Good morning everyone, it's a pleasure to welcome everyone for this conference. My name is Nancy I'm the librarian at Waterloo and the chair of the conference planning committee. This is intended to provide an opportunity for all of us to connect as TUG colleagues and to explore interests across TUG libraries. The University of Waterloo executives in the University of Guelph are coming together to make this a free event for everyone today. We have 16 from Guelph, 14 from Laurier, and 15 from Waterloo. It is a real pleasure today to welcome the librarians from CT and the local think tanks that are associated with some of our TUG institutions. Some of the topics you'll be hearing about today are new models for serving our

goldbashedAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Good morning everyone, it's a pleasure to welcome everyone for this conference. My name is
Nancy I'm the librarian at Waterloo and the chair of the conference planning committee. This is
intended to provide an opportunity for all of us to connect as TUG
colleagues and to explore
interests across TUG libraries. The University of Waterloo executives in the University of
Guelph are coming together to make this a free event for everyone today. We have 16 from
Guelph, 14 from Laurier, and 15 from Waterloo.
It is a real pleasure today to welcome the
librarians from CT and the local think tanks that are associated with some of our TUG
institutions. Some of the topics you'll be hearing about today are new models for serving our
users and staffing our user task
s. Our different experiences with outrage. We will hear about
the experience of our co
-
op students in the librarians, we will learn about the user experience
and testing work done at our institutions. We will explore the issue of e
-
books, and tools like

Marquette and. Building
-
based interactive mapping tools, we will have the opportunity to
consider how to apply entrepreneurial thinking the library environment. Finally we'll have a
panel discussion. And there are many other topics I did not touch on.

This room is a little bit
warm, the temperature will hopefully be coming down. You probably all figured out that
anyone wearing this T
-
shirt is a volunteer so if you have any questions, just ask someone
wearing one of these T
-
shirts. Also provide feedba
ck, the coffee is good the pens are bad. The
conference will be held in this room, 142, and also in 143 next door. The washrooms are to
your last when you exit this room. There is also a fountain at the end of the hall. There'll be
boxed lunches that y
ou can pick up, and you can take it anywhere exceeds. There is nice table
seating that is opposite us on this floor. It is a beautiful building feel free to explore. There was
a cancellation of the 2 PM session this afternoon. If you can find the relea
se forms indicating
whether or not you will be okay with photos you can drop those off of the front desk. We don't
have anywhere for you to put your jackets, but we will highly recommend the table in the
corner. We are also offering live captioning of al
l the presentations taking place in this room
today. It is a system called remote captioning service provided by a Canadian company called
CapComm Captioned Communications Inc. This service enables anyone to connect live to see
the broadcast of the prese
ntation by technician. If you wanted any time please check it out.
There are little sheets with the URL to connect if you're curious to see that. Do you have any
questions about this service please contact me at any point during the day or after the
con
ference. The last thing is to mention that we have a very tight schedule, so try to be aware
of that. We really hope that you enjoy this day, thank you. It is a pleasure to introduce our first
speaker, he really requires very little introduction. Most
of us know Mike Ridley, he was the
chief librarian at Guelph. He is currently on sabbatical, he is teaching consulting and working on
a huge project which he describes as a book like thing which describes the possibility of a post
literate future.

Good mo
rning. Let me just do the technical thing and get this going. It's so nice to see so many
familiar faces. I been up to no good over the last little while and that's what I'm going to talk to
you about. This is what I call the beyond C thought experimen
ts. This is how I want to develop
the idea of post
-
literacy in a new and different way. When you go on sabbatical everyone asks
you where did you go. Nobody asks you what did you do, or what world problem did you
solve? I have to tell them that I went
to the basement with my dog and I wrote stuff working
on this project. I spent a lot of time preparing for this project that we launched in the fall. I will
tell you a lot about this book like thing, and I say we because there are a lot of us involved in

this. Reading and writing are doomed, literacy as we know it is over. Welcome to the post
literate future. The premise of this is that the writing system, the alphabet, the basis of our
reading and writing system, these are all tools that we created.
So why not create something
different and better? Why not build the capacity or capability that would surpass this. We are
quite attached to her literate cells, but that does not mean it has to be be in state of our
communication possibilities. So we ar
e exploring this idea of post
-
literacy, what would it look
like, what would it feel like, how it evolved, and how would it be advantageous. Primarily what
we did is create an online presence for this discussion. I urge you all to go to be on
literacy.com
. It has a book like structure and is designed to be very interactions and engaging.
The whole project was about engaging a much broader community in discussions and debates
about this whole topic. This is a cast of thousands, but mostly it is about the
se folks. We ran a
special topics course in this graduate school and these of the 23 students who had nothing else
to do and took the course. They were fabulous, I call them my editorial team. They helped
build it, they delivered it, and they're still w
orking on it in a variety of ways. It was an
opportunity to mix up both creating something, learning about something and actually
publishing and engaging with an audience. This was about learning, exploring and investigating
ideas. We looked, so be diff
erence in how it could be more effective. So we took a lot of
interesting ricks. This is a version of all that we did. We did an online book like thing, we
created a serial publication. Published in pieces deliberately to allow discussion and debate
wh
ich it did. We ran a graduate course as a learning opportunity for those students. We are
trying to crate a collaborative space so this is a collaborative authorship. We want to see how
many people could be involved, commonly different roles there would

be, and essentially
create a networked conversation. We want to see what people would talk about and where
they would take it. The last thing was very personal, I wanted to sustain my reputation which
didn't work out very well. The heart of this is the

idea of the network conversation. We saw
this as a real architectural piece. We want something and other people engaged with it. It was
exciting and it was terrifying. There is nothing like letting go of something and seeing where
people will take it.

You think have first they are your ideas but is always really be ideas of the
community. They may do things you didn't expect or didn't even want. That is part of the
experiment, it is allowing the community to determine what is important and where the
y want
to go. We literally did have thousands of readers, and we had hundreds of people who
contributed in different ways. They engage not just through our site but also through their own
methods. We succeeded that what we wanted to do to broaden the co
nversation. People
were pretty blunt about what they thought about our conversation and I was really pleased
about that. You want people to be honest and passionate and engaged. Some of you may
know Will Crawford a retired librarian and one of our stude
nts discovered that he was writing
about our book on friend feed. It turns out he had published quite a few pieces about our
book. He really did not like it. I wasn't quite sure he got his message. At first the students
were kind of stunned. I told hi
m to go for it and engage him in discussion. They had really good
conversation for a number of weeks about what he thought about it, and why he was upset. He
eventually said I don't like how this book is presented so he rewrote the first chapter in a way

that he thought was more effective. The wonderful thing about this book is that it has to first
chapters. He took it to the next step told us what it should have been right, and wrote it
himself. This reminds me of a quote from Dorothy Parker, few have

any young friends who
aspire to become writers, the second race every can do them is to present them with copies of
the elements of style. The first greatest, of course, is to shoot them now, while they're happy.
So what do we actually do? This is the
book like thing. Part of the project was this architecture.
These are actually posts on WordPress. I wrote this, there is a single narrative of about 20
chapters. Then we added all sorts of pages and link them together to create this halfway
between id
eas. The pages were written by everybody, by me, by the editorial team, and by
some other people. Those pages got deeper as more people added different things. We also
had comments on everything. There were comments on the pages, was on the chapters an
d
comments on the comments. In a way this is the book, but what we really wanted people to do
was to carry on this conversation in other places. We encourage them to use twitter and their
blogs. We want to see things on YouTube and whatever else people
wanted to do. Often we
discovered later what was going on. This became very expansive and that was the idea. I love
our logo because it is pretty chaotic and we weren't sure where we were going with it. The
truth of the matter is we had no idea what we

were doing. Lots of people say why did you do
this, what is the point of this? Why create this structure, this methodology, all these bits and
pieces. Presumably I was making tons of money, that turned out not to be a plan. I'll tell you
about media i
n a minute. Lots of people want to write because they want authority of control,
but when you write a book like this you actually have to give up control and make sure it is easy
for other people to say stop and add stuff. I got to write a very small amo
unts and everyone
else got to write a lot more. So why bother? For me it was launched by observations like this.
We are at the beginning, we really don't know what this is going to look like. Many of our tools
are still very primitive so we have to exp
lore this stuff and see how it really works and how it
really fits together. What are the possibilities that we haven't thought of or tried yet. This was
a big opportunity to just explore and try stuff and see if it made sense or not. I think it was als
o
important for me and the grad students to explore this idea of 21st
-
century fluencies. Howard
Rheingold has a wonderful series of things that he calls these 21st
-
century fluencies how they
work and how they work. Most wonderful thing about Howard is hi
s shoes, is an old hippie. He
has a website for shoes by the way. The 21st
-
century fluencies are really interesting because
they are not the things that we normally think of but they are the things that we are dealing
with with our students all the time.

