aanvraag subsidie

goldbashedAI and Robotics

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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1




Application form

National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale Research Facilities

2011



The completed application form with attachments should be

sent electronically to NWO via Iris. Ensure that the form and
attachments are
saved in PDF format. Iris is accessible via
the NWO website
: www.nwo.nl/roadmap
. If possible, please
use the Verdana font, size 8.5, line spacing 13, when
completing the form.


Please read the brochure before completing this form.

The closing date for the

submission of applications is Wednesday
31 August 2011 at 23.59. The date on which you upload via Iris is
the valid submission date.


General information


Kind of proposal
(please choose only one type of proposal)



New facility (not in NL Roadmap 2008)






inclusion in the roadmap only (no request for funding)
(type 1)


X

inclusion in the roadmap and request for funding
(type 2)



Facility from NL Roadmap 2008





progress report and request for funding
(type 3)




progress report only (no request fo
r funding)
(type 4)





All the fields in this form must be filled in regardless of the type of proposal.






National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale Research Facilities

1

General information

2

Research proposal

3

Timetable

4

Declaration/signature





2

Main applicant: 1. TUD

Title(s)


Prof. dr. ir.

First name


Peter

Initials


P.J.M.

Surname


van Oosterom


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Technische Universiteit Delft, OTB


Jaffalaan 9, 2628 BX Delft

Telephone
number


015 2786950

Fax


015 2784422

Email


P.J.M.vanOosterom@tudelft.nl

Website (optional)


www.otb.tudelft.nl

Co
-
applicants 2. Alterra

Title(s)


Dr.

First
name


Jandirk

Initials


J.D.

Surname


Bulens


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Alterra


Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen

Telephone number


0317 480700

Fax


0317 419000

Email


Jandirk.Bulens@wur.nl


Website (optional)


http://www.alterra.wur.nl/


3. DANS

Title(s)


Dr.

First name


René

Initials


R.

Surname


van Horik


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)


Anna van Saksenlaan 10, 2593 HT Den Haag

Telephone number


070 3446484

Fax


070 3446482

Email


rene.van.horik@dans.knaw.nl


Website (optional)


http://www.dans.knaw.nl


4. Geonovum

Title(s)


Drs.

First name


Rob

Initials


R.J.

Surname


van de Velde


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Geonovum


Barchman Wuytierslaan 10, 3818 LH Amersfoort

Telephone number


033 4604100

Fax


033 4656457

Email


r.vandevelde@geonovum.nl


Website (optional)


http://www.geonovum.nl



5. NLR


National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale Research Facilities

1

General information

2

Research proposal

3

Timetable

4

Declaration/signature





3

Title(s)


Dr.

First name


Rob

Initials


R.W.

Surname


Van Swol


male


female



Address for
correspondence


NLR


Voorsterweg 31, 8316 PR Marknesse

Telephone number


088 5114252


Fax







Email


Rob.van.Swol@nlr.nl


Website (optional)


http://www.nlr.nl/


6. UvA

Title(s)


Prof. dr.

First name


Tom

Initials


T.M.

Surname


van Engers


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Universiteit van Amsterdam


Vendelstraat 8 (BG13a), Amsterdam

Telephone number


020 5253494

Fax







Email


vanEngers@uva.nl


Website (optional)


www.LeibnizCenter.org


7. UT/ITC

Title(s)


Dr. ir.

First name


Rolf

Initials


R.A.

Surname


de By


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Universiteit Twente, ITC


Hengelosestraat 99, 7514 AE Enschede

Telephone number


053 4874553

Fax


053 4874335

Email


deby@itc.nl


Website (optional)


http://www.itc.nl


8. UU

Title(s)


Prof. dr.

First name


Steven

Initials


S.M.

Surname


de Jong


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Universiteit Utrecht


Heidelberglaan 2, 3508 TC Utrecht

Telephone number


030 2534050

Fax


030 2531145

Email


S.M.deJong@uu.nl


Website (optional)


http://www.geog.uu.nl



9. VU/EduGIS

Title(s)


Prof. Dr.


National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale Research Facilities

1

General information

2

Research proposal

3

Timetable

4

Declaration/signature





4

First name


Joop

Initials


J.A.

Surname


van der Schee


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam / EduGIS, Onderwijscentrum VU


De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam

Telephone number


020 5989213

Fax







Email


j.a.vander.schee@vu.nl


Website (optional)


http://www.edugis.nl/

http://www.feweb.vu.nl/gis

10. WU

Title(s)


Prof. dr. ir.

First name


Arnold

Initials


A.K.

Surname


Bregt


male


female



Address for
correspondence


Wageningen Universiteit


Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen

Telephone

number


0317 481699

Fax


0317 419000

Email


Arnold.Bregt@wur.nl


Website (optional)


http://www.grs.wur.nl


11
.
eScience

Title(s)


First name


Initials


Surname



male


female



Address for
correspondence


Telephone number


Fax


Email


Website (optional)



National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale Research Facilities

1

General information

2

Research proposal

3

Timetable

4

Declaration/signature





5

Abstract

Summary

Use

maximum 1 A4
-

page in font size 8.5 pt

The Netherlands is historically known as one of worlds’ best
-
measured countries. It is continuing this tradition today
with unequalled new datasets, such as the nationwide large
-
scale topographic map, our unique digi
tal height map
(nationwide coverage; ten very accurate 3D points for every Dutch m
2
) and a range of public and private collections
of environmental and socio
-
economic geo
-
datasets. Despite the wealth of existing and well
-
maintained geo
-
information (GI), th
e access to GI for our academic community is rather poor. In particular, science domains
discovering the enabling power of GI have difficulties in accessing and using it. Initial analysis shows that i) legal
and commercial licence restrictions, ii) technic
al inability to deal with more advanced types of spatial data and iii)
lack of awareness are the top three barriers preventing large uptake in science. This is a missed opportunity to
achieve scientific breakthroughs in a wide range of scientific disciplin
es.

Nowadays, science groups gain competitive advantage through using the ICT infrastructure in a creative and
productive way. As 80% of all data has a spatial component, the emerging availability of GI and the growing ability
for real time monitoring make

it a very powerful enabler in many scientific fields. Maps4Science will provide
scientists with the required geo
-
information and associated tools and services for discovery and analysis. It will
provide a geo
-
ICT infrastructure to allow unrestricted exper
imentation, linking and discovery of information, as
much as possible.

Setting up such a facility requires a combined effort of several universities, research organisations and data
providers. The development of this large
-
scale facility and its operation
for 5 years requires a total budget of
18,1

M€ from NWO, complemented with at leas
t 25% of own contributions (today already spent

on sub
-
optimal local
facilities), possibly much more if the value of the geo
-
data provided and maintained by partners is consi
dered.
Maps4Science will provide the science community with an adequate infrastructure overcoming the main barriers:
accessibility, handling of huge spatial datasets and awareness. It will perform research to create and renew the
facility in the fields of:

Digital Rights Management


in particular related to the issues regarding geo
-
information;
Spatial Cyber Infrastructure (SCI)


related to handling huge datasets and services for processing spatial data;
Science
-
with
-
GI


addressing the science cases of v
arious academic domains (provide SCI requirements and
validate if these are met). In addition, the facility will study the SCI itself as a scientific field in which the
Netherlands have achieved a Top
-
5 position worldwide which will be reinforced. The SCI
research results will be
implemented in the operational facility.

