Publisher's Chapter 8 Outline - Bakersfield College

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Discovering Computers ©2012 Instructor’s Manual

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1

of
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Discovering Computers
:
Your Interactive Guide

to the Digital World ©2012

Chapter
Eight
:
Operating Systems and Utility Programs

A Guide to this Instructor’s
M
anual
:

We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching experienc
e through classroom
activities and a cohesive chapter summary.


This document is organized chronologically, using the same heading in
r
r
r
e
e
e
d
d
d

that you see in the textbook.

Under each
heading you will find

(in order):

Lecture Notes that summarize the section, F
igures and
Boxes

found in the section
, if
any
, Teacher Tips
,

Classroom Activi
ties, and Lab Activities
.

Pay special attention to
teaching
tips, and activities geared
towards quizzing your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and encouraging e
xperimentation within the
software.


In addition to this Instructor’s Manual, our Instructor’s Resources CD also contains PowerPoint Presentations, Test
Banks, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience.


For your students:

Our latest online
feature, CourseCasts, is a library of weekly podcasts designed to keep your students up to date with
the latest in technology news.

Direct your students to
http://coursecasts.course.com
, where they can download t
he
most recent CourseCast onto their mp3 player. Ken Baldauf, host of CourseCasts, is a faculty member of the Florida
State University Computer Science Department where he is responsible for teaching technology classes to thousands of
FSU students each yea
r. Ken is an expert in the latest technology and sorts through and aggregates the most pertinent
news and information for CourseCasts so your students can spend their time enjoying technology, rather than trying to
figure it out. Open or close your lecture

with a discussion based on the latest CourseCast.


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Chapter Objectives

1

398: System
S
oftware

2

398: Operating
S
ystems

2

400: Operating
S
ystem
F
unctions

2

411
: Types of
O
perating
S
ystems

5

412
: Stand
-
A
lone

O
perating
S
ystems

5

417: Server

O
perating
S
ystems

8

418
: Embedded
O
perating
S
ystems

8

421
:
U
tility
P
rograms

9

End of Chapter Material

1
1

Glossary of
Primary
Terms

1
3

Glossary of Secondary Terms

1
4

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Students will have mastered the materi
al in
Chapter
Eight

when they can:



Define system software and i
dentify the
two
types of system software



Describe
each of
the
se

functions of an
operating system
: starting and shutting
down a computer, providing a user
interface,
managing programs,
managing

memory, coordinating tasks, configuring
devices, establishing an Internet
connection, monitoring performance,
providing file management and other
utilities, updating automatically, controlling
a network, and administering security



Summarize the startup pr
ocess on a
personal computer



Summarize the features of s
everal stand
-
alone operating systems
: Windows, Mac
OS, UNIX, and Linux



Briefly describe
various
server
operating
systems
: Windows Server, UNIX, Linux,
Solaris, and NetWare



Summarize the features of
se
veral
embedded operating systems
: Windows
Embedded CE, Windows
Phone
, Palm OS,
iPhone OS, Blackberry,
Google Android,
Embedded Linux, and Symbian OS



Explain the purpose of several utility
programs
: file manager, search utility,
image viewer, uninstaller, d
isk cleanup,
disk defragmenter, backup and restore
utilities, screen saver, personal firewall,
antivirus programs, spyware and adware
removers, Internet filters,
file compression,
media player, disc burning, and personal
computer maintenance

3
3
3
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8
8
:
:
:



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LECTURE NOTES



Define system software



Introduce the two types of system software: operating systems and utility programs


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1
.
Quick Quiz
:

1)

What is system software
?
(Answer:
System software consists of the programs that control or
maintain the operations of the computer and its devices
.
)

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LECTURE NOTES



Define
operating system (OS)



Use Figure 8
-
1 to list functions performed by an operating system



Define platform and cross
-
platform program


FIGURE: 8
-
1

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LECTURE NOTES



Define
booting and differentiate between a cold boot and a warm boot



Define kernel and memory resident, and explain how a memory resident portion of the OS is
different from nonresident portions of the operating system



D
efine BIOS and power
-
on self test (POST)



Define boot drive and describe the function of a recovery (boot) disk

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Describe the user interface, and use Figures
8
-
4
a
,

8
-
4
b
, and 8
-
5

to show three examples of user
interfaces



Differentiate between command
-
line int
erfaces and graphical user interfaces (GUIs)