Ideas like attention, participation and collaboration. How
do people conceptualize and work with that. Critical consumption is the critical capacity of
awareness, and network awareness is something that we often do not think about. That has
nothing to

do with the computer, it is about knowing how people and ideas network together.
The network effect of ideas and the promotion of concepts is very powerful, and that certainly
played out in the work that we did. I think what we did was because we want t
o explore these
concepts and know how it felt to be involved in something like this. Of all the stuff we
launched, what was the most effective? A couple of things made a difference. Engaging our
audience was short serialized publications was very succes
sful. We were not engaging scholars
or professors, we want to gauge people. So he wrote this as a generalized perspective and in a
way that can be easily consumed. My posts are 800 to 1000 words, their short and are
intended to be that way. Using the p
opular casual tone was important for broadening the
audience. I think we still had a mostly professional and academic audience but it was still
broader than the typical academic project. Critical to this was letting go, you just had to let go
and then ba
ck off and see what happens. People joined in as they got the idea that this wasn't
about me, this was about them. They could see the door open, they could see was easy for
them to become part of this. When he created environment like this people engage
.
WordPress was wonderful, I'm a huge fan. It is so simple, lots of tools, easy to set up. We
hardly had the think of it as a result. I wouldn't say it is the ultimate tool but for us it was easy
and quite effective. The other thing we had was a plan,

but we were willing to forgo the plan.
We knew what we want to do and had a sense of what we want to do, but when things
changed we went with that to and moved in a new direction. That was critical because we
really could not plan this out and we really

cannot know where would go. We allowed it to go
the direction that the readers took it. Having a plan and then abandoning the plan was critical.
And technical help, stuff happens and when it happens you don't want to be the one to fix it all
the time.

The most incredible thing that happened was when I was an all
-
day retreat to a
consulting job and our server went down the day before we launched. This is why I look a lot
older than I actually am. It was a real panic, you get on the phone to your techn
ical folks and
they were wonderful. I actually moved the book the day before launched to another server.
They were wonderful resource. Our success factor came from diversity. We have lots of
different people in lots of different ideas and we were open
to that. The diverse city made the
experience richer for all connected. Other stuff that we didn't, I am now a total fan of Google
analytics. It is huge and bizarre and I've probably just scratch the surface, but it was wonderful
for us to be able to fi
nd out what was going on. We found out where people were coming
from, where they were going to, and how we can interact with them. The way this works is
that people view the book them we tracked him down. The students form teams to find these
people and

get their feedback and find out who they are talking with and where they were
going. The students ran the twitter feed which is still going and still quite active. That was
another method to draw people in and which was actually very popular and useful.

A lot of
people found out about the book because of twitter. That was tremendously important. One
of the really cool thing we did was to go on to the nearest and puts our bibliography up on that
individual way. That was very powerful. The feedback we

got was interesting. People actually
thought about material differently when they could see the text, and CD images. Was an
interesting way to reconceptualize. Of course we had a YouTube channel. We didn't get
started on video early enough and kind of

ran out of time. Most of the visuals are from the
students. A few readers also posted videos which we included as well. So that covers what
worked. So now, what didn't work. Media interest did not work at all. I had this fantasy that I
was going to
be on CNN and we actually thought about media. We sent out a media releases
and did media training. We psyched ourselves up for all these media interviews, and we did not
get a single one. It was a little disappointing because he really thought the medi
a part of it
would be another way to tell the story. Comments were really not very effective, we got a lot
but it did not involve the way we hoped. That was not where the debate occurred or where
ideas built up. Instead people used comments to link thei
r own ideas together. We had to link
things together to get the conversation going, people didn't actually want to comment on our
site. So eventually we had to go and start commenting on their blogs to get conversations
going. So we actually commented m
ore on other people's work, then other people commented
on ours. The book is deliberately text heavy. I really wanted the irony about the book about
the end of literacy being in heavy text. I deliberately wanted to have that book like feel to it.
That
turned out to be a problem. A lot of people wanted to engage in this idea of the end of
literacy, but they wanted to use other media to present it. The students were really good about
changing that midstream, such as by starting the YouTube channel. The

day that I bought the
WordPress template, the company that managed to template retired it. Don't do that, it didn't
work. We had no technical help. The template did work but it did have surprises and
challenged. I worked with about 80 people ahead of
time in the summer saying what the book
would be about, and giving them the opportunity to contribute. I was afraid you put this thing
up and nobody would come. So I figured if I got my friends prepared to add something that
would get the conversation st
arted. Not one of these people ever posted anything. This
prearranged contributors just did not work. They read through and they looked but they did
not participate. The other thing that happens were trolls which we had to spend a lot of time
with. Th
ey are not as cute as we thought they were. We often weren't sure if they were trolls.
One of the curious things about writing a book about the end of literacy is that the wackos
come out. You're reading the comments, and you are really not sure if it i
s offensive or not, or
where they're going with their ideas. But we wanted to post everything that we could unless it
was true spam. So the wackos stuff got posted, and it is pretty weird. Comment spam is one of
the most interesting features about WordP
ress. We had over 14,000 comment spams on the
site. If you don't have the tools to help, you will be overwhelmed by this stuff. This protected
us against a lot of junk. So having done all this, and spent all this time, was it worth it. Did you
get wha
t she wanted out of it? I think about three things that made this valuable and
important for me. The first thing was experimented. He tried stuff, we risk things. The class
were reworked was a safe environment where we could think about what was going
to happen
and how was going to affect us. I think it was a wonderful learning opportunity for all of us.
We really did risk something quite different to see what would happen. The audience was
important, to find out who else was interested in this. We
found out who else was interested in
this and how they would talk about it and how they wanted to interact. That was really
important and worth it, we have built some really interesting connections. And that leads into
the larger idea of community. We h
ave built this community of interested people around this
topic and it is now continuing on in other places and directions. I think this community will
probably go on for a while. We are going to think this thing going. It reminds me of the Samuel
Becke
tt quote which kind of rules my life. Try again, fail again, fail better. I am working on a
course, the design courses about halfway through. There is a major class projects and allow the
students to decide what they want to do. This class told me they

want to do a radio program. I
was worried because I know nothing about this, but I thought they would know something
about it. But they did neither. In five weeks he went from knowing nothing to designing a
radio show. The beyond literacy thought expe
riment will continue in different medias and
different ways with different folks. I really do have to thank the people that helped me,
because a lot of people made this possible. We had to publishers for the book like thing, one
with the Association of C
ollege and research libraries in the Ontario Library Association. Had no
idea that people were going to start yelling and getting angry at them for this. They're really
wonderful at providing the resources for this. Again the iSchool at the University o
f Toronto
had no idea what they were getting into. And the first
-
year seminar program at the University
of Guelph which I had been teaching at for a number of years has been a great opportunity to
test things out and launch thing. This all made a huge di
fference to me in allowing this to
happen. I encourage you to go to our website to yell at me and yell at everyone else, add your
bits and pieces. Be part of the community and get involved. Thank you very much. That by the
way is what happens in beyond

literacy, this is what is going to replace literacy.