The facility will need 1.5 year initial stage to start and develop its required SCI. Operational stage will be reached by
the end of 2013, marking the start of a 5 year operational stage. In

its 5 year operational stage the facility will
develop science and talent cases that will exploit the abilities of this facility in creating science that makes a
difference. The consortium includes the participation of university libraries, DANS, and main

data producers. They
will play a role in continuation of the facility after its conclusion. The living lab will consist of a community
construction with public and private bodies to recognize and develop potential valorisation aspects. This may include
pa
rticipation in EU calls for FP7 and FP8

or ICT Research
.
The facility will require a budget of 24 M€ of investments,
operational costs and additional research. Consortium partners will bring in 6 M€ of own contribution.



Summary of the research proposal in layman’s terms

Briefly describe your research in terms that are understandable for readers who are not specialised in this field.

Please note! This text shall be published on the NWO website
if the proposal is granted.

Use maximum of 80 words


Maps4Science provides the Dutch academic community with as much digital spatial data as possible (aka geo
-
information
-

GI): both earth and socio
-
economic data. GI is an enabler for new and innovative
research in domains
like biology, medicine, architecture and history. Maps4Science provides easy, fast, cost
-
effective access to the

National Roadmap for La
rge
-
Scale Research Facilities

1

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2

Research proposal

3

Timetable

4

Declaration/signature





6

wealth of GI that is available. The science case is the integral of mono
-
disciplinary sciences cases in addition to
setting

up a unique science programme for studying and improving the facility.

80 woorden


Key words

Use maximum of 5 key words

Maps,
geo
-
data
, geo
-
services, ICT infrastructure, spatial data integration






National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale Research Facilities


1

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on

2

Research proposal

3

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4

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7

Research proposal

Detailed description

“Increasingly, scientific breakthroughs will be powered by advanced computing capabilities that help researchers
manipulate and explore ma
ssive datasets. The speed at which any given scientific discipline advances will depend on
how well its researchers collaborate with one another, and with technologists, in areas of eScience such as
databases, workflow management, visualization, and cloud
computing technologies.”

(Quote from: The Fourth Paradigm: Data
-
intensive Scientific Discovery,

see: http://research.microsoft.com/en
-
us/collaboration/fourthparadigm/).

1

Science case

Suggested topics

Description of the facility. Scientific background and
research questions. Impact on specific science fields at
international level. Expected results and breakthroughs.

Required expertise, embedding with expertise of host institute(s), local organizations. Complementary expertise
needed.

Uit brochure: 1. De ka
ns op wetenschappelijke doorbraken (science case
); Innovatie dient het te hebben van
wetenschappelijke doorbraken. Als men grote investeringen wil plegen in onderzoeksfaciliteiten dan moeten deze
faciliteiten ertoe leiden dat er (mede) daardoor een grotere

kans op wetenschappelijke doorbraken op het
betreffende onderzoeksterrein ontstaat.


@@kunnen wij een doorbraak realiseren? Hoe wordt daar aan bijgedragen, aan zo’n doorbraak? Wat doen we straks
wat we nu niet doen?

@@mogelijke doorbraken in vakgebieden d
ie gebruik maken van geo
-
info (case
-
book), trekkersol bij uitwerking

@@doorbraken in GI
-
Science (betere GII)


The Scientific Geospatial Infrastructure consists of 3 segments:

1.

Database and Dissemination segment

2.

Spatial Information Sciences Laboratory

3.

Network coordination office


Scientific Background:

The Dutch geospatial sciences proudly hold a top
-
5 position on the world’s scientific index. The universities of Delft,
Amsterdam, Utrecht, Twente and Wageningen perform highly valued research. The
BSIK research programme
“Ruimte voor Geo
-
Informatie” (Space for Geo Information) 2004
-
2009 recommended that a follow
-
up in the
scientific community would be necessary to sustain and improve this high ranking position.


Geospatial data, their acquisition, s
torage and distribution have been named as a key technology for future
business. This shows in the rapid emergence of location sensors and devices as well as the boost in open spatial
data sources. While geospatial sciences take care of the subject itself,

other sciences use the growing richness in
spatial data content to improve their science, to extent it in new directions and to come up with methods and
knowledge previously undreamed of.


Spatial data, cartography and location based knowledge has been f
or centuries the domain of the military and later
the earth sciences. The Dutch Cartographers are world famous already in the 16th century for their craftsmanship in
how to measure, model and register the world. Among the first scientifically reported spil
lovers of geospatial science
is the famous Cholera investigations of dr. John Snow, now considered the Father of Epidemiology. His
investigations in 1854 based on spatial analysis of water usage from different pumps in the city lead to the end of
this seve
re Cholera outbreak.


The geospatial sciences are very excited about the technological opportunities of the next decades. Information
-
,

National Roadmap for Large
-
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2

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8

sensor
-

and communication technology allow us to register all kinds of phenomena, events and features in a 3
dimensional

and time specific manner. It makes it even worthwhile for other sciences to consider geospatial systems
as part of their base toolset. However, this requires a common and coherent interface with the geospatial sciences
leaving no doubt about the scientifi
c quality and soundness of the datasets used and re
-
used in our scientific
environment. This requires: a Scientific Geospatial Infrastructure.



Research
fields of topics
:

-

Integrate, storage and discover all geo
-
spatial data;

-

Computer aided deduction
based on geo
-
spatial data (object recognition, incident management etc.);

-

(social) process improvement using geo
-
spatial data (planning, building, crowd management, crisis
management, mobility, natural hazards weerbaarheid etc.);

-



Impact on specific s
cience fields:

-

Environmental sciences (geo~, biology, hydrology, ecology, earth, climate etc.)

-

Building sciences (bouwkunde, architectuur, civiele techniek, cultuurtechniek);

-

Creative sciences (gaming ...);

-

Social sciences (serious gaming, simulati
on, incident management etc.);

-

History (archeology, ...);

-

Agriculture (Precision Agriculture, Smart Farming, logistics etc.);

-



Expected results and breakthroughs:

...


Required expertise:

...


1.1.

Introduction

Knowing where is just the beginning...

The
impact of the ever
-
expanding information society on geo
-
information sciences is enormous. The rise of location
based technology and the explosive public use of all kinds of spatial applications (route planners, navigation systems
etc.)

have

a tremendous in
f
luence science and society. R
ecent analysis of the KNAW/NCG
(Royal Netherlands
Academy of Arts and Sciences/Netherlands Geodetic Commission) identified the following trends with respect to
geo
-
information use and science:



From practice to theory:
The
early GI
-
research questions were mainly derived from application domains and
rather technical in nature, but over the years an

own GI body of knowledge started

to develop. Current GI
theoretical questions deal with spatial scaling, the space
-
time descripti
on of spatial phenomena and processes,
spatial perception of humans, spatial ontology’s, etc.



From GI application to geo
-
information infrastructure:
A few decades ago a GI
-
application was a combination of
data and a software system for the support of a spe
cific question. Since the beginning of this century a world
-
wide paradigm shift took place. Spatial data is increasingly organized in the form of local, national en
international infrastructures (GII) that support many actual and potential applications. Th
is has resulted in GII
research which focuses on spatial data and technical interoperability, standards, policy, organization issues,
assessment frameworks, etc.



From spatial data structuring to meaningful spatial data integration:
Data structures and the

efficient algorithms
for storing and retrieving data was a key research activity in the eighties and the nineties of the previous
century. Now the emphasis has shifted towards meaningful exchange and integration of spatial data. The
concept of spatial dat
a ontology’s as a potential solution to this challenge is emerging research topic world
-
wide.