Describe the following kinds of operating systems: single user/single tasking, single
user/multitasking, preemptive multitasking, multiuser, and multiprocessing



Describe what a fault
-
tolerant computer is



Define
memory management and use Figure 8
-
8 to illustrate how virtual memory works



Define file, page, paging, and thrashing



Define job, buffer, spooling, queue, and print spooler



Explain the function of a driver, and describe Plug and Play technology



Describe the

function of a performance monitor



Discuss the use of automatic update features to provide updates to programs and operating systems



List capabilities provided by operating systems



Define server operating system
,
administrator

account
, and permissions



Use
Figure 8
-
13 to explain what the following terms mean: log on, user name (user ID), and
password


FIGURES:
8
-
2,
8
-
3
,
8
-
4
a, 8
-
4b
, 8
-
5, 8
-
6, 8
-
7, 8
-
8, 8
-
9, 8
-
10, 8
-
11, 8
-
12, 8
-
13


BOXES

1. Web Link
:
Windows Registry.

Encourage students to visit the Web site m
entioned for more
information.


2. Web
Link
:
Sleep Mode
.

Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


3
. Web
Link
:
Spooling
.

Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


4
. Web
Link
:
Plug and Play
.

Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


5.
Looking Ahead
8
-
1
:
Contact Lenses Monitor Glaucoma.
Ask students to brainstorm other advanced
uses of technology like the one described in the text, and encourage students to visi
t the Web site
mentioned for more information
.


6
. Ethics & Issues 8
-
1:
Is
Operating System

Automatic Update Software Dangerous
?

Discuss with
students the
ethics of overriding user preferences for accepting software updates or other similar
actions
.


7
.
FA
Q

8
-
1
:
Can
shut down
features wear out hardware by forcing the computer to turn on and off
several times each day
?
Debunk this myth
and encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for
more information.


8
. FAQ 8
-
2:
How can I stop a computer from thr
ashing?
Review the suggestions offered and encourage
students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


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9
. FAQ 8
-
3:
Can I remove a USB flash drive when I am finished with it, or should I follow a special
procedure
?
Discuss the use of the Safel
y Remove command
and encourage students to visit the Web site
mentioned for more information.


10
. FAQ 8
-
4:
What are the guidelines for selecting a good password?
Review the suggestions (and
prohibitions) mentioned and encourage students to visit the Web s
ite mentioned for more information.


11
. Quiz Yourself 8
-
1: In addition to answering the questions in the text, as a quick review, have
students

visit the
Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site
(
www.cengagebra
in.com
)
, navigate to the
Quiz Yourself resource for this book and chapter,

and then click Objectives
1


3
.


TEACHER TIP
S

To reinforce the information about the boot process, present the basic flowchart symbols in Chapter 13
and have students work togethe
r to construct a flowchart illustrating the boot process, showing each
step and its possible outcomes.


Because it is easy to learn and use, a GUI often is called user
-
friendly. As an example of this user
-
friendly nature, consider how a relatively simple t
ask, such as deleting a file, is performed with a
command
-
line interface and with a graphical user interface file manager. With a command
-
line
interface, a user might have to type
del

followed by the file name in quotation marks. Therefore, the
user must r
emember the command, type it correctly, and use the proper syntax. On the other hand,
with a GUI a user need only select (click) the file name in the file manager window and then click the
Delete command on a menu or the Delete button on a toolbar. Point o
ut that many GUIs incorporate
browser
-
like features. Windows is a good example of an interface with browser
-
like features.


Two points to make on the subject of scheduling jobs: The term spooling comes from the observation
that placing print jobs temporari
ly in a buffer is somewhat like winding thread onto a spool so that it
can be used at a later time. When you define the term queue, explain that while U.S. students may be
unfamiliar with the word, it is used commonly in Britain to mean a line of waiting p
eople or vehicles.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.
Group Activity
:
Graphical user interfaces use icons, or small images, to represent programs,
instructions, files, or some other object. Developing icons for a graphical user interface is not an easy
task. Althoug
h a good icon need not be a work of art, it must be a memorable symbol of the task or
object it represents. According to Susan Kare, creator of the icons used with many popular GUIs, “The
best icons are more like traffic signs than graphic illustrations.”
Have students choose
two

of the utilities
described later in this chapter and, using two sheets of graph paper, create an icon to represent each
utility. Let each square on the graph paper stand for a pixel on a monitor screen. Color the appropriate
square
s on the graph paper to create the image for each icon. On the back of the graph paper, have
students explain why the icon is suitable for the utility they chose.


