HANDBOOK FOR SCENARIO IMPLEMENTATION at School level

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Organic.Edunet

HANDBOOK

FOR

SCENARIO IMPLEMENTATION


at School

level



New ways of teaching Organic Agriculture and Agroecology








































2

This handbook will prepare you for scenario implementation


a
t School level:


In this ha
ndbook, school teachers are introduced to scenario implementation through the example scenario of the
organic school garden

and other scenarios proposed by school teachers
.


Authors:

Evi Chryssafidou,

Sofoklis Sotiriou



3

Table of
contents



From scenario to implementation

................................
................................
..........................

4

A. Scenario proposition with a narrative

................................
................................
...............

5

A1. The

purpose of proposing educational scenarios

................................
........................

5

A2. Educational scenarios expressed through a narrative

................................
.................

6

A3. Educational scenario
s proposed by school teachers

................................
...................

6

B. Scenario specification with definition of learning activities

................................
...........

12

B1. A template for defining
a scenario with learning activities

................................
......

13

C.

Learning Design

................................
................................
................................
..............

19

C1. Content searching and learning objects retrieval

................................
......................

20

C2. Organising and sharing learning resources in an open education repository

............

25

C3. Organising learning objects and learning activities in

a semantic diagram

..............

28

D.

Content enrichment with metadata

................................
................................
.................

32

D1.
Contributing content as user

................................
................................
.....................

32

D2. Overview of functions in Confolio

................................
................................
...........

35

Bibliography

................................
................................
................................
........................

47



4

From scenario to implementation


Organic Agriculture has become inc
reasingly important on the agenda
of

European countries
due to new policies and plans for sustainable development, encompassing social, economical
and ecological factors. This will require greater focus on developing a
nd sharing educational
material

in Org
anic Agriculture (OA) and Agroecology (AE) for European youth.


Organic.Edunet is an EU
-
funded project under the
e
ContentPlus Programme that collects
practical learning information and tools and makes them available digitally in a new web
portal
.


Aim of

this handbook is to present some of the
experiences

and suggestions on

how to
include or improve teaching in OA/AE

at school
level
.


The proposition of a scenario is the first step.
In this handbook, a

scenario is simply a
description of a subject or acti
vity of how to implement OA/AE in
school

curriculum,
educational programme or in specific subjects. New pedagogical strategies and access to high
quality learning material through the Organic.Edunet web portal are
very important

for this
handbook.

Teachers

and students involved in the

implementation of

scenarios have

to

retrieve, reuse or adjust content that is appropriate for their educational needs. We consider
this as the second step.
During this step, teachers and students may identify useful content,
g
enerate new content, or modify content that is being proposed by other teachers or students
The content will help them to adopt new or to modi
fy their pedagogical strategies
.















At
the

third step, the teachers are introduced to how to e
nrich their own content
, or

content
that they have identified and c
onsider useful, with metadata.


The structure of this handbook follows this 3
-
step approach. The first two chapters, ‘A.
Scenario proposition with a narrative’ and ‘B Scenario specificatio
n with definition of
learning activities correspond to 1
st

step. Chapter ‘C. Learning design


illustrates the middle
step
. The last chapter ‘D. Content enrichment with metadata’ refers to the use of the Confolio
tool for annotating resources.

Scenario proposition
with narrative

Scenario definiti
on
with learning activities

Scenarios

Content searching and
learning objects
retrieval

Learning objects and
learning activities
organization

Learning Design

Content enrichment
with metadata

Content

1
st

step

2
nd

step

3
rd

step


5

A
.
Scenari
o proposition with a narrative

A
1
. The purpose of proposing educational scenarios

A scenario is intended to act as catalysts for discussion, reflection and action with a wide
audience of teachers, in
-
service or pre
-
service, nationally or
internationally

(Santoro &
Allard, 2008; Snoek, 2003)

.
It is considered beneficial for teachers to use scenario writing as
a tool for becoming more reflective professionals themselves
. If

they gladly share these
scenarios they start

to feel being part of a learning community of teacher Educators”
(Cautreels, 2003)
. Confronting the
challenge

of teaching to a professional standard requires
competences such as communicating one’s pedagogical views
to colleagues,
making one’s
own learning p
rocess explicit to colleagues and students, being oriented towards the
stimulation of systematic reflection, evaluating with colleagues new developments in the field
of education and in the area of teacher education
(Koster & Dengerink, 2001)

. Within the
more specific
context of
OA & AE subjects further objectives are
identified

in the scope of
defining educational scenarios:




Smoothly integrate OA & AE subjects to school curriculum as effectively as possible



Ensure transferability of the educational scenarios to other

organizations by clarifying
aims, methods and outcomes



Consider science subjects as vehicles of integration, however other subjects should not
be excluded



Consider pedagogical approaches from science education for the pedagogical design of
scenarios and
activities



Design the educational activities, planned within the scenarios, to meet the individual
educational needs of schools



Pilot and validate educational activities as case studies of actual educational programs
(i.e. activities will be implemented in

real condition but will be validated
systematically)



Include one or more aspects of the following in their pedagogical design:

o

Problem
-
based pedagogical approach to learning

o

Inquiry
-
based pedagogical approach to learning

o

Resource
-
based pedagogical approac
h to learning

o

Student
-
centred approach to learning recognizing students’ contribution

o

Support by ICT in school practice will be provided to learning

o

Learning as active process of discovery

o

Learning based on self
-
motivation

o

Learning motivated by hands
-
on a
ctivities

o

Learning motivated real life problem solving, contemporary issues envisaging



Design educational activities along an investigation of available relevant content in
appropriate structure, format and language taking into account parameters such as:

o

age

o

prior knowledge

o

organisation structure with easy to manage and describe units

o

information regarding copyright and authorship

o

portable formats and editable versions



6


A2
.
Educational
scenarios

expressed through a narrative

An educational scenario is a

less formal
description

of an educational experience which
usually
includes

a reference to the classroom objectives and topics, lists spec
ific learning
activities and

use of resources,
and may

also discuss the role of participating
actors that

is
what the

teacher and students do

during an activity
. The scenario may be an idea that has
already been
developed

and evaluated and found to be
successful

or a new idea that is being
formed and prepared for implementation. Reading the one to few paragraphs of an
ed
ucational scenario should trigger the interest and curiosity of other teachers
,

or other
stakeholders involved in the educational practice, to find out more about how the scenario is
implemented, the educational outcomes and maybe motivate the u
ndertaking
of a similar
project
. Presenting a scenario should in general stimulate and develop reflection for current
and future practices. In the context of this handbook
, the

scenario is a first, non formal
description, of a more structured
process

and set of activ
ities that are being

defined during the
later stages of learning design and content enrichment.


A3.
Educational scenarios
proposed by school teachers

We present here scenarios that
have been

proposed for implementation in the content of the
Organic.Edune
t pilot trials in schools.