National Roadmap for Large
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9



From mapping to dynamic real
-
time spatial data collection and visualization:
The 2D static map was and
probably still is the dominant way of obtaining and present
ing geo
-
information. Fast developments in sensor
technology and
visualization techniques induce

a shift to dynamic real
-
time spatial data collection and the direct
use of these data in process models and in visualizations. Research on how these new approac
hes can be used
to obtain reliable information on spatial phenomena and how these data can be used by public, governments
and b
usiness is still in its infancy
.



From technological to socio
-
technical:
Originally GI research was quite technical in nature, how
ever with the
strong diffusion of the GI technology in society it is also becoming a research area for policy
-
, organization
-

and
law researchers. Also the functioning of the GI setting within a society has become a research topic. From a
mainly technical
research field is has developed into a socio
-
technical research field. Appropriate scientific
methods that can be applied
for this new setting still need

to be developed and tested.



From a few application areas to many disciplines in society:
One of the ma
jor developments the last 20 years is
probably the strong increase in disciplines where GI is used. The classical domains for GI are agriculture, spatial
planning, environment, land registration and transportation. Now, GI has found its way into almost all

disciplines in our society, ranging from history to medicine and banking and tourism. This has resulted is a
strong demand for “with GI” research. A key question is how can GI concepts and technologies be beneficial to
the discipline.



These trends can be summarised on two dominant axes, namely the USAGE axis and the DATA SOURCE axis. On
the usage axis, we have seen in the past how maps prepared for dedicated users became interesting information
products to other users. At
a
certain stag
e, the users were unknown and the usage was sometimes very surprising.
On the sources axis, we see a movement from author
it
ative single sources, to linked sources of all kinds of origins,
from static to dynamic, real
-
time, author
it
ative and non
-
author
it
ati
ve etc.



Figure
1
:
The geo
-
information source and the geo
-
information usage dimenstions
.

We have now come to a point where we have to deal with a
n

alignment of trends. It seems that all developments
now come together. Our IT architecture and the way we handle data has evolved from site based to distributed and
cloud based. Our users are evolving from the

in crowd


of trained professionals to a pote
ntially huge community
including professionals in other domains and even the citizen. Our policies are evolving from proprietary and
protective, to open and shared. Location data has become a new enabler for integration of all kinds of datasets. The
pay
-
of
f
once
of MapInfo company
“Knowing where is just the beginning...”

simply illustrates this principle.


National Roadmap for Large
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1

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on

2

Research proposal

3

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4

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10

In this changing context where location has become an important enabler for new scientific methods not in the least
for integrating sources there is a lou
d call for new answers.
The key to the future lays in ‘
Linked sources for
unexpected
U
sage

. In the Netherlands, being a country with one of the highest densities of geo
-
information per
square meter (due to the dense use of space in our country and the adv
anced GI sector), this is more eminent then
in other
countries
. Our great install base of data, skills and usage as a result of government will and action to
deliver a National Geo Information Infrastructure puts us in the front seat to discover also the p
otential drawbacks
our good initiatives run into in about 5


10 years ahead.
I
n order to
maintain our world leading position

and to lead
Europe into the new era of spatial information society we need
to cooperate, collaborate and invest in scientific
brea
kthroughs supporting the challenges ahead. Therefore we need
a large
-
scale research facility that allows our
universities to
join efforts

and experiment at the scale of our national infrastructure.


Current initiatives

Various Dutch universities have assig
ned the distribution of geo
-
information (traditionally maps) to an organization
part of the University Library, referred to via names such as

Geoloket

,

Geoplaza

,

Geodesk

,

Geodata Warehouse


or

Kaartenkamer

. This may be organized independently (by
researchers, groups, faculties or universities), but
through umbrella organizations su
ch as DANS and SURFnet, academia
s are working on a more collaborative
approach, in terms of both agreements (covenant with data using data owner usually from outside the
Universities)
and technical barriers (efficient and effective access the geo
-
information). For example, the recent project 'Discover
UKB maps, with the involved parties: TUD, VU, Geodan, DANS, Dutch Kadaster, SURFnet (and less the Royal Library
as project
name might suggest), resulted in an infrastructure that now operates in shared use by VU and TUD; see

Figure
2
.



Figure
2
:

The operational result of the 'Discover UKB maps’ project with options to obtain geo
-
information in various formats (shape, GML or pdf).

Besides geo
-
information, many other types of data are of course available to researchers (e.g. via DANS or the data
re
pository of the 3TU federation) that have no or only a modest (indirect) geographic component. Within the Dutch
education sector, there is a related initiative (and partner in this project proposal), namely EduGIS (resulting from
the BSIK RGI programme) ht
tp://www.edugis.nl. The important difference is that EduGIS is about digital maps (in
image format) only; see

Figure
3
. The underlying geo
-
information is not directly

available, except through the
images, which is normally insufficient for research and analysis purposes. EduGIS is based on the Amazon cloud
services to be scalable and efficiently serve the large numbers of users from the entire educational system. EduGI
S
functions in a distributed web environment and can use external sources (OpenStreetMap, Google, Bing, AHN,
Nieuwe kaart, Buienradar, etc.). EduGIS services can also be used via other portals (user interfaces) or services.

National Roadmap for Large
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on

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11

EduGIS is an innovative facility

as standards and technology were applied at a moment when they were not yet
available in commercial software. It is interesting to note that EduGIS offers also European and world maps, besides
Dutch maps. This was achieved via cooperation in GISAS (EC Soc
rates Minerva Programme, 2002
-
2006) and
EUROGEO. EduGIS plays an important role as a sample portal in the European Comenius Network Digital Earth. In
Digital Earth, researchers and lecturers from various universities in Austria, Finland, United Kingdom, Fr
ance,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece and the Netherlands work together to make spatial media and geo
-
information accessible
for education and educational research. This international orientation is also important for many researchers; e.g. a
hydrologist will al
so need geo
-
information from outside the Netherlands, simply because rivers flow through several
countries.



Figure
3
:
EduGIS with a large number of map layers (themes), in addition to the standard layers of
Google Maps and OpenS
treetMap, including satellite imagery (note most map layers are displayed here
collapsed).

It is interesting to see the growing use of EduGIS after its launching in 2004; see

Figure
4
. After a modest growth in
the early years, there has been a steep growth over the last couple of years. This is partly due to the fact that
schoolbook publishers included EduGIS exercises. The last user survey conducted (2008) showed that
in secondary
education and the last years of primary education, 50% of the pupils used EduGIS several times (in exercises as a
tool for analyzing social issues and exploring solutions). Due to recent extensions with more datasets and
educational modules, t
he interest of other teachers was captured: history, social studies (in Dutch
‘maatschappijleer’), biology and NLT (Nature, Life and Technology). Finally, also the use within the MBO, HBO and
WO increased in recent years, as a result of the usability, larg
e amount of datasets and good performance.


National Roadmap for Large
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on

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12


Figure
4
:
The EduGIS number of datasets over the years (left), and the unique number of users per day
(right).