2
. Quick Quiz
:

1)

How is a program in the foreground different from programs in the background?

(Answer: A
program in the foreground is the active program currently being used, and a program in the
background is running but not in use
.
)


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3
. Critical Thinking:
Some organizations require a user’s password to be several characters long. They
also enfor
ce a limit on the number of password entry attempts. Ask students for their opinions of these
security measures. Longer passwords are more difficult to guess, but they also are more difficult to
remember. Is the additional security worth the bother? Why or

why not? Should the number of entry
attempts be limited? Why or why not?

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LECTURE NOTES



Explain how device
-
dependent operating systems are different from device
-
independent operating
systems



Define proprietary software



List
the three basic categories of operating systems: stand
-
alone,
server
, and embedded



Use Figure 8
-
14

to identify operating systems in each category


FIGURE:
8
-
14


BOXES

1
.
FAQ
8
-
5
:
Which operating s
ystem
s

have the most market share
?

Review the pie chart and
e
ncourage
students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information
.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.

Assign a Project:
Have students find out the operating system that is used on their, or a friend’s,
personal computer. What company publishes the operating sy
stem? What type of interface does the
operating system use? Does the operating system support multitasking? Have students refer to the
documentation that accompanied the computer or operating system to determine the operating system’s
version and release n
umber, and the year it was published. Try to find out when the first version of the
operating system was introduced, when the next version is expected, and how much the publisher
charges for upgrades.


2
. Quick Quiz
:

1)

How is a device
-
dependent program diffe
rent from a device
-
independent program? (Answer: A
device
-
dependent program runs only on a specific type or make of computer; a device
-
independent program runs on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers.)

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LECTURE

NOTES



Define stand
-
alone operating system (client operating systems) and list examples



Introduce Windows
7
, and discuss the long history of the Windows operating system



Describe Apple’s Macintosh operating system, and Mac OS X



Describe UNIX and Linux


FIG
URES:
8
-
15
,
8
-
16
,
8
-
17
,
8
-
18
,
8
-
19
,
8
-
20
,
8
-
21


BOXES

1. Web Link:
Windows
7
.

Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


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2
.
Web Link
:
Mac OS X.

Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


3
.
Web
Link
:

Linux
.

Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


4
. Ethics & Issues 8
-
2
:
Closed Source vs. Open Source Operating Systems.

Survey students on whether
or not open source operating systems are a good idea, and ask the
m

to

weigh the advantages and
disadvantages of open and closed source operating systems
.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1. Class Discussion:
Windows Millennium
Edition
was a result of Microsoft’s first recognition that the
needs of business and home users are different
. Ask students why this realization
was

important. Would
students
be more likely to purchase a version of Windows
7

in the Home or
Professional

category?
Why?


2. Class Discussion: A question that confronts companies and individuals worldwide when upgradin
g
computers is, “What operating system should we select”
?

Compatibility, usability, portability,
reliability, and cost are among the many factors that must be considered. Microsoft’s Windows
definitely has an edge as the most widely used and popular operat
ing system. On the other hand, Mac
OS X has a reputation for being easy to use, IBM’s OS/2 is used widely among businesses, UNIX is
considered portable and reliable (it is a mature system, developed in the early 1970s, long before
Windows even existed), an
d Linux is available in free open
-
source versions. If you were buying an
operating system for a company, which one would you choose? Why? If you were purchasing an
operating system for a personal computer, what considerations do you think would be most imp
ortant?
Why? What operating system would you select for a personal computer? Why?


3. Class Discussion: Linus Torvalds, one of this chapter’s Technology Trailblazers (see page 431), is the
creator of Linux. Although he may not be a household name,
Forbes

m
agazine calls Torvalds, “perhaps
the most popular programmer on the planet.” Among Internet disciples, his renown is clear: a Web
search engine returns more than
3.2 million
hits when Linus Torvalds is the keyword. This secret
celebrity may be representati
ve of a group interested in the lyrical, rather than the commercial, side of
computers. When asked what motivates him, Torvalds claims, “there’s a strong artistic element.” He
also points out that, “a big part of personal satisfaction is having your work r
ecognized by your peers.
That’s fundamental in any human psyche.” Students may be interested in discussing the apparent
incentives for different Technology Trailblazers described in this text. Of these people who shaped the
computer industry, how many seem

motivated primarily by the possibility of financial gain? How many
seem to have other motivations? What? What, if any, impact does motivation have on an individual’s
work?