Adopting the
narrative
style is done in different ways.

Some adopt a more formal description than others.
Some are more specific
with regards to
activities.
As already mentioned

it is important to trigger interest and curiosity
as well as

stimulat
e

reflection for current and future practices
. It is believed that th
ese

elements,
interest
,
curiosity and reflection will be reflected throughout the
implementation

of the scenario.



7

An organic garden coming into being

Do you remember

the first time you planted lentil seeds on a bed of cotton? How
about the first time you tasted a fresh homegrown tomato? Children like to play in the
mud, hide in the bushes, and catch bugs. Grown ups like to pride themselves about
their perfect grass an
d roses. Gardens are in general well received by everybody.
Thanks to our school’s administration initiative since the end of last school year we
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Visit to an organic vineyard and winery

Enthusiasm is contagious and we were lucky to meet
Mr Georgas, an enthusiastic wine producer in Spata,
near Athens. Spata is part of Mesogaia,

situated in
Attika’s eastern plain, which has for generations been
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by潵湴a楮猠慮搠桡猠a 杯潤⁣汩浡瑥Ⱐ,灰牯p物a瑥t景f
癩v楣畬瑵牥.



䵲⁇e潲条猠s瑴牡cte搠瑨攠
students’ attention by comparing the v
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a湤n
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gra摵d汬y⁩湴牯摵re搠瑯⁴桥 瑵牥映癩湥猠s湤⁴ne
灨y獩潬ogy映瑨 ⁰污湴⸠


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8

conventional and organic vineyar
ds.

Through dialogue and questions the students draw conclusions regarding the presence
and usefulness of flowers, and others small plants, which in a conventional vineyards
would be considered pests and harmful weeds. It became evident to them that in th
e
organic vineyards the weeds, the flowers, and other little plants, protect the vine plant
by creating a complete ecosystem, keeping the life of
the plant balanced, and nurturing its soil with rich
ingredients. The presence of certain insects that are
att
racted by specific weeds and flowers repel other
insects and organism that would otherwise harm the
vine.

Mr Georgras drew his students attention to a very
illustrative comparison of conventional (to the left) and
organic (to the right) soil, as he took
and compare a
handful of soil from the two vineyards. He asked the
students what soil they
would use for the pots
at home. Most of the
students pointed to the
conventional soil. The
difference (or even
misconception) was
clarified by reference
to the richn
ess of the soil, the presence of live
organism, and recycled matter.

The visit ended at the winery, where the students were shown how wine is produced,
bottled and packaged.




Comparing Organic and conventional farming

(
"Alles Bio
-

oda was ?")


The s
cenario starts with excursions to farmers in the surrounding of the school:
students are divided in 2 groups: one group visits an "Organic Farmer", the other
group goes to a "Conventional Farmer". During these excursions students are
informed about the dif
ferent methods of farming.




9


In the next step students purchase products of different origin, taste them and perform
simple chemical tests to compare differences in price, taste and ingredients. They are
taught to perform simple tests in the laboratory
of the chemical department.






After these activities students interview people on the street in order to find

out about
people's knowledge and opinions about "organic food". Students use the Learning
Management System "Moodle" as means of communication cooperation between
students in groups and teachers.


During the next activity each group has the possibility to

cook different meals, using
conventionally produced or organically grown products. Students learn the basics of
nutritional science and domestic economy in their follow
-
up activities: selecting
recipes, cooking meals and finally tasting the different dish
es.


In a next step students produce a small booklet about the entire project thus learning
the basics of how to publish the results of a project. They make themselves familiar
with various computer programmes and learn the basic principles of good layout.


In the final phase of the project students present their work on the internet and
distribute their brochure for a voluntary donation to locals at the market place in
Schwechat and visitors of the end of the school year ceremony.











10

Compost


in th
e cycle of nature




The topic of composting shall serve as an example to make pupils familiar
with
natural cycles. From knowledge to action the programme aims at raising awareness
for waste separation, recycling in general and the use of compost in organic farming
and its importance for organic farming in particular.


Students will set up a heap i
n the school garden, take care of it (watering, shifting)
and document the development processes (temperature development, humidity
content, mass decomposition, determination of reducing agents) the compost
container can be constructed by the pupils themse
lves (handicrafts) or the purchase
can be organised. A survey among acquaintances whether composting of green cut
and organic waste is considered to be useful constitutes another aspect of this
instruction scenario. This project can be concluded by a visit

of a compositing plant,
preferably on an organic farm.



From the seed to delight






Delight in the cycle of nature


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潲⁣h
楬摲d測⁷桯楶攠楮⁴桥⁣潵湴ny獩摥s
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11




Pollution/ Visiting nearby
river

Learning activities in the scenario:



Lesson about pollution topic at school



Visiting nearby river



Filling worksheets with exe
rcises about the pollution



Searching information about the pollution and making conclusions



Using
Organic.Edunet

website and other places to collect information about
the topic



Writing a story/essay or making posters with the group about the topic



Sharing

information with the others



Exhibition at school


The scenario starts with introducing the topic by the teacher.




After that pupils will visit a nearby river. They will use worksheets with exercises.
During the visit there will also be a di
scussion about the topic. Pupils will search for
answers to the questions prepared by the teacher and they will work in pairs. After
these activities pupils have to make a summary/essay about the topic and give it to the
teacher. Pupils share information w
ith others through Internet or make exhibition at
school.





12


B.
S
cenario
specification
with
d
efinition of

learning
activities



Having proposed an education scenario with a narrative the teacher turns to planning the
learning activities that will take p
lace over the period of the scenario implementation, and
will fulfill the learning objectives.
We propose, here, a

set of

template
s

in order to define a
learning scenario with learning activities

in the context of a curriculum area
.

As illustrated in
the f
ollowing figure (
Figure
1
), a scenario may consist of one or many learning activities.
Scenario and activities refer to the same
curriculum

area.
The focus, here, is mainly on the

learning activities that the stude
nts will carry
out

(or have already done) in order to achieve
specific learning outcome. A
learning activity

may refer to the amount of activity that is most
convenient to describe, whether this is a ‘module’, a learning session, or a learning activity
wit
hin a session. If a range of different e
-
learning tools and techniques are used over the
course of a session, or a range of different outcomes are addressed, then it may be easier to
break the session down into smaller activity units and describe these sep
arately.















Figure
1
.

S
tructure of scenario specification with learning activities within a curriculum area


In the following section, descriptions and examples will be given on
how to define a scenario,
as those

give
n in the previous section,
with the three based templates (shown in the tables
bellow).