The main purpose of the proposed facility is to create a generic and network
-
oriented infrastructure to provide to
and exchange geo
-
information (and related services) within the Dutch research community. There are many actors
involved at all sides of this
infrastructure: geo
-
information producers (often from outside science and by Dutch,
foreign or international organizations), a huge range of scientific disciplines, different academic libraries and
(collective) data services, ICT services, and GI
-
science.
The
nature

of spatial data
varies widely
: they can be highly
dynamic, earth scientific or socio
-
economic, they can be extremely massive, can range from raw sensors/image
data to intelligent/interpreted objects. All have to be accommodated in a meaningful a
nd efficient manner. In
addition to this, the research community often has more geo
-
information requirements (compared to their
counterparts in government, industry or business):
more data,
higher accuracy, tracing back to original
measurements, more need
for historic data sets, integration with process models, delivering (back) own spatial data
(and models) to be shared via the facility, etc. The facility will consist of a number of very different types of
components, e.g. comparable to the EU INSPIRE dire
ctive, which has identified 5 components (of which first three
technical): 1. metadata, 2. data specification (34 geo
-
themes; annex A), 3. network services, 4. access and rights
of use, and 5. monitoring and reporting. Together, this provides the scenery f
or the large and complex facility, the
creation of which will be a challenging endeavour.

Related developments in other countries

Looking abroad, the USA’s N
ational
S
cience
F
oundation (NSF)

currently has a call to establish a so
-
called

Earth

C
ube


as a na
tional research facility in the area of geo
-
information (with focus on earth science data and
applications, where in our Dutch proposal we do not want to limit the content to a specific type or domain).
However, the mentioned components of the facility are

somewhat similar to the INSPIRE components (and of which
it is cleat that we should also consider these in the

Dutch proposal): 1. Governance;

2. Science Scenarios, 3. Cyber
-
architecture for Science, 4. Data Interactive Publications, 5. Semantics, 6. Proc
essing, Models and Simulation, 7.
Sensor Webs, and 8. Curation and Archiving.


An example of using spatially oriented sensor data in
Living L
ab constructions, combining science, business and
government is the MIT
Sensea
ble Cities lab
; see
http://senseable.mit.edu/
. MIT researches the insights and
possibilities of spatially oriented sensor data and design for studying and influencing human behaviour. A recent
project is LIVE Singapore! (
http://senseable.mit.edu/livesingapore
), which provides people with access to a range of
useful real
-
time information about their city by developing an open platform for the collection, elaboration and
distribution of real
-
time dat
a that reflect urban activity. Giving people visual and tangible access to real
-
time
information about their city enables them to take their decisions more in sync with their environment, with what is
actually happening around them. So they can make decisi
ons about, for example, which route or mode of transport
to take to work based on real
-
time data on traffic, weather data and flows of people. The scientific community
together with government of Singapore are trying to learn ways to use large quantities
of spatial information from
maps, sensors, satellites and social networks to make Singapore a better city for its inhabitants.



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In the United Kingdom, a data centre is already operational for quite some time at the national level, see
http://edina.ac.uk: “
EDINA is a UK national academic data centre, designated by JISC on behalf of UK funding
bodies to support the activity of universities, colleges and research institutes in the UK, by delivering access to a
range of online data services through a UK academi
c infrastructure, as well as supporting knowledge exchange and
ICT capacity building, nationally and internationally.” The latest EDINA user survey shows how broad the need for
this geo
-
information research facility is: "From October 2010 to January 2011,
EDINA conducted user satisfaction
surveys… The surveys showed that our services are used by undergraduates, postgraduates and staff, including
information professionals from a broad range of disciplines. A large majority of the respondents found our servic
es
easy to use, saved them time and would recommend

them to others. " (See
Figure
5
).



Figure
5
:

Example of the EDINA user survey analysis of the Geology Digimap illustrating the large
variety of academic user disciplines, similar analysis is available for other geo
-
information products
served by EDINA (source: http://edina.ac.uk/impact).

1.1.

Scientific
GI use

As can be seen in the UK, a facility for GI provision serves many scientists in very different disciplines. A large range
of science cases clearly illustrates the need for geo
-
information and related geo
-
processing services. The book
“Geospatial Tec
hnology and the Role of Location in Science”
1

also shows this in greater detail for selected cases. The
list scientific disciplines using geo
-
information include: architecture, landscape design, transportation science,
movement studies, archaeology, histor
y, demography, economics, spatial planning, spatial development, civil
engineering, hydrology, water management, social and physical geography, geology, biology, ecology, health
(epidemiology), crime studies, political science, disaster management, teachin
g, and many more. Within the
proposed project to establish the Maps4Science facility a limited number of science cases are selected that with
serve as ‘launching customers’ of the facility: these provide initial specifications, and can further be used in t
he
assessment of the facility (once operational) and the improvement based on gained experience.




1

Series: GeoJournal Library, Vol. 96, Scholten, vd Velde, van Manen, Eds., Springer 2009


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This

facility will bring

scientific

benefits to many types of science using the facility within their
branch

(and maybe
even partly changing the way they condu
ct research and opening avenues to new results)
. In addition,
GI scientist
will be in the position to develop and further improve the facility up to the level of world leading quality, with the
facility potentially growing into a EU
-
level facility (scienti
fic complement of the INSPIRE directive).

Scientific
breakthroughs due to the facility are therefore expected both in sciences using geo
-
information (this will be
illustrated by selected 'scientific GI use
'

cases, which are contributed by leading Dutch sc
ientists in their own
discipline; see section 10 of this proposal: health, agriculture, water management, cultural history, navigation, and
criminal analysis) and GI
-
science itself. In section 1.5 ‘GI research programme’, various research challenges are
li
sted, arranged under the umbrella of nine GI
-
research themes: RT1.
Architecture, resources and standards
, RT2.
Usability and dissemination modes
, RT3.
Management of very large data sets
, RT4.
Semantics of GI
, RT5.
Services,
searches and optimization
, RT6.
Standardized data models and data quality
, RT7.
Volunteered GI and citizen
science
, RT8.
GII
-
assessment
, and RT9.
Satellites as a service
. Given the track record of the involved GI
-
science
research groups (
top
-
5 world
-
wide
),

it is very plausible that they
will make significant progress and in some cases
even realize breakthroughs within the Maps4Science project. It is also well know that it always takes time before
research results are used in practice, but in this situation it may be more complex. At the l
evel of various
components there have been great research results, which are even implemented by industry or available in open
source (in case of the software components). Take for example, 3D (or even 4D when integrating time) modelling
2
:
at database level the TU Delft has been building database software prototypes, later on Oracle indeed included
significant 3D functionality in their database. UT/ITC has been investigating 3D geo
-
visualization and developed
prototypes at world class leve
l. The Dutch community, both science and practise, has been pushing 3D, with very
good reasons, in a globally unpreceeded manner within the 3D pilot (see
http://www.geonovum.nl/dossiers/3d
-
pilot
) and

is promoting the 3D CityGML standard (and extensions) for the exchange of 3D geo
-
information. Our
government, industry and scientists are leading in 3D laser
-
scanning and we have and incredible (large and
accurate) amount of point could data. However, all

these developments (despite all being great) do not yet fit well
together in a properly and easy to use GII. It is therefore important to note that the defined research themes in the
current proposal are not just interesting GI
-
research themes, but are al
l coherent research themes defined in the
context of creating a truly advanced (and well
-
functioning) GII, far beyond the state of the art of currently emerging
GII’s in practice.
@@staat dit op goede plek?