4. Group Activity: The Apple


PC rivalry may be evident in your class. It is not
unlikely that among
students you will find both Apple and PC adherents. The relative merits, and limitations, of each system
could form the basis for a lively debate.


5
. Assign

a Project
: Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft Inc., is a modern legend. A su
bject of Chapter
1’
s Technology Trailblazers

Gates is one of the wealthiest men in the world, and Microsoft is one of the
most influential companies in the computer industry. Not surprisingly, the fascinating story of Bill
Gates, his ideas, and his company

has been told (both favorably and critically) in many books,
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including:
The Road Ahead

(Bill Gates),
Business at the Speed of Thought

(Bill Gates),
Bill Gates

(Jeanine M. Lesinski),
Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire

(James Wall
ace),
Bill Gates Speaks: Insight from the World’s Greatest Entrepreneur

(Janet Lowe),
Bill Gates: The Path to
the Future

(Jonathan Gatlin),
Gates: How Microsoft’s Mogul Reinvented an Industry


And Made
Himself the Richest Man in America

(Stephen Manes and

Paul Andrews),
Overdrive: Bill Gates and the
Race to Control Cyberspace

(James Wallace),
Bill Gates: Billionaire and Computer Genius

(Joan D
.

Dickinson),
Barbarians Led by Bill Gates

(Jennifer Edstrom and Marlin Eller),
Breaking Windows: How
Bill Gates Fu
mbled the Future of Microsoft

(David Bank), and
Accidental Empires: How the Boys of
Silicon Valley Make Their Millions, Battle Foreign Competition, and Still Can’t Get a Date

(Robert X.
Cringely). Have students read one of these books, or another book on G
ates and Microsoft, and write a
report on the qualities they think led to the success of the man and the company.


6
. Assign

a Project
: Application programs are designed to be used with specific operating systems. When
software is purchased, it is importan
t to read the program’s packaging to determine if it is compatible
with the operating system on your personal computer. Operating systems undergo frequent revisions. A
higher, or later, version number often means a more recent revision (Windows 98 is a new
er version
than Windows 95), but sometimes other designations are used (for example, Windows
7

is the
latest

revision of the Windows operating system). Usually, operating systems are downward compatible,
meaning that an application program written for an e
arlier version of an operating system will work
with a later version of the same operating system. Often, however, an application program written for a
later version of an operating system (such as Windows
7
) will not work correctly with an earlier version

(such as Windows 95). Have students visit a software vendor or Web site and find four application
programs in which they are interested that require the Windows operating system. Which of the
programs could they run on their personal
computer if they had
Windows 95? Windows 98
? Windo
ws
XP? Windows Vista? Windows 7
? What is the earliest version of Windows they would need to run all
five programs? Can they find comparable programs that would run with an earlier version of Windows?


7
. Quick Quiz
:

1)

What is
a m
ini
-
program with minimal functionality that connects to another program or
provides information
? (Answer:
gadget, or widget
)

2)

Which of the following is open source software
?

a)
Windows
7

b)
Mac OS X

c)
Linux

d)
All of the above

(Answer: c)

3)

Which of the fol
lowing
editions of Windows 7 is designed for netbooks
?

a)
Windows 7 Home Premium

b)
Windows 7 Ultimate

c)
Windows 7 Starter

d)
Windows 7
Professional

(Answer: c)


8
. Critical Thinking: At a recent technical conference, a speaker from a noted software comp
any told an
audience of information
-
technology professionals that upgrading to a new operating system would be
“seamless.” His listeners responded with uncontrolled laughter. Adopting a new operating system
seldom is easy. As a result, no matter what the b
enefits, people often are reluctant to give up their old
operating systems. Although reviewers agree that each new version of Windows offered several
advantages over previous versions, one of the earliest editions of the operating system, Windows 3.1,
rema
ined popular for years. Why might people be unwilling to embrace new versions of an operating
system? How could developers hasten acceptance of a new operating system? If you generally were
satisfied with your current operating system, would you upgrade? W
hy or why not?


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LAB ACTIVITIES

1.
Take students into the lab to see either Windows
7

and/or machines that are running Linux and
UNIX. Ask students to write a short description of the similarities and differences among any of the
operating systems available

in the lab.