Template for describing a
scenario


Title

of scenar
io:


Short description
supporting the title
:


Activity

or list of
related activities:







Template for describing a
learning
activity

Learning task
s


Tools/Resources


Assessment
strategy (Feedback
and/or evidence)


Time allocated







Template

for describing
the curriculum
area of the scenario

Subject

discipline area


Context

/

level of study


Topic domain


Pre
-
requisite

skills

/

knowledge


Pedagogical
a
pproach







Scenario

Learning
Activity a

Learning
Activity b

Learning
Activity n


Curriculum area


13

Th
e

proposed template
s

are

based on a simplified version

of a

JISC template
1

(Beetham &
Sharpe, 200
7)

used successfully
also
in the UNITE IST project to define eLearning
scenarios
2
.
In these projects,

learning activities dealt with
combining
knowledge from
different thematic areas, think
ing

critically,

diagnosing

and solving
problems, which
could be
al
so taken
across

in the the
context of
OA & AE subjects.

B1.
A template for defining
a scenario with
learning activities

We
propose to

redefine a learning scenario with
attributes that refer to
a)
the structure of the
scenario


simple or composite scenario



b)
the curriculum area and
c)
the learning
activit
i
es.
Depending
on
the educational objectives and needs a scenario may consist of one
(simple scenario) or more activities (composite scenario)
.

Structure


Example of simple scenario

Field

What to put he
re

Example

Title

Provide a working title
(maximum 15 words)

A study visit to an organic garden and/or a botanic
garden

Short description
supporting the title

Describe the scenario
with a few

words so that
the reader
’s

understanding of the title
is
deepe
ned
.

Children will be encouraged to take interviews of
key figures of the site and also photos and videos.
When they will return to the school this
information will be analyzed, discussed and
considered thoroughly.

Activities


A simple scenario may
c
onsi
st of maximum one
activity. In this case t
he
title of the activity
coincides in this case
with the title of the
scenario.

Activity:
A study visit to an organic garden and/or
a botanic garden


Example of composite scenario

Field

What to put here

Example

Title

Provide a working title
(maximum 15 words)

An organic garden coming into being.


Short description
supporting the title

Describe the scenario
with a few words so that
the reader’s
understanding of the title
is deepened.

Students participating in
this scenario will be
involved in
organic gardening practices and
experience
s

on cultivating plants organically.
Teaching and learning activities will include
investigations, experimentation and inquiry
-
based
activities, co
nstructions, field trips
and open

exhibitions.
The teaching content will cover areas
such as the life of plants and their main functions,
growing plants organically from seed
-
plants,
studying the soil and making compost
.




1

The JISC template website:
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/elp_templates.html

3

http://pedagogy.unite
-
ist.org/repository/1/userfiles/documents/UNITE_D5.2Handbook
-
contentDevelopment.pdf



14

Activities


A scenario may consist of
a series of learning
activiti
es which can be
simple scenarios on its
own. The activities of a
composite scenario can
be presented with or
without a suggested
order.

Activities of the composite scenario “An organic
garden coming into being”:

Activity 1:

Planning of gardening activities

and forming of working groups

Activity 2:

Studying the garden soil and start
thinking organically

Activity 3:

A study visit to an organic garden
and/or a botanic garden

Activity 4:

Growing seeds in seed
-
starting
pots and trays

Activity 5:

Putting young
plants in raised
beds

Activity 6:

Nurturing the plants and keeping
them healthy

Activity 7:

Constructing greenhouses out of
PVC pipes in the garden

Activity 8:

Studying decomposition columns
made out of plastic bottles

Activity 9:

Building a compost chamb
er and
compost heaps

Activity 10:

Harvesting the crop and cooking
for healthy nutrition

(
Activities
1, 3 and 7 are
explained in detail in the following section)





Curriculum area

For each educational scenario a description that refers to curriculum para
meters is suggested.
This will help teachers and other stakeholders
,

who
will later
take on the task

of enhancing
content with meta
dat
a, to think about how content can be described

with metadata

(
see
further in
D
.

Content enrichment with metadata
, p.
32
)
.



Curriculum area

for the scenario:
An organic garden coming into being.


Field

What to put here

Example

Subject

discipline
area


Many curriculum areas can be covered within the
thema
tic framework of an “organic school
garden”. Science, ecology and environmental
education, technology and crafts, mathematics,
ICT, as well as language, history, geography and
social studies, nutrition and physical education.
Many of the designed activitie
s are inter
-
curricular and integrated within a framework of
formal, non
-
formal and informal educational
settings.

Context

/

level of
study

Context and/or level may be
used as appropriate.

For example: primary
education, secondary
education, sixth form co
llege

T
his scenario is prepared for children of the 6th
grade of the p
rimary school (11
-
12 year
-
olds).
. By
designing, cultivating, and harvesting organic
school gardens, children experience deeper
understanding of natural systems and ecosystems
and become
better stewards of the earth.


15

Topic domain

A phrase to describe the
content of this specific unit of
learning, whether a whole
module, a learning session, or
a single activity within a
learning session. Where there
is a subject
-
specific controlled
vocabu
lary for topic areas, or a
curriculum list approved by a
professional or educational
body, use items from this list if
possible.

The following topics are to be integrated in the
scenario:

The life of plants and their main functions,
growing plants organica
lly from seed
-
plants in
containers and greenhouses to raised bed organic
gardening. Organic treatment of plant diseases
collection of vegetables and seasonal fruits and
healthy eating habits. Preserving the food with
solar dryers etc. Sharing information o
ver the
internet and through the “Organic.Edunet” portal.

Pre
-
requisite

skills

/

knowledge

Skills, not necessarily formally
assessed, that learners should
have before embarking on this
unit of study. For example:

Communication

Information and
communicatio
n technologies

Improving own learning and
performance

Solving problems

Working with people

Internet basics and research engines skills,
producing posters and charts, group work and
basic social skills, presentation skills, basic
construction skills and han
dling of simple tools,
basic knowledge of English in order to be able to
understand simple texts.

Pedagogical
a
pproach

Brief description of the general
pedagogical approach that will
inform practice in the scenario
outline in the following section
(activi
ties)

As this is a composite scenario many pedagogical
approaches will be implemented; problem
-
based
learning in construction, inquiry based learning
during basic experiments,
situated learning
through authentic settings, collaborative learning,
resource
-
b
ased learning



Learning activities



We propose a template with the following categories.

Field

What to put here

Learning objectives/outcomes

These should be stated in terms of one of the
four categories: knowledge (facts),
understanding (concepts), s
kills and
attitudes/values.

Tools/Resources

Any physical/virtual tool (hardware, software)
or resource (e.g. textbook) can be specified
here. E
-
/M
-
learning resources in particular
should be described in some detail.

Assessment strategy (Feedback and/or
e
vidence)

With an emphasis on formative assessment key
activities should be selected. Assessment
strategies might include peer
-
commentary, the
use of e
-
portfolios, self generated success
criteria, photographic records.

Time allocated

The number of hours de
dicated for the delivery
of the activity. Reference to preparation time
for the students may also be mentioned here.