Science case Health: Measuring and Forecasting
the Spread of Epidemics

Prof. dr. Peter Sloot, Dr. ir. Alfons Hoekstra, University of Amsterdam / Drs. Carl Koppeschaar, Science in Action


In recent years a huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioural data has become available, spurri
ng
the quest for innovative technologies that can improve traditional disease surveillance systems, providing faster and
better localized detection capabilities and resulting in a broad practical impact. The proposed Maps4Science
infrastructure will boost
this even more, in terms of highly improved spatial and temporal resolution of the datasets,
and

in terms of a much larger variety of geo
-
tagged datasets that can be cross
-
linked in order to enhance
measuring and forecasting spread of epidemics (such as in
fectious disease or slow epidemics such as obesitas). This
should lead to 1) a Dutch National radar for infectious disease or even a radar for epidemics and disease in general;
2) data
-
driven modelling enabling forecasting of epidemics that addresses the c
omplexity inherent to the biological,
social and behavioural aspects of health related problems, and 3) forecasting different scenarios of
containment/mitigation measures in order to support public health scientists and decision makers.

The spread of epide
mics is inevitably entangled with human behaviour, social contacts, and population mobility and
mixing. Improved techniques and methodologies support the inter
-
linkage and integration of datasets with geo
-
referenced information and economical and transport
ation databases. For the first time, epidemic processes can be
studied in a comprehensive fashion in a manner that addresses the complexity inherent to the biological, social and



2

Similar examples can be given related to other components or aspects of the GII (both t
echnical and non
-
technical)


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behavioural aspects of health related problems. Building upon our earlier wor
k related to detecting, modelling and
forecasting spreading of influenza (e.g. www.degrotegriepmeting.nl; www.epiwork.eu) and HIV (www.virolab.org,
www.dynanets.org) we propose to:

1.

Include other infectious disease in the measurements, most notably Lyme’s
disease and the noro virus
3
;

2.

Include other types of (slower) epidemics (e.g. obesitas) or age
-
related and work
-
related health problems;

3.

Drastically intensify the collection of data by pushing to the limit all innovations as offered by the Maps4Science
infr
astructure, in combination with e.g. live geo
-
tagging of individuals;

4.

Develop new data analytics by cross linking with as many social, logistic, demographic and behavioural geo
-
data
available through the Maps4Science infrastructure;

To achieve our goals we

need to both produce and consume several types of geo
-
data. We will produce data on the
spread of a disease by relying on volunteers and medical doctors who produce a dense and high resolution spatio
-
temporal data set (position, time, health status). The
Maps4Science tools and services should facilitate easy access
and straightforward cross
-
linking and overlays of diverse datasets to better understand the spread of epidemics. We
also intend to exploit existing datasets on human mobility networks
and

on geo
-
tagging movements of large cohorts
of volunteers, providing valuable data on human mobility and human proxy networks.

T
he Netherlands has by far the best datasets on spread of influenza (see
www.degrotegriepmeting.nl
), and other
diseases. Further innovation and national support through the Maps4Science infrastructure will strengthen our
position and should push further the development of a Dutch epidemic forecast measurement and computational
infrastructure. Moreover, in the European context the Maps4Science would not only boost the Dutch position in
maintaining its leading role, but it would also strengthen European wide research and infrastruct
ures for forecasting
epidemics.


Figure
6
:
Voluntary data collected via www.degrotegriepmeting.nl


Domain: Medicine (epidemiology)


Type:

Medium:

Source:

Geo
-
data in

Measurements epidemics

Web uploads, smart
phones

grotegriepmeeting.nl and other
comparable sources;


Measurement human mobility
and contact

Geo
-
tagging volunteers

Eurobilltracker.com; comparable
sources, own measurements


Census data

Basic registrations

Government, CBS


Transportation data

(Rail)road network, traffic

RWS, etc.




3

Without excluding others, such as Q
-
koorts, measles, other sexually transmitted diseases, EHEC.


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Geo
-
data out

Spatial
epidemics map

Web



Spatial forecasting maps
under different
countermeasure scenarios

Web


Geoservices

Overlay, geo
-
stats,

geo
-
web processing

?


Science case Water Resources: Better management through geo
-
information:

Prof. dr.ir. Nick van der Giesen,
Delft University of Technology

Dr. R.W. van Swol, National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR)


Geo
-
information plays an important role in water resources management. On the input side, hydrologists use
satellite images to estimate the distribution of water used by

crops or the extent of flooding. Models are connected
with spatial data through data assimilation to obtain the best possible state estimates to be used for management
decisions. The final outputs are presented to decision makers in the form of interactiv
e maps and ICT
-
based decision
support systems. Presently, scientists involved in improving this information chain are not making use of an
advanced cyber
-
infrastructure as is available to, say, geneticists or astronomists. Such an infrastructure is
necessa
ry to answer the many socio
-
economically relevant water issues in the world. Large providers of Remote
Sensing data, such as the European Space Agency (ESA), are currently updating facilities to prepare for large data
streams from new satellites and multi
user access to this data. Being able to retrieve standardised data from these
facilities is essential for the Dutch water sector to keep its leading international role.


Domain: Water resources


Hydrology


Type:

Medium:

Source:

Geo
-
data in

Satellite
images

FTP

Space agencies


Measurements

FTP

Water boards, Public Works





Geo
-
data out

Floods

WWW



Drought

WWW



Water quality

WWW






Geoservices

Data assimilation

CPU



Real
-
time control

CPU



In February 2011, 40 parties involved in the Dutch water sector
signed
the “Convenant Informatieketen voor Water
en Klimaat” (Covenant Information Chain for Water and Climate, CIWK). CIWK addresses the need for spatial data
management to improve water mana
gement by fostering cooperation between Remote Sensing, Geomatics and the
water sector. In its advice to the government, the Topteam Water recommended to support the set of business
cases developed by CIWK. These business cases stretched a range of geo
-
inf
ormatics applications, from global
evaporation mapping to dike monitoring. The infrastructure to be developed under the Maps4Science would enable
universities and knowledge institutes to develop state
-
of
-
the
-
art hydrological and hydraulic tools.


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Figure
7
:

Mapping water resources from space, example Ghana, smallreservoirs.org.

Science case Agriculture: Avian Influenza


don’t spread the disease

Be prepared for a fast response on an outbreak


On a farm a case of avian
influenza is detected. As in every outbreak of a contagious animal disease in the
Netherlands, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs,
Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I) puts procedures into action in
an attempt to prevent the disease from spreading
further. These procedures are described in scenarios and for avian influenza this is set in 2007 (Voedsel en Waren
Autoriteit, 2007). The procedures entail certain measures for quarantine areas surrounding t
he outbreak or
outbreaks. In an area of ten kilometres surrounding an outbreak, additional checks are put into place. In an area of
five kilometres surrounding an outbreak, protection measures are taken. Livestock within a three kilometre radius of
an outb
reak is vaccinated and livestock within a one kilometre radius of an outbreak is culled. The boundaries of the
five and ten kilometre areas consist of topographical features such as roads, railroads and watercourses and should
follow a ten or five kilometr
e buffer around the outbreak as close as possible. The three and one kilometre areas
consist of buffers around the outbreak.


Workflows/business processes are typically based on spatial data and dependencies. Agriculture is a domain with
many spatial compo
nents and the Ministry of EL&I has already been implementing Geo
-
databases for years. Many
agricultural business processes are supported by IT systems and these systems will benefit from the inclusion of GI
technology. The GI can be used to minimize epidem
iological risk and economic damages. Integration of GI
technology in main stream IT systems has been addressed by research and software vendors, among others in the
field of business intelligence. Analysts could then extract queries on these data, where lo
cation is the only relation
between the features. Previously parts of such a system were implemented in research studies as prototypes. This
allowed assessing whether the realization of such a system is feasible. Also the research shows that the amount of
spatial data which has to be administered increases. A more important issue is the lack of up to date datasets. This
compromises the reliability of the outcomes. Therefore additional research is needed in which in which Large
-
Scale
Research Facilities will

play a crucial role.