Thank you very much mic. We have 5 min. before the next session. There'll be two sessions,
there will be one in room 143, and the one here. If you want to grab a coffee quickly or run the
washer me c
an do that.



Hello everyone, it is great to see you. My name is Lorna, on the librarian adds… Doug and Robin
are going to speak for about 20 min. and the Marion and Agnes will speak for about 20 min. and
you have questions at the end. Doug and Robin fro
m the University of Guelph Library are going
to speak on user perspectives on changes in the UG library.

I'm going to share an example of the user experience project we can view at the last semester
at the University of Guelph. It was done to gain insight

into the user experience of our public
service desk. I'm going to talk about why we did this study and the methods we used.
Remember spring? This is from last spring. There is a renovation that was done to the first
floor of the University of Guelph L
ibrary. The purpose was to free up space for the students to
study. It was also done to reassemble or reference and service desks into a way that made
more sense. We actually changed the way that we did reference. We want to see how this
would affect o
ur students and the way they did work, and the staff who were involved in the
changes. Here's a picture of what the library used to look like. It had a wide open entrance,
there were no visible service desks, and you can see on the left side of the scree
n you can see
benches which turned out to be significant. Students use them for texting and as an important
meeting point though we didn't know that at the time. Now you can see the new entrants,
benches are gone and texting continues. The hidden servic
e desk are now jutting out into the
space. This is another before picture. We had a reservation, interlibrary loan, and other
services all at supper desks. Now all those desks have moved and this is all student study space.
Here is the new merged circu
lation, interlibrary loan and reserve space. This is one or
reference area used to look like, we called a research health. Up to three library staff members
would sit behind the computers and work with the students who came up to the desk
sometimes for u
p to an hour. We answered big and small questions, everything from where is
the washroom to I need seven articles on the connection between Bolivia and the soil
degradation. Now the reference desk is called asked us. Is the standup desk and is only staf
fed
by one person at a time. We are using a triage model. Any questions that can be answered
quickly or answered right away, if they are more complicated questions they must book an
appointment or a consultation. We moved the book return, there is now a

book drop in the
door. You can see it on the left side of the picture. We also added a gumball machine. Our
study questions were to explore the users experience of the spaces and the new service model.
We also wanted the staff experiences. The quick
and easy thing we tried was to put out a
whiteboard with a question asking students what they thought of changes. We did some user
walk
-
throughs where we took students one
-
on
-
one through the front and asked some
questions about the aesthetics, but the sci
ence, about their experience. We did a user survey
and finally did a staff focus group. This is the whiteboard, this is how it looked about 5 min.
after we have put it up. By the end of the day it was completely filled. No Doug is going to talk
about w
hat we learned.

I'm going to talk about what we learned and what we learned about our methods as well is
what we learned about the students. The whiteboard was a fantastic exercise. It looked all in
the photo, but the strength was that when we wielded ou
t with a broad question people
latched onto it and filled it. The staff enjoyed it, the students got into it, and it was a lot of fun.
The limitation was that we did not actually find out what we want to know, even though we did
find out lots of things.

They did not tell us about the desks, which turned out to be important.
Their priorities lay elsewhere. They told us they liked more study space, they like natural light
and they wanted more outlets. We had the goal of making a huge change in service a
nd they
didn't even notice. The lesson was that user priorities may surprise you. We learned that crazy
students are crazy about space. The lobby also turned out to be important as a meeting place.
The user walk
-
throughs turned out the valuables while
because he got to spend a few minutes
just talking with the student which is rare. What we learned from doing this was that we
wanted to collect people's stories, not their opinions. Were not asking what they think about
specific things. We are asking,
tell me what it is like to be in this environment. Tell me your
story as you interact here. That is what you get when you ask broad, non
-
leading questions. I
could ask them, what do you think of this space? What is the first thing you see? Is it frien
dly?
You just get them talking. This is great, they tell you what students are thinking. I record
everything when I do this. I find that if I take notes I can't have a natural conversation. So I
record it in at the end I listen to it all together. Th
is way I can compare at all and listen to it
objectively. We were really concerned about what lineups were going to be like because we
only had one person at the desk. To our surprise students said they didn't mind the lineups as
long as they got what th
ey want at the end. We also learned that it is really hard to make signs
that work for both staff and users. We put up a sign that said check out and change. I would
ask students if they knew what this meant, base would say they know what check out mean
s
but they don't know what changes. It means money, but students are not thinking in those
terms. They hardly even use change anymore. We have a lot of signs like that. We also
learned that students do not distinguish between types of staff. They will

simply ask questions
of whoever works there. They have told me that they expect people who work there should be
able to answer their questions. This is just the way that students see it. This is a really
important lesson to learn when devising a servic
e, just because you think something is logical
does not mean that students will see it the same way. We did a user survey, and I'll just say
that all of these methods give you the ability to triangulate. You can take all the results from
different studie
s to either confirm or deny what you think about what is happening. Surveys
are really good for finding a user opinions. But being able to for test questions about what they
actually care about might be difficult if you don't know ahead of time what the
audience is
actually interested in. So it doesn't elicit the students lived experiences. Surveys are still very
valuable, but in this case they were not as useful. Staff focus groups were really important.
This change impacted staff big time, it change
d how they do their jobs. So you want to sit down
and talk to them about it. We split them into three groups, the help desk, the reserve desk, and
those who used to work at the research desk. We got a third party to do the focus groups so
that people co
uld talk freely. We learned a lot from this, the people were actually great even
when they were negative. We have lots of people who think they're doing a great job but we
don't have any kind of unified idea of what great customer service is. The proble
m with this is
that when the student comes they don't know what to expect, they are getting different types
of service from different people. Communication is vital, this is not a trivial thing. We need to
talk more to each other. People express a desir
e to talk more about what other people know
so that they can help them enter for accurately. People send us to ask us all the time, what do
we know and what happens when they get there? They want to get together more to share
knowledge. We learned very
much that one small change can alter everything. The book
return was the example. The book return used to be a slot in the wall, now it is a slot in the
door. Nobody can find it. It is incredible, there has been a whole academic cycle and still
nobody
can find it. When you ask the students why, they say it is a door. Nobody looks for a
book return in a door, after all it is a door, how would it open? How would people get through
it? Sightlines are really important, you get really tired of telling pe
ople whereabouts things are.
Once is you tell a student something is around the corner they will look at you blankly. We
need to be up to point things out. We have staff who are thinking about the service and willing
to suggest things. So for conclusio
n, collect as many viewpoints as possible. Check back to
confirm your findings, this is one of my favorite points. We did surveys all the time, but this
time when we did the whiteboard we came to conclusions about we thought the students were
saying and
we went back to check with them to see if we understood right. Build on current
knowledge in future studies. We took away the benches and people didn't like it, we found out
that people use them as a meeting place. So the next study is how can we make t
his a great
meeting place for you. Know the audience when you present your findings. If you are giving
this report to management, you know it needs to be a nice short executive summary. Ill be
different however if it is been given to staff, or if it is
being given to the public. Finally you
worry about whether or not your recommendations will be adopted. You can't worry about
that, you simply have to submit it, and you will eventually see people adopting your ideas. You
could feel satisfaction watchin
g your stuff gradually being adopted. Thank you.

Thank you to Doug and Robin. Now Agnes and Marion from the University of Waterloo.