2
. Take students into the lab to
machines running Mac OS X
. Ask students to write a short description
of the similarities and differences
between the Windows and Macintosh operating systems
.

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LECTURE NOTES



Remind
students that a
server

operating system supports a network



Explain the relationship among the server, the client computers, and a
server

operating system



Compare and contrast a
server

operating system with a stand
-
alone operating system with
networking cap
ability



Discuss the Windows Server 2008 family



List examples of
server

operating systems: Windows Server
200
8
, UNIX, Linux, Solaris,
and
NetWare


BOXES

1. Web Link
:

Virtualization
.
Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


C
LASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1
.
Class Discussion:
When Microsoft released Windows 98, it claimed the new operating system was
evolutionary
, not
revolutionary
. In other words, instead of being radically different, Windows 98 built
on the model of its predecessor, Wi
ndows 95. Of the stand
-
alone and
server

operating systems
described in this chapter


DOS, Windows XP, Mac OS X, UNIX, Linux, NetWare, and Windows
Server 200
8



which would you consider revolutionary? Why? Which would you call evolutionary?
Why? Based on y
our experiences with each operating system, is an operating system better off being
revolutionary or evolutionary? Why?


2.
Quick Quiz
:

1)

What is Novell’s NetWare designed for
? (Answer:
Client/server networks
)

2)

Why is UNIX called a multipurpose operating syst
em
? (Answer:
It is both a stand
-
alone and a
server

operating system
)

4
4
4
1
1
1
8
8
8
:
:
:



E
E
E
m
m
m
b
b
b
e
e
e
d
d
d
d
d
d
e
e
e
d
d
d



O
O
O
p
p
p
e
e
e
r
r
r
a
a
a
t
t
t
i
i
i
n
n
n
g
g
g



S
S
S
y
y
y
s
s
s
t
t
t
e
e
e
m
m
m
s
s
s



LECTURE NOTES



Define embedded operating system and list popular embedded operating systems: Windows
Embedded
CE, Windows
Phone
, Palm OS,
iPhone OS, Black
B
e
rry,
Google Android,
e
mbedded
Linux, and Symbian OS


FIGURES:
8
-
22, 8
-
23, 8
-
24, 8
-
25, 8
-
26


BOXES

1. Web Link
:
iPhone

OS
.
Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


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2. Web Link
:
BlackBerry.
Encourage students to visit the Web

site mentioned for more information.


3
. Ethics & Issues 8
-
3
:
Should the Smart Phone Industry Adopt a Standard?

Survey students
about
which operating system runs on any smart phones they have
, and ask the
m

to
consider the
disadvantages of
user lockdown
.


4
. Quiz Yourself 8
-
2: In addition to answering the questions in the text, as a quick review, have students

visit the
Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site
(
www.cengagebrain.com
)
, navigate to the Quiz
Yoursel
f resource for this book and chapter,

and then click Objectives
4



6.


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1. Class Discussion:
Futurists claim tomorrow’s operating systems may be very different from those we
use today. Innovations such as touch
-
screens, speech
-
recognit
ion capabilities, automatic adaptability to
individuals, and even recognition of user emotional states have been suggested. Some innovators claim
operating systems will be simpler, others think they will be more complex. What would you like to see?
Will fu
ture operating systems be single
-
tasking, multitasking, or multiprocessing system
s
? How will
they handle such tasks as memory management, configuring devices, monitoring system performance,
administering security, and managing storage media? What type of i
nterface will they have? Of the
operating systems with which you are familiar, which is most like, or most dislike, the perfect operating
system? Why
?


2. Quick Quiz:

1)

Which operating system
is a successor to Windows Mobile
? (Answer:
Windows
Phone
)

4
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
:
:
:



U
U
U
t
t
t
i
i
i
l
l
l
i
i
i
t
t
t
y
y
y



P
P
P
r
r
r
o
o
o
g
g
g
r
r
r
a
a
a
m
m
m
s
s
s



LECTURE NOTES



Define utility program (utility)



Explain the function of each of the following kinds of utilities: file manager, search utility, image
viewer, uninstaller,
disk cleanup,
disk defragmenter, backup
and restore utilities
, screen sa
ver
,
and personal firewall



Define folder, shortcut, and defragmenting



Define virus, virus author, malware, worm, Trojan horse, and antivirus program



Differentiate between spyware and adware, and explain what spyware
and adware
remover
s are