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Figure
8
:
Quarantine areas around an infected farm.


Domain: Agriculture



Type:

Medium:

Source:

Geo
-
data in

Roads, railroads an waterways

Electronic

Cadastre (NMA)



GIAB

Electronic

EL&I/Alterra


LPIS
(BRP)

Electronic

EL&I


Annual Agricultural Facilities Census

Electronic

EL&I/LEI/Alterra


AHS

Electronic

AHS

Geo
-
data out

Quarantaine Area Map

Electronic/Paper

EL&I

Geoservices

Demarcation service

Web Service

EL&I



Area access restrictions

Mental



Datasets needed:



Topographic Networks for roads, railroads and watercourses to demarcate the five and ten kilometre quarantine
areas around the infected farms provided by the national Mapping Agency (NMA);



Geographic Information on Agricultural Facilities
(GIAB) consists of the locations of farms (name and address
with a location). GIAB is based on the annual census and on the Animal Health Service dataset. It is refreshed
annually, and the dataset is completed half a year after the annual census becomes av
ailable for Alterra.
Therefore, the data in the dataset were 1.5 years old when they became available for this case study;



Land parcel Information Sytem (LPIS) consists of crop parcels. Around 90% of the data is refreshed annually,
together with the annual

census, some 10% is being updated in a continuous process. Once the crop parcels
have been collected, processing of the parcels takes one year, making the data one year old when they became
available for this research;



The annual census contains aggregate
d information on farms. The refresh rate of this dataset is annual, and the
dataset is one year old when it is published. The annual census is used as input for GIAB;



The Animal Health Service dataset contains data with regard to individual farm locations
with livestock. This
dataset is updated continuously, as AHS employees visit farm locations. Once a year, AHS provides an export of
their dataset which is subsequently used to update GIAB.

Science case Health 2: Understanding the role of phenology in publi
c health spatially
4

Dr. Raul Zurita
-
Milla, ITC, Universiteit Twente




4

The illustration case below is not proposed work for this program, but serves as an example project that would benefit
from a
MA
PS4SCIENCE

facility in place.


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Dr. ir. Arnold van Vliet, Wageningen Universiteit

Hay fever, Lyme’s disease, and skin contact with the Oak Processionary Caterpillar
(
Thaumetopoea processionea
)
are a few examples of
public health concerns in which the seasonality of natural phenomena plays an important
role. They have important economic and societal impacts. Seasonality, i.e. the timing of different phases in the life
cycles of plants and animals, is studied in the fi
eld of phenology. De Natuurkalender is a successful social network
site aiming to collect phenological observations, a form of VGI, in the Netherlands. Phenology to a large extent is
thought to be explainable from location
-
specific biophysical parameters w
ith a prominent role for weather data.
Obviously, location of the cause may or may not coincide with that of the affected person, requiring models of
disease vector transport.


Figure
9
:

The combination of authoritative data (weather, land use) with volunteered data (nature
observations) in the study of environmental public health factors.

It is obvious that a study into the causal relationships is sensible and may for instance help to ma
ke models of hay
fever incidence much more spatially precise. Such a study will need to combine the VGI on phenology with GI on
land use (viz. vegetation), weather and other environmental parameters deemed relevant. It will likely be executed
in a highly e
xploratory mode, with many spatial visualizations conducted before model construction. That future
study would be greatly accommodated with a Maps4Science facility in place. Maps4Science would be able to deliver
the base data, the transformational services

to bring them together, and the map services to create the
multidimensional maps with which to do the visual explorations.


Cultural history case: the Integrating Heritage Program

JAN KOLEN, HENK SCHOLTEN, NIELS VAN MANEN EN MAURICE DE KLEIJN

Parallel to
the Maps4Science proposal, the CLUE institute (VU
-
University), together with the Spatial Information
Laboratory (SPINlab VU
-
university), Wageningen University (WUR), the University of Leiden (UL) and the Groningen
University (RUG), will submit a proposal f
or an Investment subsidy NWO Large. This proposal aims to implement an
NSDI for research of the heritage and history of the Dutch landscape, which was designed in a pilot funded by NWO
(file: 380
-
57
-
001). The proposal aims to integrate research data relate
d to the heritage and history of the Dutch
Landscape and is therefore called the "Integrating Heritage Program" (the IH Program). The resulting NSDI would
not only enable scholars to address queries specific to their disciplinary frameworks, but also facil
itate
interdisciplinary collaboration between experts in the field of landscape research and the humanities scholars


thus
assisting the development of more holistic understandings of the historical landscape.

The Maps4Sceince project would form a perfect

basis for stimulating the interdisciplinary aims of the IH program
and the building of its NSDI. By integrating the landscape NSDI into the Maps4Science Project, landscape

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20

archaeologists and historians would gain access to additional information (helping
them to contextualise their
research) and data related to the historical landscape would become available to non
-
humanities scholars
(reinforcing the interdisciplinary character of landscape studies).

The Maps4Science would similarly benefit from such int
egration. It could draw from the strategies tried and tested
in the NWO pilot for developing conceptual tools to facilitate interdisciplinary debate and for initiating and nurturing
collaboration between scientists and non
-
academic partners. And, assuming
that the Investment subsidy NWO Large
and the NWO Roadmap are both granted, the IH Program would act as a model NSDI for similar infrastructures in
other research terrains. In addition, the two programmes could share expertise in data standards, user contr
ol and
network connections between data sources.

Therefore, although each of the two programmes could be a valuable addition to humanities research in The
Netherlands in their own respect, their joint and combined implementation would serve the academic c
ommunity
best.


Science case GNSS performance: Support mission critical applications by predicting GNSS
performance.

Drs.
J.D. van Bruggen


van Putten, NLR internal research topic


The world of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is evolving. In 20
10 EGNOS became operational and in
2011 the first official Galileo satellites will be launched. Numerous location based services are developed, each with
different demands on availability, integrity, accuracy and accountability. For example, when Safety
-
of
-
Life or
mission critical location based services are involved the trustworthiness of the signals is important and the error of
the calculated position has to be within centimetres.

To gain insight into GNSS performance characteristics (availability, inte
grity, accuracy and accountability)
permanent monitoring activities are required. Among others, the European Space Agency (ESA) gathers GNSS
performance information spread out over Europe.

GNSS performance depends on the composition of the atmosphere. Thi
s research focuses on the design and update
of models related to the troposphere. Relationship between characteristic of the troposphere, meteorological
forecast information and GNSS performance characteristics will be identified and monitored. The experti
se gained is
valuable for the prediction of location based and time based GNSS performance. The Maps4Science infrastructure
may support this science by providing the means for integrating geo
-
information with GNSS performance
measurements.






Domain: GNSS performance


Type:

Medium:

Source:

Geo
-
information in

Meteorologic information


Meteorological institutes


Satellite images


Space agencies


GNSS performance

Space agencies,
Galileo
3D

Figure
10
:
Global Navigation Satellite Systems


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monitoring results

Performance and Evaluation
Centre (GPEC)

Geo
-
information out

4D (including time) GNSS
performance forecast
information



Geoservices

Data assimilation




Data format translation






1.2.