We submitted our presentation three times so I hope this is the correct one. Thank you and
good morning. Back in the sp
ring of 2011 we embarked on a website project plan that involves
a number of phases. The first phase was usability testing. We wanted to learn from our users
and we wanted real evidence of what they liked and did not like and respect to navigation,
termi
nology, layout and design. We did so much work during this phase that Agnes and I would
like to share with you a snapshot of what we did, how we did it and what we found out. Here is
our agenda, I will talk in general terms about our approach to creating

usability test with the
emphasis on methodologies and protocols. Then Agnes will speak about data collection and
analysis including highlights from our findings and lessons learned. Creating usability tests. As
with any project you need to identify fro
m the start available resources and explore the
possibilities of matching these to your objectives. Alternatively, considering what aspects need
to be outsourced. We need to ask yourself how this is doable with the resources you have and
how much will it

cost? Try to think him particularities, think of the various steps and processes
required. Consider the strength that you and your staff have going in, identify the gaps and
how they can be managed. It may be a position where you can call on skilled st
aff to volunteer,
or you may have staff that is interested but requires training. There are techniques to learn and
processes to follow, but the more you do the better you get. As you also know in life nothing is
perfect. Communication plays a crucial r
ole. The project lead will manage the communication
strategy, but it is important that those creating usability tests are part of that discussion.
Examples of issues that need to be sorted include language, or reusing any language that is not
generally k
nown to or users. Are we consistent with their terminology and are there instances
of ambiguity and how can they be resolved? Think of international students. You need a
timeline to know what is going to happen when. Example is scheduling. You need to

send out
invitations, respond, and choir and coordinates activities. You will need location plans to figure
out where this is going to take place. Online, off
-
line. During normal work hours or perhaps
after hours? And prizes, you must determine what i
s in it for the user and what is the incentive
for people to participate. Let's move on to the next slide. After the scope of the project is
determined you need to get down to the practical details. At this stage you want to clarify who
your audience is

and consider creating personas. List the relevant questions and determine
which type of test works best with your objectives and resources. We conducted all the tests
shown on this slide. With the surveys we develop to task
-
based test for functionality
,
navigation, page content and etc. The second task
-
based test was created specifically to test
navigation. We want to observe our users created a variety of tasks. We want to know what
they thought of terminology used in the layout. Part of the protoc
ol was to request that
participants think out loud as they work through the tasks, and to talk through why they slept
at a particular option over another. With the focus group discussions we want to gather
opinions, find out what they did and did not like
, why they felt that way, and how we could
improve. For each type of tasks there will be pros and cons. We discovered that surveys are a
cost
-
effective, efficient, that they have the potential to reach a large user base. But you are at
the mercy of the
participant in the technology. This is true with our task
-
based test. When you
are away from the site of action there always be the potential for disinformation or the
technology miss behaving. But on the plus side we get to observe the users completing

a task
and learn about their behaviors and preferences. Focus groups are often rich with information
because he will find out what affects user behavior. This informative and can be revealing.
However one of the downsides of focus groups is that they a
re site
-
specific which reduces the
interest and participation. Scheduling can be a nightmare. The fortunate part is the low
response rate. Our users had every intention to attend and participate but in reality only a few
are actually able to. Individua
l interviews are also rich with data. We discovered user behavior,
patterns and anomalies. While rookies are site
-
specific and time
-
consuming. You may find
yourself explaining a particular question or task in detail. This can be time
-
consuming and if n
ot
handled correctly it could actually derail the process. Here we want to indicate that the tools
you use will have a significant impact on the process. Online tools or something to review.
Individual interviews and focus test will also require tools s
uch as a recording device and
software to transcribe the recording. Here we have an image that shows the scope of one of
our test. What this slide represents are all the possible options are user have when using the
navigation on the left hand side of th
e page. It is no surprise that our users are little bit
frustrated. Now let's talk a little bit about the protocol planning. Here we see in a
chronological order the steps for the session from beginning to end. In your beginning you
would say who you a
re, why you are conducting a test, and what you want from the
participant. Ensure that you include a disclaimer and that the participant signs off on it. Then
you move into Maine and the with the tasks that you have arranged for. In the conclusion you
t
hank them for their participation, invite their feedback and provide them with contact
information. Protocols will also include a pre
-
session set up. You want to know that your
computer is up and running, the cleared browser history and that kind of thin
g. You also
include post
-
session activities which could include transcribing the session, entering the
participant's name and a draw, or updating your records and so forth. So here is a protocol for
individual interviews. Let's say you have completed al
l your usability testing and have your
data, now what? Now we Agnes who will speak about this and what we learned

let's talk about analyzing data collection and analysis. After collecting so many different test we
ended up with different data sets. With

so much data it is important to map out how we're
going to deal with it and what programs we were going to use, well at the same time ensuring
that we did not compromise the data. You need to be accountable to the decisions you make
regarding how you han
dle the data. The and had to understand how the data can be compared
and on what level. We have to be cognizant of the data relationships, and later need to be able
to explain how you did it and how you interpreted the data for your report. We collected

quantitative data in which we used to measure a variety of things. Once the data is recorded
you can start analyzing and summarizing. By doing that you will see a snapshot of your
audience, and in addition you'll begin to see patterns emerge. We decide
d to use Excel since it
was readily available in most of our staff were familiar with it. There are other options such as
SPSS or SAS if your staff have the expertise. Usability came with an analysis component. These
are just some of the things you have

to keep in mind when selecting your tools. Qualitative
data was collected from individual interviews and focus groups providing rich, detailed and
specific information. With this data we measured and recorded the number of participants and
their status,

pathways that they use to navigate the system, incomplete tasks and levels of
frustration, along with their comments to our open ended questions. When ducting individual
interviews and focus groups you need to transcribe the data from audio to text. We
need to
look for patterns or trends, and then organize the data into categories. It was a tremendous
amount of work and due to time restraints we decided to outsource a person of this work. At
this point in your analysis you should see the direction in w
hich your research is going. Writing
the report was another beast. Begin your report explaining the purpose of your assessment.
You must give an overview of your testing types and protocols, including the dates at which
tests were taken. You may want t
o include snapshots of your test results. Provide
demographics, provides conclusions based on the findings you presented. Then you present
recommendations based on your conclusions. You also write and executive summary at the
end which will be put at th
e beginning of your report because not everybody will read the
whole thing. If you had to rely on your memory it may prove unreliable and therefore it may be
inappropriate to use. You cannot leave much time between testing and writing the report. If
you

can throughout the process make notes and highlights that can later be required in the
report. You may want to include particular quotes from the students that demonstrate their
frustration or perhaps their satisfaction. Now we can begin the next phase
which is it exercises
and creating information architecture. We also look deeper into the findings of our report to
develop priorities. You are some of the preliminary conclusions that can be made looking at
the data and patterns. The idea of customizin
g or personalizing the website for different user
groups was well received by undergraduates as well as graduate students. There is far too
much clicking, due to poor navigation or inconsistent terminology. Information is lost on the
page, there is too m
uch information and the layout contributes to this perception. Finding
library hours or other in demand features are often the hardest to find. We discovered that
many users will use Google scholar as the starting point for the research and not the libra
ry
website. Usability testing should be done in collaboration between the users and website
developers. Of those who did participate in focus groups and interviews appreciate the
exercises and were happy to help. They learned a lot about the library. L
essons learned, keep
it simple, keep your script and task short. Protocols are key and you need to pretest. Check
your equipment and make sure it is working before you start testing. Record your observations
in progress, organize your information as you

go. Watch your limits. Although you want as
much feedback as possible consider the work involved. As you increase in the number of
participants your work will increase as well. This project conference with concrete evidence
that if you asked participa
nt will respond to specific questions. Your audience will often say
they are satisfied. However your if you set them down in front of the website and ask them to
perform a specific task, people become frustrated and discouraged until they actually figure

out
how to do it. It was a great experience, we learned a lot. We would be delighted to do it again
with the experience we gained. It is important to keep talking, keep the communication, and
keep testing. Thank you.

Thank you Agnes and Marion. We ha
ve about 10 min. for questions.

Was the process as well as structured as that at Waterloo? There is definitely a whole study
design that goes into user experience, but it certainly is more casual in terms of the interaction
with the people you deal with.

You want stories as opposed to quantitative data. They could
go all over the place the things he did not expect and in that way it was less structured. I think
we missed the day was an introduction about how qualitative research works. The idea is to
g
ain understanding of what is going on and not to collect data. It is a little bit more soft but you
still attempt to get to the conclusion at the end.


>> I was wondering if you gained any insights to the value of having an ongoing stick a student
advisor
y group vs. just collecting what is needed from students at that point for your particular
object? You think there is any value in trying to have a student advisory body, or is it more
useful to simply focus on what you really want to work on at the time?