Describe Interne
t filters, including anti
-
spam programs, Web filtering software,
phishing filters,
and
pop
-
up blockers



Define each of the following:
file compressi
on utility,
zipped files, uncompress,
media player, disc

burning software, and personal computer maintenance
utility


FIGURES:
8
-
27
,
8
-
28
,
8
-
29
,
8
-
30
,
8
-
31, 8
-
32, 8
-
33, 8
-
34, 8
-
35, 8
-
36, 8
-
37, 8
-
38, 8
-
39, 8
-
40


BOXES

1. Web Link
:
WinZip
.
Encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more information.


2. Web Link
:
Burning Discs
.
Encourage students to vis
it the Web site mentioned for more information.


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3
.
Innovative Computing 8
-
1
:
Utility Programs Locate Deleted Files.

Survey students about their own
frustrating experiences with accidentally deleted files
, and encourage students to visit the Web site
menti
oned for more information.


4. FAQ 8
-
6
:
Should I use
Windows

Explorer to delete a program?
Emphasize that the answer to this
question is a resounding no, and encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned for more
information.


5
.
FAQ
8
-
7
:
What steps s
hould I take to prevent virus infections on my computer
?

Discuss the
suggestions about the use of antivirus software,
and encourage students to visit the Web site mentioned
for more information.


6
. FAQ 8
-
8
:
Where does
spam
originate
?

Discuss the origins o
f spam
and encourage students to visit the
Web site mentioned for more information.


7
.
Ethics & Issues 8
-
4
:
Should the Government Tax Media Downloads
?

Survey students about the
differences between taxable physical media and digital media
.


8
. Quiz Yoursel
f 8
-
3: In addition to answering the questions in the text, as a quick review, have students

visit the
Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site
(
www.cengagebrain.com
)
, navigate to the Quiz
Yourself resource for
this book and chapter, and then click Objective
7
.


TEACHER TIP

Emphasize to students that viruses are not harmless pranks


the Melissa virus
, as one example,

cost an
estimated $80 million in damages.
A

virus called the Love Bug wreaked havoc worldwide. T
he virus,
which targeted Microsoft Outlook users, arrived as an attachment to e
-
mail messages, often from what
would appear to be a “trusted source,” with the subject line, “ILOVEYOU” (hence the virus’s name).
When the attachment was opened, the virus sent

itself to every name in the victim’s address book,
overwrote files on the victim’s hard drive, directed the victim’s browser to a Web site that downloaded
a program to steal the victim’s password, and then e
-
mailed the password to the virus’s author (who
eventually was discovered and arrested).


CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

1.
Assign

a Project
:
Encourage students to use the Web to identify other stand
-
alone utilities besides
those listed in the text. Some examples include: desktop enhancers that change the desktop

look and
organization, allowing users to create and switch between multiple desktops; file conversion utilities
that converts from one file format to another so that a file can be used by another application, and
Internet organizers that help in the manag
ement and use of favorite Web sites, searching the Web and
reporting on site changes.


2.
Assign

a Project
:
Many utility programs are available for users of personal computers. Have students
visit a computer store, read a computer magazine, or access a ven
dor’s Web site and choose two utility
programs in which they are interested. Write a review of the two programs. What is the function of
each? What are the system requirements? How easy is the program to use? How much does the program
cost? In their opinio
n, is the utility worth the price? Why or why not? If they could buy only one of the
utility programs, which would they purchase? Why?

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3.
Assign

a Project
: Using current computer magazines and business publications, have students
research the ways in whic
h one of the operating systems described in this chapter is being used today.
What kinds of businesses are using the operating system? Why? How much is the operating system
being used by individuals on personal computers? What are the advantages of the ope
rating system?
What are the disadvantages? What are the system requirements and price of the operating system?
From their research, what do they think is the future of the operating system?


4. Class Discussion: New utility programs are being developed con
tinually to meet user needs. One
utility guards against computer theft by once a week making a silent call to a control center. If the call
emanates from an appropriate number, the call is logged. If the computer has been reported stolen,
however, the cent
er traces the call to locate the missing computer. What other needs could be
addressed by a utility program? Identify three specific tasks (not described in this chapter) related to
managing or working with hardware, software, or files that computer users
would like to have
performed. Why would these tasks be important to a computer user? What would a utility program do
to perform each task? If you were to market the utility program, what would you call it?