A large
-
scale research facility for geo
-
information provision

Facility outline

The facility will bring benefits to: many types of science using the facility within their discipline (and maybe even
partly changing the way they conduct research and opening avenues to new results), GI scientist will be in the
position to develop and fur
ther improve the facility up to the level of world leading quality, with the facility
potentially growing into a EU
-
level facility (scientific complement of the INSPIRE directive).


Not only looking at these trends the timing for Maps4Science is right, bu
t also because of: the finished and
successful Bsik Space for Geo
-
information (RGI) program (providing the knowledge foundation already, which is
party applied in the Dutch and European practice outside the research community), Internet (wireless and
broad
band) and (semantic) web technology are getting mature, it has become more clear how much time and effort
is being spend on ad
-
hoc collection of data over and over again by researchers in all kinds of discipline, a vast
amount of digital geographic data se
ts are being created and maintained (and in principle, could be made available
to the research community). Starting now will enable us to use state of the art (G)II technology and knowledge, and
link to initiatives outside the scientific community (NL gove
rnment ‘basisregistraties’, EU INSPIRE).

The importance of satellite data is internationally recognised and is vital for research in Earth Sciences and
astronomy. Various international sources of satellite data exist, both in the commercial and open
source domain. At
the European level, the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Programme aims to establish a
capacity for earth Observation within 3 to 4 years for six thematic areas: marine, land, atmosphere, emergency,
security and clima
te change. Data offered by this programme is vital for research in these areas. Access to various
data sources is made more efficient by establishing portals and by cost sharing. Being able to access such portals
will benefit the science community greatly.

Not only will it be less tedious to obtain data, data duplication is reduced
and the cross
-
fertilisation between different data types, data levels and users contributes to innovation.



Maps4Science is a large
-
scale research facility consisting of a numbe
r of components organized in distinct layers;
see Figure 4. The large
-
scale research facility (GOF) Maps4Science will very much improve the access for research
(and education) purposes. Maps4Science offers researchers from Dutch universities uniform and ef
ficient access to a
large range of geographic information. The opening up of large amounts of geo
-
information can significantly
contribute to their use in research.
Epidemiology, architecture (planning, spatial planning), cultural history, climate
studies,

water (hydrology), and economics are just
some examples of research areas where the spatial component
plays an increasing role both as instruments and studied. The examples concern the so
-
called research
with

(or
supported by) geo
-
information. What eff
ect does the GII and data availability have on these sciences? Will this lead
to reformulation of concepts and problems in the various sciences, or even shifting paradigms?
In addition,

also the

GI
-
science

itself (
research
focused on

geo
-
information) will
be
boosted by

large
-
scale research

facility

Maps4Science

by

addressing research topics such as geo
-
semantics, improved model foundations 2D



3D



4D



5D

(
3D
space
,
time, and scale
deeply integrated)
,
modeling of

different

types of

dynamics
,
VGI

/

crowd sourcing
,
sensor networks
,
development of standards (needed for interoperability),
etc. The

GI
-
science

includes the

technical and scientific

aspects as well as the governance

and institutional developments

with respect to

GI

provision
,
access

and

use
.

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22

Moreover, the

aimed for progresses in GI
-
science

are not

only relevant to the

various

scientific disciplines
,
but also

the relationship

between science

and

other

social applications
.



Figure
11
:

The various components of Maps4Science.

@@

Maps4Science enables existing data, which are of interest to a broad range of scientific disciplines, to be used in
research. To this end, agreements are made
with owners and providers of data. Besides th
e geo
-
information itself,
also sharing (and linking) of spatial simulations, models, interpolations, algorithms, etc. is very important. Apart
from agreements on licensing and distribution, updates and maintenance also need to be arranged. The data should
be easy accessible to researchers. Besides the geo
-
information itself is also a need for researchers to explore the
meta
-
data, including information on how is the geo
-
information has been created and what quality standards have
been used.


Unimpeded access

to

datasets

(possibly

life
,
in the form of

sensor

networks)

is

not obvious
. All over the
world

there
are investigations into various
business models

and their

legal and

economic

consequences on data use

shifts in

society and

market
.
The target group

of
academic researchers

may be more demanding

than their counterparts in
practice (government and industry)
:
access to

raw data
,
unfiltered

and

(very
) large data
quantities (
eg time series
of
satellite

data
, or
sensor network data
), multi
-
scale

consistency (
p
erhaps even resulting into
vario
-
scale models),
links
between

interpreted

(map
) objects
and

source (survey, measurement)

data
,
feedback

and

adding data

(the
facility provides both services to obtain
data but
add data to the GII
, e.g. the
results of

a

simul
ation

/

model)
,
extremely

massive data

sets (
point clouds
AHN2

accessible)
,
etc., etc. It is of great importance to connect to the
current developments (taking place the research community: the Dutch ‘
basis registraties’, ‘Publieke Dienstverlening
Op de Ka
art’
(PDOK), Shared Service Organization geo (SSO geo), international standards / INSPIRE. This requires
an appropriate architecture of this infrastructure (centralized / decentralized, connecting). An important role is also
provided for the ‘information b
rokers’ in the research world, such as DANS, Surfnet, and various university libraries
/ repositories.


The Maps4Science also consist of a GI
-
research program to further improve geo
-
information infrastructures to the
benefit of other scientific disciplines

that use geo
-
data in a more advanced manner. The GI
-
research itself is closely
related to this unique large research facility. It offers GI
-
science researchers within the Netherlands the important
opportunity to investigate and improve the structure, its
functioning and impact. The benefits are mutual, because

National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale Research Facilities


1

General informati
on

2

Research proposal

3

Timetable

4

Declaration/signature





23

after a successful test phase, a specific GII innovation will be transferred to the production environment of the
Maps4Science GII.


Facility ambitions

The Maps4Science project will deliver the
following results:



The dissemination of important and unique data sets including:

o

Dutch cadastral data

(
BRK)
cadastral map
, property
information
,
legal restrictions on land,

etc.

o

Socio
-
economic data: Census bureau (
CBS)

collected information which is

somehow linked

to
location
,
first names

/

surnames

geographic
distribution

o

AHN

Netherlands
:
measured

height (
both
AHN1

and
AHN2
,
with the

high

point density

and

accuracy)
;

o

National

Satellite

Database
: Collection
of the Dutch land

satellite data

for
environmental

monitoring

and
agricultural

purposes;

o

Soil and subsurface data: all data relevant for sustainable use and management of the subsurface
concerning soil, geology, groundwater, geophysics and other geoscientific aspects. Information types
avail
able are observations, models, infrastructure and use rights.

o

Topographic (or base) map of the Netherlands: all buildings, rivers, trees, roads etc. in both large
-
scale
map (BMA) as a mid
-
and small
-
scale (GRT)

o

All ‘basisregistraties’ with geo
-
component: in

addition to above (BRK, BMA BRT) also Addresses and
Buildings (BAG), Subsurface (BRO) and possibly Real Estate (WOZ)

o

European INSPIRE data: besides the Dutch geo
-
data also geo
-
data from abroad (for the 34 INSPIRE
themes; see annex A)

o

International Earth O
bservation data, GEOSS themes: Disasters, Energy, Climate, Water, Weather,
Ecosystems, Agriculture, and Biodiversity

o

Sensor data: RWS (waves, traffic data, water quality), RIVM (air quality), KNMI (meteo),
Waterschappen, Lofar, IJkdijk, geological sensors,
..