>> Do you think it is valuable to have a student advisory body ongoing talking to library staff?
Definitely. The more we can talk to students and gather information about what they want and
need the better. Speaking to students is a remarkable experie
nce and you often learn things
that you did not expect to hear. These are really important insights. The library staff and those
who create the tools we would use may have a certain understanding or prove preconceived
idea, students bring really fresh in
sight. That is really important to have if you can. I would be
concerned about the time commitment, students are very busy with study. Again if you could
have some incentive or the student to participate that would be helpful.


>> The word that we throw

out a lot is triangulation, which means that any form of input is
good to confirm your findings from other studies. My concern about student advisory groups is
who you get on them. They often turn out to be keen students, or government oriented
students
. I usually really want to hear from the students who normally don't talk to us, which is
most of them. However I never want to diminish any form of input.


>> I just want to add that when we did our testing and focus groups we were surprised that the
st
udents who signed up for these are often first users of the library. They would tell us this was
their first time using things when we gave them task. Maybe it was the prize, the prize was an
iPad. So students who never use the library came and learn so
mething from the experience.


>> The question was about the process of the asked us death and how the question gets
referred to the two next tiers, one is a 20 min. session and the other is a one
-
hour consultation.
I'll give a quick answer. In my own exp
erience I have been referred to a consultation
appointment three or four times and it was not because I didn't want to but I learned that I
could answer most of the questions quickly. I think our whole mindset change. When you have
a desk we were sitting

down you expect to sit and spend time, but when you're standing up
your whole mindset changes.

>> The question is an interesting one because I think it hits on one of those problems. Where's
that transition point? You can classify a question or pass it
on, but it is a different set up your
sitting at a reference desk. I think this is still a problem it caused these are hard areas to define.
Sometimes it is simple and sometimes it is hard. I had to pass a lot of things onto appointments
and discussions

usually because we handle things differently. I think this is user experience,
this is how students react to me and whether we presented to them.

>> Did you have problems with students expecting things he did not have?

>> Did the students bring up any de
sires or needs that you could not fulfill? Sometimes they
would ask the question or give us an answer that we were not expecting for example they told
us they missed the benches in the front lobby. We were not fulfilling their need with that, so
the ques
tion was is is important enough to them and us to make a change. It is a good
question, a serious question, we need to be open to being responsive to things that we can do
an honest about what we cannot do. You need to get back to them, let them know tha
t you
heard them and that you are accommodating as much as you can, but that there are some
things you cannot do.

>> Was there anything you found that you cannot offer? But we actually shoot for in user
experience is to be surprised. One of the surprises

was that just moving a desk and putting a
new name on it was that you significantly changed its function. We were getting a lot more
questions from students that we have never gotten before. When the desk was called research
help they figured it was onl
y for research so they did not approach us. Now they can't ask us
for directions and many other things. We change all the desks, and yet for the most part they
did not notice. But they really liked was the new tables.

>> Had we thought of taking the tri
age desk outside of the library? Yes. We have become a
campus resource because now we are the go to point for anyone who wonders anything about
what is going on in the campus. We have become the focal point for everything on campus.
This does change th
e nature of the work, and people start to question the library and the value
of what you do. It is a change in roles. You could have it sitting right on the walkway as people
walk up.

>>

We have to keep to this tight schedule, but thank you to all of you. Great session, really
practical, good complement to each other and good contrast. The next sessions begin at 11
o'clock, so you have time to get another cup of coffee.

Good afternoon everyone. My name is MJ I am acting head of the support team at the
University of Guelph. I'm here to talk about the startup library experience that we had Guelph
and just finished that lot on Wednesday. I thought I would give you a bit o
f context in the three
key things with startup terminology that will help us as a think about what it means to have a
startup mindset in libraries. I've got four groups who have agreed to give their final
presentation of the project they worked on to you
guys. That will be about halfway through,
we'll have a few comments and questions at the end. To begin, my overview. This started with
a 10 min. experience called startup weekend. I bought a bunch of books on entrepreneurship,
and one of them was calle
d the startup weekend. It wasn't really worth the read but it clearly
worked because the next thing I did was try to find out when the next startup weekend was.
You can check out their website, but basically the concept is folks around tech startups invi
te
designers and developers along with anyone who is interested in new business ideas to
converge in one city for a week and. You have a group pitching ideas they want to work on,
groups form around those ideas, and then coding and work begins so that by
Sunday night you
have a working prototype. This gives you a chance to display it for people and investors. The
people who are interacted to this already have great jobs and our developers and designers.
But they want a chance to do a little bit of their

own thing and this is a chance for them to taste
the entrepreneurial mindset. This is really about networking. Instead of handing out business
cards that people lose, you actually get a chance to work side
-
by
-
side with people. I went to
this in Toronto
, even though I'm not a designer. I went as someone interested in business and
someone interested in project management. The experience was exciting and terrifying. There
were probably about 160 people with power bars and computer everywhere. What stru
ck me
about the experience was that it was nothing like my experience at work. Partially because I do
not usually work until two in the morning. Everyone was in a get it done mode and working
together. I love this and wanted to bring it to the library w
orld. There was one problem, but
the startup weekend everybody already knows how startup works. If I want to bring this to the
library world nobody here knows this terminology. I also teach the entrepreneurship course at
Guelph. This is a picture of my

outline for that course. The course helped me with a lot of my
contents, and I thought, what if I matched the two together? What if I took the startup
weekend approach to the content of my entrepreneurship course? I borrowed the form and of
startup wee
kend, added the content of my course, and was able to tap into the innovation fund
at Guelph. I made a rather loose pinch because I thought we should try this as an experience.
They agreed and gave me the money. I made it something for all of TUG, and e
veryone who
participated can give their final pitch here. First of all I started a website to see what kind of
interest there might be. I got a few people at Guelph joint meet, and I am also convinced of
bunch of other people. We had 50 people register
in a week. Not all of them were from TUG,
they are from universities, colleges, public libraries and even one small vendor. We help the
offense that innovation Guelph to try to get the startup scene going. We ran for workshops.
Startup weekend is actua
lly weekend, startup library is over a month. We did workshops on
Friday afternoons. In the first workshop we get an introduction to all the stuff we were going to
do. What it means to be an entrepreneur. In the second workshop we let people pitch idea
s
they want to work on. We had 15 people come to the front and give a 15 min. sales pitch on
their idea. Then we formed groups, and nine teams managed to move on. Workshop three
was where they had three hours to work together. We focused on understandi
ng the user and
what they actually needed. We tried to see what the users think. The last workshop was the
final presentation. I want to give you three terms out of the startup lingo that might help you
when deciding where to go as the team or as a libr
ary. The first term is MVP which means
minimum viable product. The concept is to build something with just enough features to allow
the product to get off the ground. You don't try to protect it, you don't waste the laws of time,
you just tried to build

something that works and people will be willing to try. The theory is that
the early adopters will be more forgiving if it doesn't really work order if there are some holes.
The second term is customer validation. The concept is to invite the user into

the process as
early as possible. Your design and your improvements in your features in your products will be
driven by your observation of users and your interaction with them. The hope is that once you
have this validation you are avoiding building a
product that people don't want and you keep
user need at the center. A third term is the pivot. This means a change in direction. We don't
just change for the sake of changing. But as you test your hypotheses around your minimum
viable product and you
attempt to validate with users, is that if users do not like a certain
feature or do not like the product of all, then you pivot and change direction. You still say
grounded in what you know, but now you move in a different direction. Once they interacte
d
with users they could decide whether they wanted to continue down that path, or they could
realize that the idea wasn't great and they need to change. Those three terms might give you a
snapshot of what we are trying to accomplish. I'm actually going t
o invite for people to pitch.
We have dug with SMS me, we have Catherine with murder mystery, we have Robin with CSI
library and Jim with CPR. They will each give their 5 min. presentations, if you want to talk to
them you can approach them on the break.