5
. Critical Thinking:

Some users insist that ther
e is no such thing as a “harmless” virus, because all
viruses represent an unasked for intrusion into a computer system. Ask students how they feel about
“harmless” viruses. Does it make any difference whether the virus infection is on a business or person
al
computer? Why or why not?


6
. Critical Thinking: Today’s operating systems include a variety of features. They support a graphical
user interface, monitor performance, and administer security. Most operating systems also include a
variety of utility pro
grams. These utilities offer functions such as managing files, viewing images,
uninstalling programs, diagnosing problems, scanning disks, defragmenting disks, backing up files and
disks, and displaying screen savers. Do you think an operating system shoul
d include these features? Are
these features useful? What other features could be included in an operating system? If you were to
write an overview of the perfect operating system, what features would you include?


LAB ACTIVITIES

1. Ask students to go into

the lab and access two or three of the utilities described in this section and
then

write a short summary of their experiences using the utilities as well as the options they find in
each utility.

E
E
E
n
n
n
d
d
d



o
o
o
f
f
f



C
C
C
h
h
h
a
a
a
p
p
p
t
t
t
e
e
e
r
r
r



M
M
M
a
a
a
t
t
t
e
e
e
r
r
r
i
i
i
a
a
a
l
l
l






Chapter Review

provides a general

survey of the material in the chapter. Students can use these
pages to reinforce their achievement of the chapter objectives.




Key Terms

allows students to use these terms from the text to prepare for tests and quizzes. Students
should know each Primary T
erm (shown in bold
-
black characters in the chapter) and be familiar
with each Secondary Term (shown in italic characters in the chapter). Primary Terms include terms
commonly used in the computer industry and in advertisements, or terms that identify a maj
or
category. Secondary Terms include terms primarily used by IT professionals and other technical
people, terms that identify subcategories, or terms that are discussed in more depth in a later
Discovering Computers ©2012 Instructor’s Manual

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chapter.


In the Test Bank that accompanies this Instructor’s
Manual, the answers to questions pertaining to
Primary Terms are labeled (P), and the answers to questions pertaining to Secondary Terms are
labeled (S). If you are using the ExamView test generator, you can use the Primary or Secondary
difficulty designat
ions to choose questions that involve only Primary Terms, only Secondary Terms,
or both Primary and Secondary Terms.




Checkpoint

exercises review key terms and concepts presented in the chapter. Have students
complete the True/False, Multiple Choice, Match
ing, Short Answer, and Beyond the Book

exercises.




Learn It Online

exercises
offer students
additional information, resources, and activities related to
the topics presented in the chapter.




Problem Solving @ Home

and

Problem Solving @ Work
exercises allow

students to expand their
knowledge by solving practical computer problems, using outside resources including but not
limited to the Web, blogs, podcasts, videos, magazines, newspapers, television, user guides, other
individuals, electronics stores, and co
mputer stores.




The
Learn How To

exercises apply to students’ every day life what they learn in each chapter. These
hands
-
on activities solidify the concepts presented in the chapter with practical application.




In the
Web Research

exercises, students use
various Web resources to find out more features related
to this chapter. Encourage students to use their browsers and the link in each exercise or a search
engine to complete selected exercises.




Thought
-
provoking
Critical Thinking
exercises
in each chapte
r exercise students’ minds and
challenge them to construct creative solutions. The
se
exercises are constructed to
allow students to
work independently and collaboratively
.


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G
G
G
l
l
l
o
o
o
s
s
s
s
s
s
a
a
a
r
r
r
y
y
y



o
o
o
f
f
f



P
P
P
r
r
r
i
i
i
m
m
m
a
a
a
r
r
r
y
y
y



T
T
T
e
e
e
r
r
r
m
m
m
s
s
s





anti
-
spam program (42
7
)



antivirus program (426)



automat
ic update (
409
)



backup utility (4
24
)



BIOS (400)



boot disk (402)



boot drive (402)



booting (400)



buffer (407)



cold boot (400)



defragmenting (4
2
4)



disc burning software (
428
)



disk defragmenter (4
23
)



driver (40
8
)



embedded operating system (4
18
)



file compressio
n utility (427)



file manager (4
2
2)



folder (4
2
2
)



image viewer (4
23
)



iPhone OS (
420
)



Linux (41
6
)



log on (410)



Mac OS X (4
15
)



