Mobile Computing - IJARCSSE

globedeepMobile - Wireless

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

103 views

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
846


Volume
3
, Issue
9
,
September
2013






ISSN: 2277 128X

International Journal of Advanced Research in


Computer Science and Software Engineering



Research Paper



Available online at:
www.ijarcsse.com

Mobile Computing

Devashish Goswami

Asst Prof, Department of Computer Application

HKBK Degree College, Bangalore, India.




Abstract
:
Mobile computing is becoming increasingly important due to the rise in the number of portable computers
and the desire to have continuous network connectivity to the Internet irrespe
ctive of the physical location of the node.
Mobile computing offers significant benefits for organizations that choose to

integrate the technology into their fixed
organizational information system.
Ranging from wireless laptops to cellular phones and Wi
-
F
i/Bluetooth enabled
PDA’s to wireless sensor networks, mobile computing has become ubiquitous in its impact on our daily lives.
Mobile
computing is a versatile and potentially strategic technology that improves information quality and accessibility,
increa
ses operational efficiency, and enhances management effectiveness.
The goal of this paper is to point out some
of the limitations, characteristics, applications and issues of mobile computing.


Keywords: Mobile Computing, Wireless Technology, Appl
ication,

Issues, Limitation
,


I.

Introduction

What is mobile
computing?

Mobile computing

is
human

computer interaction

by which a
computer

is expected to be transported during normal
usage. Mobile computing involves
mobile communication
, mo
bile hardware, a
nd mobile
software. Mobile

computing is
the ability to use computing capability witho
ut a pre
-
defined location and

connectio
n to a network to publish and

subscribe to
information.

Mobile

computing as a generic term describing ability to use the technology
to wirelessly
connect to and use centrally
located information and

application software through the application of small, portable, and
wireless computing and communication devices
.

The term "Mobile computing" is used to describe the use of computing devic
es, which usually interact in some fashion
with a central information system
--
while away from the normal, fixed workplace. Mobile computing technology enables
the mobile worker to create, access, process, store and communicate information without being con
strained to a single
location. By extending the reach of an organization's fixed information system, mobile computing enables interaction
with organizational personnel that were previously disconnected. Mobile computing is the discipline for creating an
in
formation management platform, which is free from spatial and temporal constraints. The freedom from these
constraints allows
its users

to access and process desired information from anywhere in the space. The state of the user,
static or mobile, does not
affect the information management capability of the mobile platform being constrained to a
single location.
To facilitate the data management activities, users can carry
Personal Digital Assistant

(PDA)
, laptop,
cell phones, etc. At present the current tec
hnology only provides limited transaction processing capabilities but soon such
facilities will be available on all mobile devices such as cell phones, laptops, palmtops, etc. This discipline allows us to
define a connectivity mode, which we refer to as "M
obile Connectivity". We define mobile con
nectivity mode as:

Mobile connectivity
: The mobile connectivity between two nodes exists if they are continuously connected through
wireless channel, and can utilize the channel without being subjected to spatial an
d temporal constraints.


II.

Characteristics Of Mobile Computing

Mobile computing

is accomplished using a combination of computer hardware, system and applications software and
some form of communications medium. Powerful mobile solutions have recently become
possible because of the
availability of an extremely powerful and small computing devices, specialized software and improved
telecommunication. Some of the characteristics of mobile computing
are

based on following:

1. Hardware:
The characteristics of mob
ile computing hardware are defined by the size and form factor, weight,
microprocessor, primary storage, secondary storage, screen size and type, means of input, means of output, battery life,
communications capabilities, expandability and durability of th
e device.

2. Software:
Mobile computers make use of a wide variety of system and application software. The most common
system software and operating environments used on mobile computers includes MSDOS, Windows 3.1/3.11/95/98/NT,
UNIX
, android etc. These
operating environments range in capabilities from a minimalist graphically
-

enhanced
-

pen
-

enabled DOS environment to the powerful capabilities of Windows NT. Each operating system/environment has some
form of integrated development environment (IDE) for a
pplication development. Most of the operating environments
provide more than one development environment option for custom application development.