16

Here are some of the l
earning activities
from
the

scenario

“An organic garden coming into
being”



Activity 1:
Planning of gardening act
ivities

and forming
of
working groups


Learning tasks/activities



Brainstorming in the classroom with designs and diagrams

on the white board
and/or on paper in order to identify children’s ideas and preferences about
gardening and organic gardening produ
cts and options.
Students

start forming
groups and start having ideas of investigation. They discuss their assistance
resources from other teachers, parents and/or experts. Groups of volunteers
formulate to support the gardening projects.

Learning objecti
ves/outcome(s)

To identify children’s ideas and preferences and put them down in writing.

To examine pupils’ interests on organic gardening and explore possible
expressions of those interests.

To establish groups of pupils for further project work and supp
orting groups of
volunteers (teachers, parents, experts etc.).

Tools/Resources

Pen and paper work, s
pider diagrams
, garden designs

to briefly identify aspects
of the course and the undergoing scenario on organic gardening. Newspaper
articles and advertise
ments of organic products on the clipboards for reading
and further elaboration.

Projection of video clips to motivate initial discussions.

Assessment strategy (Feedback
and/or evidence)

Informal feedback through classroom discussion and a second, reflect
ive look at
the spider diagrams, with possible additions and/or alterations.

Time allocated

A double session (two consequent teaching hours 45’ each, a total of 90’).








Activity 3:
A study visit to an organic garden and/or a botanic garden


Learning

tasks/activities

Students will plan an on
-
site visit to an organic garden and/or a botanic garden.
They are encouraged to take interviews of key figures of the site and also
photos and videos. When back in School all this information will be analyzed,
di
scussed and considered thoroughly.

Learning objectives/outcome(s)

To encounter a first
-
hand experience of an organic garden, confront the
difficulties and asses the benefits of such a practice.

To take interviews and ask informative questions to obtain pr
oject related
information.

To collect photos and videos and extract information out of the depicting
images.

Tools/Resources

Tape recorders, digital photograph cameras and video cameras, notebooks.

Assessment strategy (Feedback
and/or evidence)

Start a d
ynamic, on
-
going concept map to include acquired information and
transform it as the information load increases and new links are formed
between concepts and well as cross
-
links between clusters of concepts in order
to enhance meaningful learning. This con
cept map will develop during the
course of the project as additional concepts and/or clusters will be added and
modified

(suggestion of use : www.lamsinternational.com).

Time allocated

A whole morning session for the on
-
site study visit(s) and a double s
ession
(two consequent teaching hours 45’ each, a total of 90’) in the School for
elaboration of information and further development.




17

Activity 7:
Constructing greenhouses out of PVC pipes in the garden


Learning tasks/activities




After having elabor
ated the concept of the greenhouse effect on the models,
the construction of one or two greenhouses in the school garden may follow.

These greenhouses are to be built with readily available materials like PVC
pipes and various joints and greenhouse plastic

films. There are several
available designs on the internet (cf. URL: <
http://www.pvcplans.com/

>),
such as tunnel greenhouses (see side drawing), house
-
like with
Λ

roof
greenhouses etc. Alternatively, readymade greenhouses either plastic and/or
metallic can be bought and assembled. Such greenhouses are available in
various sizes from many companies around the world. Plastic ones appear
very attractive and safe for
children since they use
polypropylene
synthetic
material instead of glass and also come with a built
-
in ventilation system (e.g.
URL: <
http://outstanding
-
keter.co.il/GreenHouses.asp

>).

Many
groups of children can work successively with the help of supporters
and volunteers until the construction of the project is done and the
greenhouses are ready for housing the plants in the school garden.

Learning objectives/outcome(s)

To experience the c
onstruction of an educational greenhouse in the school
garden made of common materials.

To be able to read designs and plans and follow basic instructions and safety
rules in the development of simple and low technology projects.

To manipulate safely simpl
e tools and achieve simple construction
arrangements.

To enhance a sense of ownership of project constructions i.e. greenhouses in
order to increase commitment of
stewardship

in action.

Tools/Resources

Greenhouse designs, available construction materials
(PVC tubes, joints,
plastic film) and basic tools.

A worksheet of the applied construction for dissemination on the
“Organic.Edunet” portal and further use by partners.

Assessment strategy (Feedback
and/or evidence)

Development of problem solving skills
and creative planning as a reflective
practice during the construction and on the construction. Feedback from peers
and supporters during the construction and through relevant discussions.

Time allocated

Groups of pupils may work on the construction durin
g technology and crafts
hours or in the “zone of flexible activities” and/or in the afternoon sessions.
Preparation of materials and infrastructure can be taken care of by supporters,
local community members and volunteers after school time or during
after
noon sessions.



18

TEMPLATES

FOR RE
-
REUSE


Curriculum area

Field


Subject

discipline area




Context

/

level of study




Topic domain




Pre
-
requisite

skills

/

knowledge




Pedagogical
a
pproach






Scenario

Field


Title




Short description supp
orting the
title





Activity or list of activities








Learning activities

Field


Learning tasks




Learning objectives/outcome(s)





Tools/Resources




Assessment strategy (Feedback
and/or evidence)




Time allocated




19

C
.

Learning Design

Re
cent years have witnessed the emergence of software specifically intended to support
teacher to create, share and re
-
purpose representations of designs for learning.

The need to support learning design may be as

basic as the
need to

organise
content
found
from searching and browsing. Such content could be sim
ply organised in
folders

and shared
with other teachers. LeMill
3

is
an

open web community for finding, authoring and sharing
learning
resources which

are created and edited by volunteer teachers and con
tent authors.
Teachers can collect material, methods and tools together into teaching and learning stories,
where they describe how they've used the resources together and what
their experiences were
.

Resources could also be semantically

associated
in a di
agrammatic format

so that all
resources are related to a learning activity.
Authoring environments, such as the prototype
CompendiumLD system (Open University, UK) provide scaffolding tools for
organising
content in a diagrammatic
way
.

In this chapter we s
uggest web
-
based resources that could be
used for accessing and organising

learning

resources. Besides the tools designed by the
Organic.Edunet
,

additional tools
,

such as CompendiumLD and L
eMill,
are suggested based
on previous experience
,
taking into acco
unt

that o
ther tools with similar functions may also
exist.




3

http://lemill.net.


20

C
1
.
Content searching and learning objects

retrieval

Information
-
seeking and literacy skills are increasingly important for both student and
teacher success. There is a lot of great material on
the Web
-

primary sources, specialized
directories and databases, statistical information, educational sites on many levels, policy,
opinion of all kinds, and so much more. The tools for finding it are steadily improving.
Currently, searching techniques ar
e developed to help the learners as well as teachers to find
information in the World Wide Web. Nevertheless, the users can be confused with search
results due to irrelevant information, misinformation, insufficient information, etc.



