA from outside into
its own DNA


Steps to Transforming Bacteria

1.
Take the gene of interest out of the DNA from a
human cell

2.
Cut it out using restriction enzymes (act like
scissors!!)

3.
You are left with your “gene of interest”

4.
Take a plasmid (ring of DNA) out of a bacterial
cell, cut it with restriction enzymes.

5.
Place the gene of interest in the plasmid,
making a ring again

6.
Put this ring back into a bacteria and let it
reproduce!!

When the same sequence of
bases is found on both DNA
strands, but in opposite
orders, it is called a


Transforming Plant Cells


A bacterium inserts a DNA plasmid
into plant cells to create new
unique

plants


Ex. Plants resistant to
pesticides

Transforming Animal Cells


DNA is injected into the nucleus of
an
egg
. As the embryo grows the
new DNA will be
reproduced

Today’s Goal:


Analyze how genetic engineering and mapping
the human genome will benefit future
generations.

Many scientists consider genetic
engineering to be simply an effective
method of selective breeding.
Explain.

Today’s Goal:


Analyze how genetic engineering and mapping
the human genome will benefit future
generations.

Gel Electrophoresis


PCR
-

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Biotechnology


New technology has created a new field
of study:
Biotechnology


We can create
transgenic

organisms



that contain genes from other organisms



Glowing bumblebee:


Modified Piglets!

Transgenic Animals


Have been used to study genes and
improve the
food

supply


Research is under way where
goats

could be
modified to produce spider
silk

proteins in their milk
that could be used in the production of medical
sutures and bullet
-
proof vests


Transgenic Plants


Modified plants are important in our food
supply!


25% of all corn grown in US in genetically
modified


Ex. They have natural insecticides, resist
herbicides, vitamins

86%

Recombinant DNA


DNA produced by
combining DNA from
different
sources
.


Genetically
engineered
cells

contain recombinant
DNA

Firefly gene + tobacco plant = glowing tobacco plant!

Cloning: creating genetically
identical individuals

Cloning Mimi

Click and Clone!

Genetic Science Learning Center, "Permissions Policy,"
Learn.Genetics
, 29 April 2009,
<http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/gslc/permissions.html> (29 April 2009)

13.3
-

Human
Genome Project



When
: Began in 1990, finished in 2003


Cost
: approx. $3 billion


What
: Sequenced the human genome (all 24
chromosomes)



Why
: To help understand our DNA


Fun fact:


The order of almost all (99.9%) nucleotide
bases is exactly the same in all people


Applications of Biotechnology

Technology

Example

Benefit

Selective Breeding

Recombinant DNA



in medicine



In agriculture


Gel Electrophoresis



DNA Fingerprint

Human Genome


Gene therapy

Applications of Biotechnology

Technology

Example

Benefit

Selective Breeding

Recombinant DNA



in medicine



In agriculture


Gel Electrophoresis



DNA Fingerprint

Human Genome


Gene therapy

Complete the following data table to review the benefits of Biotechnology

Name

My
pts


Pts Poss.

Tot
“My
Pts”

TPP

Grade

7

Ch 12
Reading
Guide

15

156

8

Ch 12
Genetics
Test

40

196


Goal:
Evaluate the importance of plant and animal
breeding to humans.


Today’s Goal:


Describe the effect selective breeding will have
on the human population.

Place Selective Breeding lab in the
collection folder.


What is selective breeding?

What effect might selective
breeding of plants and animals
have on the size of Earth’s human
population? Why?

1.

2.

Using the corn experiment, explain what
happened to farmers crops after many
years of only choosing the best seeds?


Why would you want to use selective
breeding?




3.


Using David O Conover’s fish experiment,
compare and contrast the tanks that had
fish getting smaller vs. larger?



How does this explain selective breeding?

4.


Selective breeding has many benefits but
is not without problems.


Create a T
-
chart of the pros and cons of
selective breeding.

Pro

Con

1.

Become familiar

2.

Model Recombinant DNA

3.

Review and give examples of
applications via 13.2 Guided
Notes

Summary:

Name

My
pts


Pts
Poss.

Tot “My
Pts”

TPP

Grade

10

Selective
Breeding
Lab

15

221

Today’s Goal:

Give examples of applications and benefits
of genetic engineering.

Relate the steps of producing recombinant DNA
to the activities of the modeling procedure by
explaining how the terms relate to the model

Term

Lab

Model

Gene insertion

Plasmid

Restriction Enzyme

Sticky ends

Recombinant

DNA

Create the following Data Table

Taping Green and Red together

Green Paper

Scissors

Cut ends on Paper

Red and Green taped together

Biology

Homework for week of April 18
-

22

Mon

Model Lab Analysis

Ex. Credit due Weds

Tues

Review Recombinant DNA

Weds

Applying Genetic Technology

Review

Th

Ch. 13 Test

Fri

No School
-
Good Friday