I didn't call this SMS me by the way. You've all seen this, and if you haven't seen this I don't
know where you live or who you talk to, because this is texting. You see it all the time walking
up the stairs, driving cars, at dinner, in bed. The median

number of texts sent on a typical day
right teams rose from 50 in 2009 to 60 in 2011. Most of this increased occurred among older
teens. There are 1 million texts being sent from my library every day. Older girls remain the
most enthusiastic textures w
ith around 100 a day. Texting far surpasses the frequency with
which they pick other forms of daily communications including phone calls and face
-
to
-
face
socialization. Only 6% of people in this age group use e
-
mail. When I asked my daughter how
many of

her peers used e
-
mail paras answer was oh no. She said nobody looks at it unless they
have to. I asked students to the library what they would think if they could just text me their
questions and I could answer by text. The students said they would lov
e to do that. Normally
we telephone these people, we could chat with them and we e
-
mail them. But not many want
to read e
-
mail. So we need to bring this library to the world of SMS. It could look like this,
where they simply text the request to the lib
rary. They can also get due reminders, or
notations in study groups or rooms are available. I'm not talking about someone texting them,
these could be automated. There are three interfaces, and I have the idea that they could keep
the library in their a
ddress book like everyone else. I have a confession, I do not own a cell
phone. Or perhaps they could sign up for a text alert on the web. Or we could produce an app
for the library, but this is least attractive to me because they would have to leave te
xting to do
it. The technology for all of the as is usable, I think people like it, and they could opt out of it if
they do not.

I have a story to tell you and it is a murder mystery. It is the death of an idea and the rebirth of
what is hopefully a bett
er idea. The problem or group had was poorly designed research
assignments. These are frustrating for many of you and for the students. The original solution
was to have a workshop where people could come to library and learn how to design better
resear
ch assignments. We worked for many hours and were really excited about it. But after
talking to faculty we realized we had missed the mark. We had put the library at the center of
the problem and not our users. The faculty were interested but we could
see the commitment
waning. But it was clear to us that we probably wouldn't get a huge number of faculty to
actually come to the workshop. So, don't panic, pivot. Unfortunately we panicked. The day
everyone else was fine tuning things we had no idea wh
at we were going to do. So we just
decided to leave the scene of the crime and never return to the startup library. And then it was
20 min. before the end and MJ told us to present our solution to another group, so in that 20
min. was born the assignment

review channel. This is our pivot, we are still trying to improve
research assignments but we have a whole new strategy. We came up with arch. This way of
faculty member can submit one of their own research assignments Andrew C positive feedback
from a

panel of reviewers. The library would manage the process. We would recruit a student
reviewer, a professor, a librarian. Those reviewers would independently reviewed the
assignment and provide the faculty member with feedback within a couple of weeks.

They
would have an opportunity to follow up with the panel and resubmit if they wanted to. The
solution was not the library telling people the answer but instead to bring people together to
make research assignments better for everyone involved. This ti
me we hope to put the faculty
member at the center of the problem. But I think that this was that they could submit
whenever they wanted, they didn't have to be there at a certain date, and it was low risk.
Reviewers would have a good experience and prob
ably learn something as well. We had a
concern that nobody would submit, we weren't too worried because this is not like standing in
front of a room. We figured we could revive the workshop for the reviewers if need be. We
figured we could still do the
workshop for new faculty members as well. We got great feedback
from the startup group, and now research assignments that come through the panel could get
the orange stamp of approval.

Welcome to library CSI, this is a collaboration between me, Nancy, Ama
nda, Karen M Mike
Ridley. This is to address all your library crime scene needs. Library service crimes happen in
libraries all the time. Why is this book on reserve not unreserved, why does my print job not
printing, why do I keep getting snagged by th
e security system when there is nothing my bag,
wide bathrooms disgusting? The goal of library CSI is to improve the experience of libraries by
encouraging library staff to have empathy for each other and for their patrons. This helps them
to explore eac
h crime, learning about the crime, and receive suggestions for improving the
experience for the users. CSI investigative teams are made up from 3 to 4 staff, they go to the
website with a finds short videos demonstrating the library crime. The team will
pick a crime to
work through and the team will have one week to investigate their crime. Why is this service
crime happening? Who is involved? What processes are causing this to happen? And how can
this be prevented in the future? The team will be iss
ued a forensic field gets which will include
a guide to investing the crime. They will need to interview staff members who work in areas
relevant to the crime, they will need to create a diagram of the crime scene, and they will need
to provide three idea
s for solving the time and improving student experience. The toolkit they
get a magnifying glass, a brush, a note book and pen, and ink pad, the crime scene roll of tape,
body outline chalk and a body bag. The goal will be reached if we meet these object
ives. Did
this activity bring new ideas for improved ways of doing things? Did the activity helped build
empathy for colleagues? Did the activity build morale and was a fun?

One thing to say about the three previous pitches. Our pitch struggles around
libraries and
library staff and not the users. I need you to imagine background music. The black hole of
sharing reference service knowledges. My idea was, where'd you go for this stuff? Trying to
get ideas from people is hard. I prefer to phone peopl
e or go on
-
site visits and asking people to
share. How do you find out about this stuff? You could search the Internet, search literature,
or go to sleep to people. I look at the literature all the time and never find exactly what I'm
looking for. I mu
ch more satisfied by phoning up someone who's doing what I'm interested in
and asking them how it is working. But how do you make that happen? It is really exhausting
because half the time you are not satisfied with what you find in you don't know where
to go
next. We came up with CPR which means community of practice for reference. The idea was
to create a community of practice around the idea of how to share reference information. Part
of the idea came from the conference on public service that Lauri
er held last year. We talked
about how to create that kind of area and what is it? It could be a conference. It could be all
sorts of things. It's a go to place, will have a web presence. You start small and pick away at
things. You wanted to be a pl
ace that is dynamic where people share, but that needs to be
encouraged. How do people buy into this? You put good stuff there. You start by targeting
people, getting recognized people to contribute. You start to build up interest in the site.
We're g
oing to do site visit, were going to do pop
-
ups, we could even create large conferences.
The idea behind CPR… We get buttons, it was really cool. The idea is to create that community,
and we know there already communities out there. The cool thing about

this is that you could
design a website fairly easily and get blogs going. You lose nothing of the falls through.

Thank you to the four of you. There were nine ideas that made it through. And I'm happy to
talk to you about the specific ideas after. I
just want to wrap up with something called
entrepreneurial thought and action. Before I started teaching the entrepreneurship course I
was doing courses for the marketing department. I was sent to a small private college in the
United States that is know
n for entrepreneurship. One of the things they start to develop with
this idea, what does it mean to be a serial entrepreneur? I was able to go there for a week long
symposium for people who teach entrepreneurship. This is the model that they are propos
ing
because I found it very helpful. We start the left side here with desire. You have to work on
something that you want to work on. Then you identify your logical, first smart step. You need
to decide what is an acceptable loss, and you need to act q
uickly. The focus of this model is to
act. Planning is important, but we will learn a lot more once we start doing it than what we
learn doing research. After our first smart step we act and we pay really close attention to
what happens. We gather data

and pay close attention to our customers. Now we checked
desire, do we want to keep going? And what is the next smart step. This is a circular process it
just keeps going. In the smart step section you need to work with your means that hands. Who
are

you, and what you know? I teach in the marketing department, I know a certain amount
about entrepreneurship, I read a lot of books in that area, and I know a lot of people at wealth
that I can probably convince to join me. Identified up from what I'm wi
lling to lose if this falls
flat. If the library is money, so I don't really lose anything. I create a website, so it is my time
and the time of the organizers, but really if nobody came we wouldn't lose that much. But a lot
of people didn't come so now

I have to decide where to go next. I'm going to leave it there so
there time for questions and comments. Thank you to the Fordham came up to him and thank
you for attending. Are there any questions?

From my experience in the startup weekend in Toronto,

what were the ideas there? One was a
subscription service for products that could be delivered, for instance going to the Starbucks
website and arranging to have Starbucks coffee delivered to your house once a month.
Automating the subscription service.