The
Organic.Edunet

Web portal
http://portal.organicedunet.eu























The Organic.Edunet Web portal provides access to a federation of several learning
repositories that have multilingual, quality
-
certified conte
nt related to the general topic areas
of Organic Agriculture and Agroecology. It aims to serve as a single
-
point of access for
searching, finding, reviewing, and accessing digital educational resources around the topics
of interest.


Several organisations
have connected their institutional collections with the federation,
allowing their content to be searchable through the Organic.Edunet Web portal. In addition, a
number of user communities that are creating, sharing, and exchanging educational resources
on

Organic Agriculture, Agroecology or relevant topics, have been facilitated by the
Organic.Edunet software tools and made their content also searchable through this portal.


Today, the Organic.Edunet Web portal provides access to more than 3000 resources,
from
over 15 institutional collections and 2 user communities.



21

We present
,

here
,

the
Organic.Edunet Web portal
,

which in the context of scenario
implementation

at
school

level
will provide

tools for:



Searching for

scenario relevant inform
ation
among the O
rganic.edunet repository
using
text b
ased search
.



Bookmaking and tagging the results of search
findings

so that they can be better
organised

in a personalized manner.




Linking

to
s
ubject
d
irectories,
i
nformation
g
ateways and
s
pecialist
d
atabases which
re
late specially to
the curriculum areas and learning activities


Text based search in the Organic
.E
dunet web portal

http://www.organic
-
edunet.eu/organic/index.html

In the Organic.Edunet Web portal, users may search or browse for educational resources on
Or
ganic Agriculture and Agroecology using four different mechanisms: Text
-
Based Search,
Browse, Semantic Navigation, and Social Navigation.



Figure
2
.

Text
-
based search can be accessed form the main menu (left) or the quick access
entry on the
right.


In text
-
based search the user types in keywords or exact phrases. The system retrieves from
the pool of the federation resources items that have in their title or descriptions the requested
keyword or exact phrase. In order to narrow d
own the result list, the text
-
based Search
interface allows
filtering

the returned results according to Learning Resource Type and
Educational Level.

For example, entering the keywords ‘organic farm europe’ in the text
-
based search returned initially a lis
t of 70 items.
On application of a

filter of the resource type

case study


narrows down the results to two items.
Notice that the keywords are highlighted
in the description of the result item (
Figure
2

and
Figure
3

).






22


Figure
3
.

You can narrow down the results by applying a filter of resource type or educational level


A
dvanced users may also access resources through
semantic and social navi
gation.
Semantic
navigation allows

users to search for resources according to
ontology

of Organic Agriculture
concepts. For a more elaborated search, users may define a number of interest points upon the
ontology, and ask for resources that are related to
them.

Social
navigation allows

users to
search for resources according to the way other users have
tagged or rated

resources

in the
past. Users can either search for resources that have been
annotated with a par
ticular
tag or
been highly rated resources. R
egistered uses declare in a
seamless
way their profile
as they
tag and rate

resources
. Thus they

have access to more advanced search functionalities

such

as
receiving recommendations about interesting resources that match their profile.


Users who have rec
eived a username and password can login in the web portal. This allows
bookmaking

any of the results of the search process. The bookmarked items can be retrieved
from the ‘my profile> my bookmarks’ menu on the right hand side of the web portal
interface.


Finally, users who can login can also add tags. In
Figure
4

the tag ‘school scenario’ is added
to an item that is been found from the search.


23


Figure
4
.

You can add tags to any of the re
trieved items


Further web sites from which you can search for content


kidsgardening.org

http://www.kidsgardening.org


The

website, maintained by the
American
National Gardening Association (NGA),
includes ric
h content that is specialised for young learners and schools. The
philosophy
of the website is to use gardening as a vehicle for encouraging
students and young people
in general

to ma
ke good food choices, augment

classroom
activities

with

experiential
lear
ning, build a love of nature and stimulate

social interaction

and

cultural exchange.
The content can be searched with keywords
,

through categories such as

Classroom
Stories
”, “Teaching Strategies”, “
Activities
”, “
All
about

Plants

.

Activities can be also
searched with keywords and categories.

See for example:




Classroom Project Ideas for exploring garde
ning, plant growth, and nature:

http://www.kidsgardening.org/growingideas/projects/library.html



Teaching Children about Fruit Varieties:

http://www.kidsga
rdening.com/Dig/digdetail.taf?Type=Art&id=21



Harvest Celebration Activities, including a list of
children’s

books:

http://www.kidsgardening.com/themes/harvest.asp


The site is also presenting

and registering schools that have gardening activities worldwide.



Growing schools

http://www.growingschools.org.uk/

The website has been designed
by British education and environmental institutions

to
s
upport teachers in using the "outdoor classroom" as a resource across the curriculum for

24

pupils of all ages. Resources can be searched by category, key stage and discipline. The
following links from within the site are wort
h visited



Growingschools.org Re
sources

http://www.growingschools.org.uk/Resources/


This section of the
growing schools

website holds a wide variety of resources related to
the outdoor classroom that introduce in an interestin
g and innovative ways the outdoor
learning into lessons
.


Get Your Hands Dirty

http://www.growingschools.org.uk/Resources/Resource.aspx?id=298


Resource that helps teachers co
nsider the issues involved in growing plants, or caring for
animal, in schools. This free resource gives ideas, practical advice, educational reasons,
and case studies to help teachers and students grow plants or keep animals in your school
grounds, see fo
r example “Growing in a small area of land”, “Gardening without land ”,
and “Simple horticultural activities & small animal care”.


Growingschools.org Resources

http://www.growingschools.org.uk/R
esources/


This section of the growings

chools website holds a wide variety of resources related to
the outdoor classroom that introduce in an interesting and innovative ways the outdoor
learning into lessons.


Get Your Hands Dirty

http://www.growingschools.org.uk/Resources/Resource.aspx?id=298


Resource that helps teachers consider the issues involved in growing plants, or caring for
animal, in schools. This free resource giv
es ideas, practical advice, educational reasons,
and case studies to help teachers and students grow plants or keep animals in your school
grounds, see for example “Growing in a small area of land”, “Gardening without land ”,
and “Simple horticultural acti
vities & small animal care”.



UK
-
based projects

related to school gardening


Science and Plants for Schools

(SAPS), works with teachers to promote plant science and
molecular biology as key curriculum areas. It also support educators in the delivery of pl
ant
science and molecular biology education in schools and colleges.


http://www
-
saps.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/about_whatis.htm




The
Garden Organic for Schools

project is a nationwide campaig
n which helps children grow
vegetables at school, and learn more about their food. By setting up small gardens in or near
the school grounds, children can learn about how food is produced and its link with the
countryside.

http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/schools_organic_network/quest.htm





The
Campaign for School Gardening
, with the support of TV gardeners
a

community
gardening initiative, focused on getting parents to he
lp their child’s primary school to build
and develop a garden.