A formal agreement (data charter) between suppliers and customers to geo
-
information in the Netherlands
available to the research community (where possible with international agreements, preferably sister
facilities in other countries, e.g. EDINA in th
e UK).



A Dutch

innovation boost

of
the

GII

with appeal

far beyond the

Netherlands. This builds on the

results of
the earlier

BSIK

RGI

research program
and collaboration

with

on
-
going (and

future)

GI

studies funded by

NWO
,
STW
,
EU/FP7

etc.


Facility compone
nts

The four components of the project are:


Data charter (Chapter 3)

Maps4Science organizes a data charter with as many relevant suppliers and owners of geo
-
data in the Netherlands.
The agreement arranges for each data set who and how access is granted. T
here are now examples within the
Netherlands and abroad, how this can work. A good example is the Disaster Charter in which nearly all remote
sensing parties worldwide have made agreements about the identification and provision of geo
-
information in
disast
er areas. Another good example (with international partners) is GEOSS making a lot remote sensing data
available. In addition Maps4Science offers the opportunity to investigate the growing open data initiatives and their
dissemination in different discipli
nes.

Spatial Cyber Infrastructure (Chapter 4)

The dissemination of the data is the heart of Maps4Science. Where possible existing infrastructures will be reused
SURFnet, the University libraries / repositories and national and international collaborations. Maps4Science does not
aim to establish a redu
ndant portal, but rather make use of existing networks for distributed data management.
From day one of the GOF the store is open (based on state
-
of
-
the
-
art propositions within the existing facilities), but

National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale
Research Facilities


1

General informati
on

2

Research proposal

3

Timetable

4

Declaration/signature





24

this will continuously be improved and expanded b
ased on the experience and needs of users / researchers. The GII
Maps4Science part is for the very wide range of researchers who conduct research
with

geo
-
information (supporting
role).

GI
-
Science program (Chapter 5)

The Geo
-
Information Infrastructure
(GII) is continuously developing and changing due to new user requirements,
technological opportunities, changes in the legal field and commercial considerations of resource owners. On the
functioning of a GII is still little known (which legal, organizati
onal and technical controls should we turn, to obtain
progress?) The consequences of various choices are barely explored, e.g. what is the impact of privacy legislation
using the system of key registers (‘basisregistraties’)? What are the limitations of th
e current state of the art GII
and which areas to improve: handling very large datasets (terabytes to get users, ICT infrastructure aspects),
concepts multi
-
/vario
-
scale (up to 5D) geo
-
information, linking geo
-
information with the original (and possibly li
fe)
sources, semantic techniques for better (more meaningful) searching and translation answers tailored to user
interface with (multidisciplinary) spatial process models and simulations, etc. The GI
-
Sience program of
Maps4Science is the meant for research

into the geo
-
information (infrastructure) itself.

Living Lab (Chapter 6)

The scientific achievements are also important for innovation in public and private domains. Maps4Science plays a
role in the golden triangle by creating a Living Lab where researche
rs, in collaboration with government and
business realize/transpose the scientific research results in society and market. Application in society is not an end
point, but the starting point for demand. The Living Lab is an important tool to realize the nec
essary transformation
of the current supply
-
oriented government to a more demand
-
driven government.




V
irtual facility

@@ huisvesting

@@ organisatie

De fysieke faciliteit moet goed beschreven worden. Waar gaan we bouwen/kopen/huren? (Delft? Amersfoort?
Ma
rknesse? Amsterdam?) en/of bij wie gaan we intrekken? (DANS? CWI?, Uni Biebs?) wat is de vierkantemeter
prijs; wat kost een cloud; organisatie (directeur, secretaresse en 4 FTE wetenschappelijke staf, 2 FTE
ondersteuning, 3 FTE ICT staf); bureaukosten; com
municatie budget, etc.;
Tamme

maakt aanzet hiertoe.

Er moet ook een exploitatieplan hiervan komen. Aanzet
Tamme
. Bijdrage van
Paul Suijker

voor de
exploitatiekosten van huidige faciliteit.


C
ore group research staff and technical support

@@

1.3.


Data charter

MAPS4SCIENCE will provide an infrastructure that enables researchers to access and use geo data from a large
variety of data producers. Besides technical facilities, data policy issues play a key role in the actual access and use
possibilities of data. A w
ell
-
functioning and trustworthy infrastructure can only be achieved if a clear data policy is
formulated and use restrictions (if any) respected. For enforcing certain use restriction technical as well as legal
solutions can be used. It is the ambition of
the MAPS4SCIENCE programme to formulate, implement and evaluate
a data policy framework that on the one hand respect ownership and privacy aspects of the data and at the other
hand stimulate innovation and creative use.

Developments

The access and use p
olicy can be arranged on individual data
-
set level or on a generic level for a large number of
datasets within an organization or even a country. Besides a few exceptions, most geo
-
data access and use policies
are historically data
-
set and even application

based. For every data
-
set a special licences with use restrictions, costs

National Roadmap for Large
-
Scale Research Facilities


1

General informati
on

2

Research proposal

3

Timetable

4

Declaration/signature





25

and obligations were specified. It is now generally accepted that these strict regulations on data access and use
hamper innovative applications, is time consuming and costly, and p
rivilege certain “power producers and users”.
As a reaction on these strict regulations a more “open data policy “ evolves, with as goal to make the data available
to all users at no cost and limiting conditions. A good example is the Landsat archive with

remote sensing images of
the world, which is now unconditionally at no cost available for all users world
-
wide. This policy has resulted in an
strong increase in use and development of innovative applications. Some countries are also turning towards ope
n
data policies. A recent example is the UK, where in 2009 the government has decided to make their data “open”.
This policy decision has resulted in many innovative applications and sharp increase in data use. The Netherlands
take an intermediate standp
oint in the “open data policy” arena. In generic terms the government is a supporter of
open data, but at the same it maintains the specific regulations that apply for specific data
-
sets. The Provinces in
the Netherlands are frontrunners in implementing an

open (geo) data policy. For the implementation and success of
the MAPS4SCIENCE programme a supporting data policy that facilitate the access and use of geo
-
data is essential.
The current overall data
-
policy of the Dutch government clearly supports the MAP
S4SCIENCE programme. What can
be observed, however, is that the actual implementation of this ‘open geo
-
data” policy is hampered by practical
constraints and “fear for change by data providers”. Within the MAPS4SCIENCE programme experience will be
gained

to overcome these practical barriers, resulting in an overall data policy framework. This data policy
framework contains legal, financial, organizational and technical components.

Towards a data policy framework

The Development of a comprehensive data pol
icy framework for geo
-
data is an important objective of this proposal.
The full extent, structure and content are of course unknown at this moment, but amble attention will be given to
the following items:



Practical implementation of generic data policy:

The Dutch government has formulated a generic data policy of
“open data”. Open still means responsibilities of the data producer and conditions for the data user. The
practical translation of a generic policy for individual data sets needs to be implemente
d and evaluated. This can
result in different arrangements for different data
-
sets, depending on e.g. update frequency, privacy and
ownership conditions.



Standardisation of geo
-
licences:

Non
-
transparent and inconsistent licenses have often been identified

as a
major barrier to the sharing of geo data, and a clear need for harmonised geo
-
licences is increasingly being
recognised. Only recently the development towards a standard for geo
-
information licences is starting to
emerge. Examples of promising initia