Macintosh operating system (4
15
)



media player (
42
7
)



memory management (40
6
)



operating system (OS) (398)



password (410)



performance mo
nitor (40
8
)



personal computer maintenance utility
(42
8
)



personal firewall (4
25
)



phishing filter (427)



Plug and Play (40
8
)



pop
-
up blocker (427)



queue (407)



recovery disk (402)



restore
utility

(4
24
)



screen saver (4
2
5)



search utility (4
2
2)



server operating sy
stem (
410
)



shortcut (4
2
2)



spooling (4
07
)



spyware remover (42
6
)



stand
-
alone operating system (41
2
)



system software (398)



Trojan horse (426)



uncompress (42
7
)



uninstaller (4
2
3)



UNIX (4
16
)



user ID (410)



user interface (402)



user name (410)



utility (4
2
1)



utilit
y program (4
2
1
)



virtual memory (40
6
)



virus (425)



warm boot (400)



Web filtering software (42
6
)



Windows 7 (413)



Windows
Embedded
CE (4
19
)



Windows
Phone

(4
19
)



Windows Server 200
8

(4
17
)



Windows Server 200
8

family (4
17
)



worm (426)



zipped files (42
7
)


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G
G
G
l
l
l
o
o
o
s
s
s
s
s
s
a
a
a
r
r
r
y
y
y



o
o
o
f
f
f



S
S
S
e
e
e
c
c
c
o
o
o
n
n
n
d
d
d
a
a
a
r
r
r
y
y
y



T
T
T
e
e
e
r
r
r
m
m
m
s
s
s





administrator account (
410
)



adware (42
6
)



adware remover (42
6
)



Aero Flip 3D (414)



back up (4
24
)



background (404)



basic input/output system (400)



BlackBerry (42
0
)



bugs (
409
)



client operating

systems (41
2
)



command language (40
3
)



command
-
line interface (40
3
)



compress (4
24
)



cross
-
platform (399)



Desktop Gadget Gallery (414)



device driver (40
8
)



device
-
dependent (41
1
)



device
-
independent (41
1
)



disk c
leanup (4
23
)



embedded Linux (42
0
)



encryption (41
1
)



fault
-
tolerant computer (405)



foreground (404)



fragmented (4
23
)



gadget (
414
)



ghosting (4
2
5)



Google Android (420)



graphical user interface (GUI) (40
2
)



hacker (4
25
)



hibernate (
402
)



index (4
2
2)



Internet Explorer (41
3
)



kernel (400)



lossless (427)



lossy (
427
)



malware (426)



memory resident (400)



multiprocessing (405)



multipurpose operating system (4
18
)



multiuser (405)



NetWare (4
18
)



network administrator (410)



nonresident (400)



open source software (4
16
)



page (406)



paging (406)



Palm OS (4
19
)



permissions (
410
)



phi
shing (427)



platform (399)



pop
-
up ad (427)



power
-
on self test (POST) (400)



preemptive multitasking (405)



print spooler (407)



proprietary software (41
1
)



registry (401)



service pack (4
09
)



single user/multitasking (40
4
)



single user/single tasking (40
4
)



sleep
mode (
402
)



Snipping Tool (415)



Solaris (4
18
)



spam (427)



spyware (42
6
)



Startup folder (401)



swap file (406)



Symbian OS (42
0
)



system files (401)



thrashing (406)



unzip (42
7
)



virtualization (
418
)



virus author (425)



widget (414)



Windows
7 Home Premium
(
414
)



Win
dows 7 Professional (414)



Windows 7 Starter (414)



Windows 7 Ultimate (414)



Windows Aero (402)



Windows Calendar (41
5
)



Windows Defender (41
5
)



Windows DVD Maker (414)



Windows Firewall (41
4
)



Windows Live Essentials (415)



Windows Live Mail (415)



Windows Live Me
ssenger (415)



Windows Live Movie Maker (415)



Windows Live Photo Gallery (414)



Windows Live Writer (415)



Windows Media Player (
414
)



Windows Photo
Viewer
(4
23
)



Windows ReadyBoost (
406
)

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15



Windows Server 2008 Datacenter (4
17
)



Windows Server 2008 Enterprise (4
17
)



Windows Server 2008 for Itanium
-
Based
Systems (4
18
)



Windows Server 2008
S
tandard
(4
17
)



Windows
Touch
(41
5
)



Windows Web Server 2008 (
418
)


Top of Document