Includes
resources to help you get started in setting up and using a
garden in your school.
http://apps.rhs.org.uk/schoolgard
ening/default.aspa





25

C2. Organising and sharing learning resources in an open education
repository



LeMill

(http://lemill.net/)

is a web community for finding, authoring and sharing learning
resources.
You can search and you can browse content which yo
u can reuse respecting the
copyright specifications.
What is interest us here is that you can add your own learning
content to LeMill.You can write your search term to the search field in the upper right corner
of the site.





Figure
5
.

Content interface in LeMill



26


Figure
6
.

Types of content to add in a
content
collection of LeMill




You may edit your content and combine larger chunks of learning resources from individual
media pieces.
Content can be a

learning resource
, that

you can edit online, such as a multiple
choice set of questions, a media piece, an external website or a
PDF

file.
By joining LeMill
you can make collections of
a mixture of content
which

makes it easy for you to later find a
set
of content. Also collections have unique addresses (URL) and you can make links to
them.


In addition to content, methods, and tools there are teaching and learning stories.

A collection
could be illustrated by a learning
story
. This

is a description of
how some content, methods,
and tools have been used together in a single learning event, such as a study course. Through
stories you may share your own experiences or use them to plan your own teaching.


In the following screenshot you can see an example
o
f a collection on the
scenario


visit to an
organic vineyard”. You can see the collection of content above the teaching and learning
story

(Figure 7)
.



27


Figure
7
.

An
example

of a collection with content and a teaching and learnin
g story




28

C
3
.
Organising l
earning objects
and
learning
activities

in a semantic diagram

In this section we propose the use of a resource processing tool

for better organising and
associating retrieved learning objects with learning activities


In learnin
g scenarios where information is stored electronically on servers all over the world,
learners have to search, localize, represent and make efficient use of the information, as well
as relate the information to their personal knowledge, objectives and plan
ned activities.
This
section aims to
demonstrate that localising and representing the relations between learning
objects helps the teacher
-

participant to acquire strategies for effective interaction with
learning resources. Then, introducing these resourc
es in the classroom is more
straightforward. The organic garden is, here, the learning context where rich digital resources
will enhance and promote the learning experience.
School activities that are actively related
to the structure and development of th
e garden can be effectively promoted through rich
digital content that can be retrieved through web search, identified in relevant content
repositories, reused, or created from scratch.






Figure
8
.

Content organised around the
school organic garden on http://www.ea.gr/ep/organic/content.


The implementation of the organic school garden scenario draws on existing content and
motivates teachers and students to reuse and adapt it to existing needs or create new. On this
website ht
tp://www.ea.gr/ep/organic/content/ the content is being organised and constantly
updated according to 6 main themes: Before planting
, Planting
, Visits, Greenhouses,
Composting, Plant Care, and Harvesting and promoting products (
Figure
8
).



29

The aim of this organisation of content is to enable the learner to consider what resources are
available, to show relationships among resources, activities and future tasks, to visualise
content as separate and independent learni
ng objects, or grouped into larger collections of
content that could be transformed into traditional course structures. The content is structured
into maps and interlinked websites with the CompendiumLD tool, an open,
and resource

processing tool. It suppo
rts teachers and learning designers to create diagram maps,
incorporate content and web
addresses
, show the relations between resources and activities
4
.
It

is being developed as a tool to support

lecturers, teachers and others involved in education
to help

them articulate their ideas and map out the design or learning sequence. While in this
section

we see the exported output of Compendium LD that can be published on the web in a
form of inter
-
linked websites the process of creating such maps with Compendiu
mLD or
other resource
processing tools is considered very important
.

Overall the objective is to instil
effective interaction with learning resources and help the participants to cope with the
complexity of knowledge and information resources.



For every

of the 6 themes there exist content that is
already uploaded in the Organic.
Edunet
Confolio, while further content is suggested for uploading: a) informational resources that
could be added to the Confolio and b) resources generated at school sites, durin
g scenario
implementation, which could be added to the Confolio (
Figure
9
). Going through the content
you can witness moments from Ellinogermaniki Agogi and the 9th Rethymnon primary
school where the “organic schoo
l garden” scenario has been already implemented.


Before the stage of enriching the resources and learning objects with metadata, a mind
mapping methodology is employed as a visual
-
spatial strategy for generating, organizing, and
visualizing structures
of ideas, thoughts, and concepts, as well as a managing tool for storing
and accessing information.





4

Compendium LD: Learning design software
:
http://kn.open.ac.uk/public/workspace.cfm?wpid=8690



30



Figure
9

.
For every of the 6 themes there exist content that is already uploaded in the Organic Edunet
Confolio, while further

content is suggested for uploading




Figure
10
.

A slide on constructing
greenhouses as part of the activities to
plan in the organic school garden

Every node and icon of the map opens another
map or lead to content, for example
a PDF file,
a power point presentation. By clicking on a
map icon a new map is invoked. For example
the user can access a whole map on how to
present the project in the classroom (
Figure
11
)
and to access the prese
ntation the teacher has
used in order to discuss in the classroom
possible activities that the whole classroom can
plan together (
Figure
10
).




31


Figure
11

.

A detailed map of resources o
n how to introduce the project of organic school garden in the
classroom



Teachers who will employ Compendium LD or any other
resource processing tool

should
reflect upon the following questions:




How do I organise the retrieved or created resources I use

in my teaching?



What is my main concern and difficulty in doing so?









32


D
.

Content enrichment with metadata

D1
.

Contributing content as user

T
he Organic.Edunet initiative is

a Europ
ean project that i
nvolves 15 partners

of
which
10

have the role

of co
ntributing content
(
as
content providers
)
.

Based on the content they
contribute,
as well as
content
merg
ed

from
external resources
,

Organic.Edunet is deploying a
multilingual online fede
ration of learning repositories

populated with quality content.
The
co
ntent of this federation is accessible from the he Organic.Edunet web portal. As we have
presented in
previous section
of this handbook

(p
.
20
)
,

the functionalities of the
Organic.Edunet web portal allow

users
to s
earch, retri
eve, bookmark and tag content. We will
now see briefly and discuss how we can contribute as users to the same pool of learning
content

that can support

teaching
about

Organic Agriculture and Agroecology
.


As
users
,

we can publish content in the Organic.Edu
net web portal

as long as it is

described
according to multilingual, standard
-
complying
, metada
ta, is of good quality and
v
alidated
according to given criteria
.
By u
sers
,

in the context of
the current

handbook
, we refer mainly

to
teachers

of any educati
o
na
l level. These
are expected to be
teachers

who
would like to
contribute their

content
,
which they have
either found from other resources
and

considered to
be
useful
in their
own
teaching practice
or have generated
themselves
. The content
that
teachers cont
ribute


taking briefly the role of content providers


will then
be
possible to
be
retrieve
d

from the Organic.Edunet web portal. As a community of

users, for example
the
Greek Rural Schools’ User Community
,

they are
creating

their

own learning repository
,

populating

it with content, publish
ing

it online and connect
ing

it to the Organic.Edunet
federation

of repositories
.
A

learning repository
is a collection of digital content resources or
learning objects provided by the content providers, i.e. internatio
nal organisations, private
publishers, organic agriculture teachers or compulsory education teachers.