Another one was called group notes, which allowed
groups to annotate webpages. That group won the conference in Toronto. Another was called
fly smarter. Let's say you want to fly to Calgary, and so you booked a flight to Vancouver with a
connection to

cut dairy which is actually cheaper. They built the whole system to regulate that.

Could I do startup classroom Russian Mark? Yes definitely. My Citigroup is an following on
twitter and one of their suggestions was to do this across campus around stude
nt innovations
and that might be something to pursue. That is always the first part, how to get out of the
gates.

Did we talk to the participants about their experiences? I'm in the process of sending out
evaluations. We only had about 15 people at our
last session. People seem to be happy, but of
course they were not all delighted by the end. They're about 35 people who saw this through,
so now it is my job to follow up to see what they liked and did not like and whether we should
do it again.

What wo
uld I do differently? The obvious one was not to have for supper workshops. Some
people complained about the. I think a lot of people would have preferred a two
-
day
conference. I thought that might be overload even though I was familiar with and I was
overloaded at first. I think one idea I may consider is trying to run it in tandem with another
conference, so you would do a preconference and work throughout the conference and give up
pitch on the final day to hundreds of people. We could probably get

some vendors to help
support the technology side of it.

How many pivots did the groups have? I think the groups could answer that better than me.
Kathryn's group made the most obvious change and admitted to me that their research showed
the idea was ter
rible. I think most of the other groups made small tweaks. Because there was a
mix of participants we had different perspectives which caused the ideas to morph a little bit
which really was for the better. As to complete change of direction, I don't th
ink that happened
for every group, probably just two or three.

Thank you very much.


Good afternoon everyone. This session is on e
-
books. It seems obvious that they are here to
stay, but our libraries really ready for them? Will present you with a tasty

menu of the different
issues that arise when you start to consider the impact of this huge format change. Today's
session was dreamt up by a group of librarians at the University of wealth library, and we want
to present a series of brief lightning talk
presentations by people in TUG who are working with
e
-
books. We have five speakers who have stepped up to this challenge. We will be hearing
from all of them over the next hour. I will introduce them all at the beginning. I would like to
welcome and th
ank Carol Stephenson, Pauline Dewan, Christine Jewell, Penn Jacobs,… A couple
of housekeeping things. We do have a handout available at the back of the room and the
mysterious looking wooden box. One of the handouts has more information on the speakers i
n
case you want to contact them later. There is also a tear off page where you can put your
contact information so we can get in touch with people who have information and input to
contribute. We are hoping today will just be the beginning of a conversat
ion. There is also a
nice handout prepared by Pauline. That is it for housekeeping, we will have a question
-
and
-
answer after the speakers. And then the University librarian will do a summary for us. I'd like
to begin this session by inviting Carol Step
henson up to speak with us.

Hello everybody. My lightning talk is going to be about the trends on the publisher's side of
things. The stats really demonstrate the growth and availability of academic books over the last
couple of years. The statistics sh
ow that while print production still dominates the market,
many publishers are now also producing e
-
books in trying to produce them closer to the
publication of the print book. E
-
book sales are up 300%. What is fast tracking this shift to
electronic book
s? It's competition. The academic library market is shrinking. Budgets are in
decline, Europe is in crisis. The only growth markets are in Asia and the Middle East. I was in
immediate couple of weeks ago and the advisory Board reported that they had a

23% drop in
print sales last year but they had 190% increase in e
-
book sales. They are realizing that to
maintain their share of the marketplace they need to be electronic. This slide shows five big e
-
book deals that have happened over the last year. A
ll these authors, all these five, allow for
loading on scholars portal. We have seen huge growth in content available from scholars
portal. Commercial publishers are putting a lot of effort into developing their web platforms
for reading your books. How
ever they still lake far behind with off
-
line or mobile reading
options. Springer is still the leader. The deals are becoming unsustainable. Springer is looking
at a minimum of 50% growth in e
-
books each year. They think libraries will be able to absor
b
that cost. What is really interesting about e
-
books is that University press and scholarly
publishers do not have the same ability to go on their own. We are seeing some really
interesting collaboration which is where I think we have some very interest
ing opportunities for
libraries. We are all familiar project, with e
-
book partnerships that have been developed we
have an integrated e
-
book in Journal delivery system. There are a couple of deals with Oxford
and Cambridge they started collaboration that

is a mishmash of old and new content. The
Canadian University press feel is a comprehensive collection of all the initiatives that I know of.
This is the only deal that I know of where every single book published will be available online.
They give us
our textbooks to put the platform, but they will be view only. We have a clause
that says we will review that year every year, so hopefully if people get more couple of e
-
books
they will remove that restriction. The whole e
-
book environments is so comple
x. There is no
way to even identify the typical price, it is dependent on so many features. Why is e
-
book price
is so variable? Print production still dominates and it costs a lot of money to add this electronic
production. Until that shift is made the
re will be instability in the market. To and on the
positive note it is actually a very exciting time for libraries. We are uniquely placed in the
scheme of things and I think that there is real opportunity for us to take the lead in directing
how inform
ation is purchased, preserved and published.



Welcome everyone. My part of this is on collection and development. We want to develop
collection that our faculty and staff really want. Our collections really need to start with our
users. We need to con
sider e
-
books from their perspective. I'm going to look at some of the e
-
book user trends and then follow up with a few of the challenges that they pose. Amazon had
announced in 2011 that it was selling more e
-
books (. I think the general population cau
ght on
quickly for a number of reasons. The selection of reading material had increased her medically.
The options for devices had improved and prices were coming down. They were improved
options for bookmarking and highlighting. The reading apps were
ubiquitous and could sync
seamlessly between multiple devices. E
-
books have been a lot slower to catch on in the
academic world and I think this is due to publishers and platforms that have not adopted a
format for academic readers. They do not want to r
ead books on computers, you want to
download them to devices. The platforms have been substandard in terms of readability and
navigation has really been slow. I'm thinking of hyperlinking of footnotes and even table of
contents. We know that e
-
books hav
e been slow to catch on but they are catching on. The
growth has been significant in even the past year. Here is a study of undergraduates and
technology and you can see the dramatic rise in e
-
book uptake. Between 2010 and 2012 we
went from 24% to 74% u
sage. That is huge. Within the last year it was announced that e
-
books
were one of the technologies that caught on the most quickly with undergraduates. Our
students and faculty are relying less and less on print. These are some statistics from Laurier

and I think you can see the downward trend. Here are CARL statistics. The decrease is quite
dramatic and even more so when we realize that during this period there has been a steady
increase in student population. Where does that leave us as collectors
? At 2012 PEW study
found that 88% who read an e
-
book also read print. We know that one is not exclusive of the
other. We need to continue to provide for both. What proportion of our budgets should be
allocated to each? Our e
-
book budget keeps cutting

into our print budget, is that okay and is
that sustainable? We need to consider the answers to these problems because e
-
books will
continue and will increased her medically in upcoming years. What will drive the increase in
growth? If you look at this

study of device ownership as our platforms change and become
more mobile friendly this year increase in the uptake of mobile devices will continue to drive
this trans. In just 2 1/2 years here we can see how figures have dramatically skyrocketed from
6%
to 33% ownership. PW has said that people who own devices read more books than those
who do not. The 2013 Horizon report predicts that the tablet is a technology that will increase
in use in education. Another study found that 41% of those under the age

of 30 preferred
reading an e
-
book on their phone. Another big factor that will fueled this trend is online
education growth. Hearing these statistics are from the US but they are comparable to Canada.
Growth in higher education has averaged 2.6% in the

last decade, compared to 17.3% growth in
online education. Our users are going to want to have all things in electronic format.

Though the textbook ownership such as individual chapters sales and year rentals will drive
growth. The ePub three can incorp
orate all kinds of multimedia. Some of the challenges our
accessibility, the longevity and permanence of the four
-
man. What will our collections look like
in 10 years? These selection, affordability really berries. The last thing I will say is this sha
red
TUG catalog. Every time that I select the book I am not selecting a print one they can be
shared. Time to move on.