3. Communication:
The ability of a mobile computer to communicate in some fashion with a fixed information
system
is a defining characteristic of mobile computing. The type and availability of communication medium significantly
Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
847

impacts the type of mobile computing application that can be created. The way a mobile computing device communicates
with a fixed infor
mation system can be categorized as: (a) connected (b) weakly connected (c) batch and (d)
disconnected. The connected category implies a continuously available high
-
speed connection. The ability to
communicate continuously, but at slow speeds, allows mobil
e computers to be weakly connected to the fixed information
system. A batch connection means that the mobile computer is not continuously available for communication with the
fixed information system. In the batch mode, communication is established randoml
y or periodically to exchange and
update information between the mobile computer and fixed information systems. Mobile computers may operate in batch
mode over communication mediums that are capable of continuous operation, reducing the wireless airtime an
d
associated fees. Disconnected mobile computers allow users to improve efficiency by making calculations, storing
contact information, keeping a schedule, and other non
-

communications oriented tasks. This mode of operation is of
little interest because t
he mobile device is incapable of electronically interacting and exchanging information with the
fixed organizational information system. Exchange of information with a disconnected mobile computing device can
only be accomplished by manually entering infor
mation into the device or copying from the device's screen and manually
entering the information into the fixed information system. This mode of information exchange is no more efficient than
using paper and is effectively nonexistent, since virtually all
modern mobile computing hardware is capable of some
form of native electronic data communications. Data Communications is the exchange of data using existing
communication networks. The term data covers a wide range of applications including File Transfer,

interconnection
between Wide
-
Area
-
Networks (WAN), facsimile (fax), electronic mail, access to the internet and the World Wide Web
(WWW).

Available Technology

There are many communications technologies available today that enable mobile computers to commu
nicate. The most
common of these technologies are: (a) Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) (b) Satellite (c) Cellular Digital Packet
Data (CDPD) (d) Personal Communications Systems (PCS) (e) Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) (f)
RAM and ARDIS
data networks (g) Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) service (h) one and two
-
way paging (i) plain old
telephone system (POTS) (j) Internet (k) infra
-
red (l) docking (serial, parallel, LAN) and (m) disk swapping.

These
diverse communications technologies mak
e
a
vailable a continuum of connectivity that provides communications
capabilities

ranging from manual
-
assisted batch transfers to high
-
speed continuous

communication
.


III.

How Mobile Computing Work

In mobile computing platform information between processing units

flows through wireless channels. The processing
units (client in client/server paradigm) are free from temporal and spatial constraints. That is, a processing unit (client)
is
free to move about in the space while being connected to the server. This tempo
ral and spatial freedom provides a
powerful facility allowing users to reach the data site (site where the desired data is stored) and the processing site (the
geographical location where a processing must be performed) from anywhere. This capability allow
s organizations to set
their offices at any location. The discipline of mobile computing has its origin in Personal Communications Services
(PCS). PCS refers to a wide variety of wireless access and personal mobility services provided through a small termi
nal
(e.g., cell phone), with the goal of enabling communications at any time, at any place, and in any form. These PCS are
connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to provide access to wired telephones.
PCS include high
-
tier
digital cellular sy
stems for widespread vehicular and pedestrian services and low
-
tier telecommunication system
standards for residential, business, and public cordless access applications.

High
-
tier digital cellular systems include



Global System for Mobile Communications
(GSM)



IS
-
136 TDMA based Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Services (DAMPS)



Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)



IS
-
95 CDMA
-
based cdmaOne System


Low
-
tier telecommunication systems include



Cordless Telephone 2 (CT2)



Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone (DECT)



Personal Access Communication Systems (PACS)



Personal Handy Phone Systems (PHS)

Several wideband wireless systems and special data systems have been developed to accommodate internet and
multimedia services.
Mobile computing is not one
technology.
It is

a range of solutions that enable user mobility by
providing access to data anytime, from
anywhere
.











Figure: Mobile Computing Components

Handheld

Mobile
Computing
D
evice

Data Communication
Technology
Component

Information
System
Component

Wireless
Connection

Wired
Connection

Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
848

As shown in figure
, mobile computing has three components

1.

Handheld, mobile computing device
.

2.

Connecting technology that
allows

information to pass back and forth between the
sites’s

centralized

information system and the handheld device and back
.

3.

Centralized information sys
tem

Here is how mobile computing works

1.

The
user enters

or access data using the application on handheld computing device
.

2.