As individual users we can join one of the existing communities of school or
university

teachers

such as
the
AGROASIS

u
ser Community,

the community of No
rdic university
teachers of Organic Agriculture
a
nd the
A
ustrian Schools’ User Community
,

the community
of Austrian teachers using the existing portals offered to Austrian schools

by the Ministry of
Education
.



In order to get a
n

overview of how content
i
s integrated in
the Organic.Edunet repositories
by
a user
we will present Confolio, a suite of web
-
based tools for “uploading” and managing
content
,

annotating content with metadata and for reviewing and validating content.
Figure
12

in the following page will serve as a point of reference to illustrate this overview.
It describes
three level
s

of user involvement
with content
:
c
ontent search and retrieval, content annotation
with metadata, and management of content
repositories.
In the background of each level
a
screen shot is inserted. We notice that f
or content search and retrieval we refer to the
Organic.Edunet web portal while for
the
other two levels we refer to the Confolio that we
will present in this section.



A

very
important outcome of the
Organic
project is
, as already mentioned,

the multilingual
federation of
repositories
,
which is represented
at the bottom of

Figure
12
.
This
federation
was initially

formed by
the

Organic.Edunet institutional collections (as illustrated on the left
of the figure)
that some of
the project partners brought in the project.
Other
collections were



33





Figure
12
.

Overview of content contribution by users





34

al
so added, such as the content the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations) the Soil Association and others that
can be found on the Organic.Edunet web portal
(see Home > Institutional collections> List of collections).


The Confolio
suite of tools supports the process of repository formulation, content annotation
with metadata and review and validation of content annotation. The Confolio tools are freely
available to users who would like to join a community of users and contribute wit
h content to
one of the repositories. Using Confolio, Organic.Edunet content providers as well as users,
may collect resources, annotate them using metadata conforming to the developed application
profile, reviewing and approving resources, and then releas
ing resources for publication.


The need for assigning metadata to content and validating this process is at the cornerstone of
this Organic.Edunet initiative. Aim of the project is that the content providers (e.g.
publishers, librarians, representatives o
f international organisations) as well as end users
(mainly school and university teachers) define this content with a metadata set of terms
(vocabulary), that is commonly developed and agreed (Application Profile for
Organic.Edunet content) and is in comp
liance with existing standards (IEEE Learning Object
Metadata (LOM)). An annotation tool, part of the Confolio tools, prompts the users to assign
metadata to learning content, such as files, text and multimedia files, websites, and web
addresses. The Confo
lio is also an electronic portfolio system that allows the management of
content in the online learning repositories of the Organic.Edunet project.



In order to describe and categorise the content in the repositories a
semantically

rich and
multilingual s
et of me
ta
data is being defined. The Organic.Edunet Metadata consists of
mandatory fields such as title, description of resource, language of resource, resource type,
and copyright information. There are also recommended fields that contribute to enriching

the resources with information on the end user role, the age range, the context, the format and
the ontology. In order to facilitate the search mechanism (semantic search) in the
Organic.Edunet web portal, content needs to be annotated manually with terms

of the
Organic.Edunet ontology. This is based on existing and enhanced vocabularies related to
Organic Agriculture and Agroecology.


Currently most of the content in the federation is harvested form external resources. These
are resources already annotat
ed with metadata which can be automatically (through a
specially scripted interface) integrated in the federation. The
metadata

of the harvested
resources can be looked at, modified and extended in Confolio. However, smaller
organizations, such as schools
and universities, can include their content manualy. In this
case we can distinguish two possibilities.



Annotation only: this is the case when just metadata is used to describe a resource, but
no file with additional content is uploaded.



Upload of a file
and annotating with metadata: when a file (e.g. a PDF) with learning
content is uploaded and provided with descriptive information (metadata).


We will describe here the process of manual input of resources in the federation of the
repositories through the

Confolio suite of web
-
based tools. We only give a short presentation,
here, while a more elaborated presentation is given in the Confolio documentation.


35

D2
.

Overview of function
s in Confolio


You can log in the C
onfolio
by typing the username and passwor
d that was sent to you by e
-
mail after requesting it from the administrator of the system.

You login using the option on
the top right of your screen

(for or an overview of the
functionalities refer

to the screen shot
in the following page)
.

After
logging

in
i

you should see the contents in form of folders
that
correspond to content providers. Click on the EA
abbreviation

which

will then take you to the
folder of Ellinogermaniki Agogi, the Greek School partner from which the examples of this
handbook came f
rom.
Then click to open the folder

“School garden scenario
-
Handbook”
.


The screen is
separated

in three panes

(for an overview see the diagram of the following
page)
. On the left hand side you can choose between a tree and icon view. The tree view
allows

navigating

the folders in a tree structure
. You can click on top folder to return to top
level of the chosen repository. In the middle pane you can see the contents of the selected
repository and folder. Notice that you can click on the frame around an it
em to select it while
if you click on the title of the item you access it. Under each item you can see a selection of
control buttons for
editing
, removing and cutting a content file.


The two buttons on the bottom of the middle pane


“File...”

and “
Link
...” is the interface for
uploading and consequently annotating content. By clicking in the edit link under any
selected content file you can review and change the title,
description

and metadat
a

of the
selected
content file
.


The right pane is a viewer of

title, description and
mandatory

metadata

of the selected content
file.


36


Overview of functions in Confolio

37

Uploading a content file

The following steps


instructions consider the uploading/annotation of physical learning
objects that you have as an el
ec
tronic file on your hard drive. Click on the File button. The
following dialog box should come up.




Figure
13
.

The “Upload file” dialog box

How to complete the “Upload file” dialog box

1.

Click the
Browse

button to locate the f
ile in your hard drive

2.

Choose the
Format

type of the file from the pull down menu

3.

Choose the
Type

of the
resource

from the pull down menu

4.

Give a title to the
resource

you are uploading in the
Title

field

5.

Provide a brief description of the
resource

you are
uploading in the
Description

field

6.

You do NOT need to change the
access rights

values.

7.

Click the
Finish

button on the bottom right to continue to the next screen.


In
Figure
14

you can see the “Upload file” dialog
box, filled with the metadata of and
academic article on
Pest Incest Management for Organic Crops
. As you can see, the
Description

field will automatically expand as you insert text, so do not hesitate to provide a
comprehensive description of the
resource
.



38


Figure
14

.
The “Upload file” dialog box filled


How to complete the “Metadata Editing” dialog box

Mandatory Elements

Title





Figure
15

.
The “Title” element


As you can see, the
Title

element can ta
ke multiple values according to the language of the
title. As a mandatory element, it must take at least one description in any of the consortium
languages, preferably English. Using the “+” and “
-
” buttons you can add or remove
descriptions in multiple la
nguages.