Access and discovery. When access is good it is really good, it is immediate and remote. An
undergraduate trying to finish the next t
hey cannot come into the library but they can go to our
website and access our online collection. More than one user can access these of the time.
There is hyperlinking and searchability such as on mobile devices see you can read in the bus
and in a coff
ee shop and in the classroom. Whoever there are obstacles such as intellectual
property issues, copyright issues, printing and downloading restrictions. The limits very, some
publishers permit access to an entire chapter at a time. This works very well
for chapters that
are similar to an essay or journal article, however those are less useful when the user wants to
access the entire book of the time. Often the entire book can only be accessed on the web
based platform and most users prefer not to read a

book on the web. This issue suggests with
him platforms that allow you to download the entire book which you can keep for a loan. The
check out to download process requires something called Adobe Digital editions. How many of
you have that? That cover
s the digital rights management. That brings us to the technology
obstacles, you must download the software, you must create an ID and maintain another
password. Once you have this Adobe ID you can use it on six devices. If you can handle all that
you a
re probably pretty good with the technology issue. So now you have it on your smart
phone but it is in PDF which makes it tiny. You can enlarge the font and scroll but that is tricky
if not near impossible. Why do the public libraries not have this prob
lem? This is because they
use in ePub which is different from PDF. PDF is not flowable. EPub will accommodate to the
device. Accessibility is also hindered by some of these technology issues. E
-
books contain DRM
that does not allow conversion into oth
er formats. The idea of one
-
stop shopping and Primo is
great. Allison says there are problems because the metadata varying quality. There is often a
delay in receiving the data. We are still waiting for some of the Canadian publishers collection.
Link
s can be a problem. When a platform changes the link breaks. When the excess moves
from the publisher's site to scholars oral the links need to be changed. There are workload
issues. Some large libraries do not include libraries. Creating records is l
abor
-
intensive and
consuming. Batch cataloging is a big help but every batch is different and requires training.
There is no time to turn on e
-
books in SFX which means the books and chapters not show up in
Primo Central. Some responses include a pilot p
roject to make books visible by inserting e
-
book dummies at a miserable place in the library. Here are some interesting questions but I'm
out of time so thank you.

I'm going to talk about the evaluation of e
-
books. If the mass. This is an example of the

e
-
book
workflow and it is also a mess. Who going to talk specifically about usage. From a purely
science background I looked at the metrics, how do we measure whether the book is used or
not? Sometimes we measure them as a book and sometimes we measure

them as electronic
resource. We all know that if you check out a book we look at circulation staff, renewals. That
is going to a physical location and getting the book, it is irrelevant whether you actually ever
look at the book itself. This is good ne
ws because they finally have standardized usage reports.
Through project counter we have an example of e
-
books in 2012. Look at that title it had over
1800 uses. Remember context is in terms of use is important. This is confusing, sort of like
download
s. The e
-
book stats are very different depending on the platform and the vendor.
This is a poster that I saw the Charleston conference. Somebody copied or printed a page that
was being counted as a use see can imagine how big those steps were. One addi
tional stat we
get is turnaways. One of the complications is sometimes the single
-
user access we will have
turnaways. So this is valuable information because it will affect the level of use and may sway
the library into buying more copies of the books.
We can still look at the trends for electronic
books. The course related materials get more use, newer stuff gets more use, this 80/20
-
ish
rule means that 80% of the collection gets more use. That is the numbers, Saudis think they are
being used. What i
s the value? We can look at cost per use a compare that to print. How
much should we ever look at cost per use on a print basis? What if 50% of collections are not
being used right now? Often we do not worry about the cost of the book, but if we think
of this
as electronic resource we want value for money. There is this focus of return on investment.
We do not have to collect all the literature and hold it in our physical libraries even though
some of us still want to do that. Now we have opportuniti
es for patron and demands driven
models. We could have list of books we do not actually own so that if they get clicked on a
certain number of times the book is purchased. What about a subscription model? The fact is
that this really does help. E
-
books

is pushing this to the four, the scholarly world is filling up
now with publications. We don't have the money or space to collect on keep all of it.
Complicating factors with user experience, the problem with asking users what they think of e
-
books is t
hat it is so dependent on context. An undergraduate student wanting to get the
textbook will probably want an e
-
book. We get a book that was a field guide to insects and
Opera, and that might've been very specific to that student. If students cannot fin
d things will
they use them? Places like Oxford are starting to do semantic linking at the chapter level. Our
students do not go to the web or to the catalog. I think the bigger picture is to look at the value
as opposed to the usage. Every time we mak
e a decision to buy up any book we need to have a
discussion. Thank you.

Is this like journals where we are paying for the same thing over and over again? To some
extent yes but it is not as bad. If you're going to have a subscription model this is cert
ainly
possible.

The big publishers have settled down a fair bit in terms of workflow, what if it is a small
publishing shop and how do you deal with that? I think there are various ways but that is very
difficult. I think if you talk to systems folks the
y will be worried about storing things on the
servers.


>> I think it is problematic because the business model does not exist. The publisher may want
to sell to you but they may simply not have scope of operation to sell to you in a format you can
use.
An individual user buying a book like that, but when a university systems department is
handling it they need to make it accessible. I think because of that they really do fall through
the cracks, and that is a big concern. It is really making small shop
s unable to do business. It is
like when you journals came along if you could not make that transition he lost out on the
ability to distribute information. I do not think we are anywhere close to resolution. I know our
acquisition people try very hard
but it is tough.

Institutional repositories could sometimes fill that gap. We have had that with older things.

How much do people really complete the entire book when reading? Also, if we only go
electronic new obviously have to use it. Taking it back t
o the context, the students love it when
they have their course reserves online, but they like having the book on the shelf as well. I
think the Amazon picture the Pauline talked about shows that people do read books from cover
to cover when they come on
a platform they are comfortable with.

Are there more statistics than the ones I showed? There sure are, I focused on the standard
ones. But there are pretty rich reports and you can get some sense. Again you always have to
consider the source.
Comparing between platforms becomes hard. We are drowning in data
when it comes e
-
books we just don't know what a lot of it means.


>> Thank you very much and thank you to everyone who presented. As was said, it is a mess.
One thing that I hear very cle
arly is that our practices are sold based on print that moving
forward to an electronic environment will not mean that we have to abandon our prints
collections. We can hear from the perspective of opticals and accessibility is that technology is
catching

up very fast but that there are many intellectual and copyright issues they are holding
things back. This is very unfortunate it, it is not always the publishers but sometimes the
authors are just not there yet. One thing that is interesting here, I wou
ld like to come back to
the issue of the formats. To summarize it I would say that it is comfort, context and user
experience. We all want this to be easy. We are used to buying books in print format and it is a
pretty straightforward process. We use o
ur devices more and more and I think it is all about
that junction between user experience. One thing that was interesting to hear is that students
do not go to the catalog. We buy electronic books and put them into the catalog, yet the
students do not g
o to the catalog. What's happening here? There is a very interesting article
recently that talked about the development of the catalog moving into the cloud base catalogs.
The change that technology brings a change in the philosophy of cataloging. This

almost
eliminates cataloging in favor of setting holdings. We are fighting to get electronic records into
the catalog, and students do not use it anyway. We are thinking about setting the records in
the master catalog cloud base. This may sound like he
resy and I apologize, but I have been
thinking for a very long time that we may not need the catalogs at all. In 2011 Amazon sold all
kinds of electronic media, they have the data already set up where we can find the information.
But could we set holding
s in environments like that question mark? At some point we will need
to make sense of this man, and now I think I am done. Thank you.


>> Thank you for allowing us to bewilder you with the problems of e
-
books. For me e
-
books are
about the past, because

I like to read old stuff that I often cannot actually get a hold of. But
now these are being brought back to life and adding to preservation. Thank you very much to
all the speakers. Time for a little break.