Using one of several connecting technologies, the new data are transmitted from handheld to site’s information
system

where files are
updated and the new data are accessible to other system user.

3.

Now both
systems (handheld and site’s computer) have the same information and are in sync.

4.

The process work the same way starting from the other direction.

The process is similar to the way a wo
rker’s desktop PC access the organization’s applications, except that user’s
device is not physically connected to the organization’s system. The communication between the user device and
site’s information systems uses different methods for transferring a
nd synchronizing data, some involving the use of
radio frequency (RF) technology.

In today’s market, the three most commonly used wireless data transfer methods are:

1.

Wireless local area network (Wireless LAN)

2.

Wireless Internet or wireless Web
.

3.

Data syncing

or “hot syncing
”.

This is not
a wireless data transfer method
, although it is often reference as
wireless.
Data syncing used docking cradles or docking stations that are connected to a LAN to transfer data
from the device to the organization’s information

system.


1.

Wireless LAN

Wireless LAN is a flexible data and communication system used in addition to, or instead of, a wired LAN. Using radio
frequency (RF) technology, wireless LANs transmit and receive

data over
air, minimizing the need for wired conn
ection
and enable user mobility. Unlike such technologies such as infrared, wireless LAN is not a “line of sight” technology.
Therefore the handheld device can operate anywhere within the coverage
area. In

a wireless LAN
user

enters data into a
handheld

de
vice such as personal digital assistant (PDA), laptop or tablet that has a special wireless LAN card. This card
has an antenna that transmits the data in real time using radio frequency technology to an access terminal, usually
connected to a ceiling or wa
ll. The access
terminal is connected to the local area network and sends

the data
-

received or
request for data
-

from the handheld to site’s information system. Conversely, data from site’s information system can be
sending

to the handheld using same techn
ology.


Figure: Wireless LAN

2.

Wireless Internet

Wireless Internet, also known as the wireless web, provides mobile computing access to data using the Internet and
specially equipped handheld device. Using a web phone or a latest PDA phone with micro web b
rowser, the user can
display data

accessible from the internet.

The mobile
device connected to the cellular system sends

the request to
computer link server. This server act as a gateway that translates signal from the handheld device into language the web

can understand, using an access and communication protocol
. One of the leading
protocols

is WAP
(Wireless

application
protocol). The server also
forwards the request over the internet to a web site, such as Yahoo, Google or the
organization’s site informa
tion
system. The

web site response to the request and forwards the information back through
the link server. Again the response is translated into a
Wireless Markup Language (WML) so it is viewable on the small
Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
849

cell phone screen. This translated response i
s then sent to the cellu
lar system and finally to the Web
-
enable mobile
computing
device. Example

for the current uses of wireless internet include accessing short emails, quick look up
capabilities (stocks, weathe
r, flights, movies, restaurants
, retail tr
ansaction, alert messaging etc.


Figure: Wireless Interne

3.

Data Synchronization

Data Synchronization provides many of the benefits of mobile computing without the cost of installing wireless LAN
equipment or needing access to the Internet.

Information is p
eriodically downloaded from the organization’s information
system to the handheld device and then
uploads

from the device to organization’s information
system.
Updating of
information is available in both the sides. The major drawback of data synchronizati
on is that it does not provide real
time access to
data. Data

syncing is not a wireless

data transfer method because data are transferred from the mobile
computing device to the site’s information system through a
docking (or

syncing)

cradle wired to the L
AN. It is
commonly grouped under the general term of “wireless” because the user’s device is physically attached to the LAN only
during the batch data
transfers. Data

Synchronization solutions have been used widely in health care and are typically the
firs
t use of wireless because of the low cost to implement and the wide range of application that deliver real value to the
organization.

Generally, data syncing solutions work best in health care settings where 1. Mobile
user has access

to the
LAN for periodi
c data updates and 2. The work being performed does not require access to the most current information
.



Figure:
Data Synchronization

Mobile Computing Devices

Some of the mobile computing devices have already been mentioned in order to describe the differ
ent wireless

data
transfer options. Following is a closer look at the range of products and functions. Although there are many products
on the market, handheld devices fall into several categories, each with specific capabilities and options.

Device Type

P
roduct Features

Web Phone

:


Cellular phone with Internet access



Internet browser functions



Limited email, calendar, appointment
scheduling and directories.