Language

Again, the
Language

element (
Figure
16
) can take multiple values since the languages of the
resource

can be mult
iple, f
or example, a document that maps agricultural terms from English
to Greek an
d Spanish. In the case of annotating the learning resources of your organization,
most probably, the language will be your native one. This is not the case when it comes to
public resources that are mainly available in English.



39


Figure
16

.
The “Language” element


Description

The
Description
element (
Figure
17
) can take multiple descriptions in different languages.
You can add/remove descriptions with the use of the “+” and “
-
” buttons.



Figure
17
.

The “Description” element




Copyrights and Other Restrictions

As far as copyrights are concerned, the only thing that the content annotators have to provide
is whether or not there are copyrights and other restriction
s on the
resource
. If the value is
“Yes” then the field with the description of the copyrights should also be filled.



Figure
18
.

The “Copyrights and Other Restrictions” element



40

Creative Commons Licenses


Figure
19
.

The Creative Commons values drop down list


If the resource is already characterized with a creative commons license, the user can indicate
this by selecting one of the values above. If the user is the owner/author of the resource these
va
lues can also be used to indicate the intellectual property rights that apply to this resource.


Recommended Elements

Keyword

In the
Keyword
element you are supposed to provide with a couple (or more) keywords that
describe the
resource

and can be used in
the case of an advanced search. If you need to insert
more than one keywords, please use the “+” and “
-
” buttons to add more keywords. DO NOT
write all the keywords in one field (e.g. separated by commas) as this feature is NOT
supported. So, if you need t
o provide three keywords, your dialog box should look like

Figure
20
.



Figure
20
.

An example for the “Keyword” element (Three keywords are provided here)



Structure

The element
Struct
ure

defines the structure of the
resource




Figure
21
.

Screenshot of the “Structure” element





41

Contribution

The element “Contribution” stores data about the entities (i.e., people, organizations) that
have contributed to the sta
te of the
resource

during its life cycle (e.g., creation, edits,
publication). This element can s
tore multiple contributors of a

resource
. For example, a
content provider may upload a specific
resource

without providing extensive details about it.
Some day
s later, another contribution can be made by the author of the
resource

that
complements the previous description with details such as typical age range, intended end
user role, etc.



Figure
22
.

Screenshot of the “Contribution”
element


Format

The
Format

element is used to store the exact format of the
resource
. In the final
implementation of the Confolio tool, this field will be controlled by a pull
-
down menu with
the most common format types along with the option for the user t
o describe the format if it is
not in the proposed list. For the time being, you do not need to change anything to the
Format

field.

Intended End User Role

Intended End User Role

is intended to indicate the role of principal user(s) for which this
learning

object was designed. Note that you can add more user roles using the
“+” and “
-

buttons
.



Figure
23
.

Screenshot of the “Intended End User Role” element


Typical Age Range

Typical Age Range

is intended to indicate the typical ag
e of the user of the
resource
. There is
also the possibility of entering multiple age ranges. Nevertheless these age ranges should not
be overlapping for the same
resource
. For example, there is no reason to have an age range of

42

“18
-
21” and another one “20
-
25”. Either minimum or

maximum value can be set to U
(undefined) meaning that then the range is extended in that

way.



Figure
24
.

Screenshot of the “Typical Age Range” element

Context

indicates the principal environment within
which the learning and use of this
resource

is intended to take place.



Figure
25
.

Screenshot of the “Context” element

Cost

Cost

element is used to indicate if the use of the
resource

requires any payment.




Figure
26
.

Screenshot of the “Cost” element


43

Ontology Term


Figure
27
.

Screenshot of some Organic.Edunet
ontology terms


The ontology terms that characterize each
resource

can be retrieved from the
Organic.Edunet ontology.

The user that
annotates the LO must browse through the
ontology terms using the “+” and “
-
” signs
until he finds the term that best fits the
resource

described. In the example examined,
the
resource

has to do with Pest Control so
we concluded to the term
“PestControl” that
is marked and by double clicking on it, we
selected it.





44


Figure
28
.

Alternative way of browsing through
Organic.Edunet ontology terms


The ontology terms can also be retrieved by
typing the desired term. Th
is functionality is
designed for more experienced users that are
already familiarized with the terms. While
the user types in letters, the system provides
suggestions for possible matches to the
ontology.


Ontology Relationships


Figure
29
.

Relationships for the Organic.Edunet
ontology terms


The user can use the drop down list to
provide information on the type of the
relationship that exists between the resource
and the ontology term. For example, the
resource about the Insect P
est Management
on Organic Crops, “provides data on”
(relationship) PestControl (ontology term).




45

Storing the Metadata

When you insert all the mandatory and recommended elements, you should choose the
“Done” option on the bottom of the metadata dialog box
. By doing this, you simultaneously
store the metadata you inserted. If you wish, you can edit these metadata afterwards and store
any changes by clicking the same button again. Be careful because if you click on “Cancel”
the changes you make will be delet
ed!


Uploading a URL to a content file

In the case of a link to a web resource, please note that file you are annotating should be
already online
.



Figure
30
.

The “Link to web resource” dialog box


How to complete the “Upload fil
e” dialog box

1.

Click the
Browse

button to locate the file in your hard drive

2.

Choose the
Format

type of the file from the pull down menu

3.

Choose the
Type

of the
resource

from the pull down menu

4.

Give a title to the
resource

you are uploading in the
Title

field

5.

Provide a brief description of the
resource

you are uploading in the
Description

field

6.

Click the
Finish

button on the bottom right to continue to the next screen.


In
Figure
31

you can see the “Upload file” dialog

box, filled with the metadata of and
academic article on
Pest Incest Management for Organic Crops
. As you can see, the
Description

field will automatically expand as you insert text, so do not hesitate to provide a
comprehensive description of the
resourc
e
.





46



Figure
31
.

The “Link to web resource” dialog box filled


All the other metadata elements follow the same logic in the case of the “Link to a web
resource” as well.



47

Bibliography


Beetham, H., & Sharpe,

R. (2007). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: designing and
delivering e
-
learning: Routledge.

Cautreels, P. (2003). A Personal Reflection on Scenario Writing as a Powerful Tool to
Become a More Professional Teacher Educator. European Journal of Teache
r
Education, 26(1), 175.

Koster, B., & Dengerink, J. (2001). Towards a professional standard for Dutch teacher
educators. European Journal of Teacher Education, 24(3), 343
-
354.

Santoro, N., & Allard, A. (2008). Scenarios as springboards for reflection on p
ractice:
stimulating discussion. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary
Perspectives, 9(2), 167
-

176.

Snoek, M. (2003). Guest Editorial: Scenarios as a Tool for Reflection and Learning
.
European Journal of Teacher Education
,

p. 3.