PDA Phone :

Combination of web phone with PDA personality



Internet browser functions.



Email, cale
ndar, appointment scheduling
Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
850

and directories.

Personal Digital Assistant(PDA) or Pocket PC

Handheld computerized information organizer;
examples include

Palm Pilot, Handspring Visor,
Compaq iPaq



Email, calendar, appointment scheduling, and
directories.



So
me desktop application functions. E.g., Word
and excel.



Pen
-
based system for data entry



Bar coding
.

Handheld

PC :

Small hand size personal computer with a keyboard




More powerful than a PDA device
.



Some desktop application functions. E.g., Word
and excel.



Keyboard for data entry
.



Voice
reorganization

and recording option



Bar c
oding

Tablet/Laptop

Tablet is a flat paneled. Laptop is also known as PC
notebook



All desktop functionality



Tablets use pen or touch screen technology


Current Technology Issues and

Limitation

Although wireless technology is maturing rapidly, several limitations stand in the way of widespread adoption. Good
decision about technology need to be based on a realistic understanding of current performance and how limitations can
be addres
sed

Technology

Current Issue and Limitation

Mobile Computing Devices



Handheld device such as PDAs and pocket PCs have small
screens, short battery life, limited processing power, and
rudimentary data integration capability.




Laptop and tablets provide gre
ater processing, battery life,
and data viewing power, but are considerably larger heavier,
with limited data interfacing capabilities.

Wireless LANs



Data transfer speed is currently slower than traditional
LANs.



Real Time interfaces between mobile comput
ing and LAN
-
based applications are custom developed for each site and
therefore expensive to create and maintain.

Wireless Internet



Wireless Internet technology faces similar issues with data
transfer speed.



Additional problem of multiple connectivity sta
ndards.

Data Synchronization



Same device limitations as described above plus the need
for
application specific cradles wired throughout the service
area.



Supports only batch data updates.


Mobile computing device capabilities

With mobile computing devi
ces, the
selection decisions

are limited. In many cases, the vendor

will have already made
the device decision, with only a small range of customer
-
specific
options. However
, it is important for new users to
under
stand what they are getting in terms of
cur
rent and

add
-
on capabilities.

Two considerations
are:

1.

Expandability
:
Most users do not want
to carry

several devices; i.e., one for charge
entry, one

for ordering, and
one for notes. Can
the handheld

device support today’s

application needs

as well as pl
ans for the
future? Special

features like having

a color display or voice recognition capabilities may be very important for some caregivers
but not
others, depending

on
what they must use the
device to

accomplish. What are the special
functions
needed

for

the handheld to support th
e

application and
enhance ease

of use? Is it
available now
? What are
expected changes for next year?


Key questions

to consider are:



What device(s) and operating system(s)
does the

application use?



What is the screen resolution o
f the device?



What are the general specifications for
battery life
, weight, processing
power?



What is the capability of the handheld
applications

itself? What is the future direction
for development
?

2.

Integration

with existing
systems:
The

integration of a
new application with the

existing systems is always a
challenge. Besides

identifying

the

data, it is necessary to consider

data formatting, coded data value, update
capabilities, ownership, and access rights for all

users in the process. Careful examinatio
n of
the workflow
, end
-
Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
851

user data needs, and functionality of the systems will require technical
resources (
both vendor and

IS) and
process experts (
both vendor

and end user) to create a workable, effective solution.

K
ey questions to
consider are:

1. Will t
he application integrate with legacy systems?

2. What data needs to be received, updated, and sent?

3. How does the system distribute and
synchronize

files?

4. How is data ownership established?

5. What methods are used to maintain data
security?


IV.

Mobile Computing Applications And Benefits

The real power of mobile computing becomes apparent when mobile hardware,
Software
, and communications are
optimally configured and used to accomplish a
Specified

mobile task. Although many varied applications exist, mob
ile
computing
applications

can generally be divided into two categories
--
horizontal and vertical.

1.

Horizontal
:
Horizontal applications have broad
-
based appeal and include software that performs functions such
as: (a) email; (b) Web browsing; (c) word proce
ssing; (d) scheduling; (e) contact management; (f) to
-
do lists; (g)
messaging; (h) presentation. These types of applications usually come standard on Palmtops, Clamshells, and
laptops with systems software such as Windows 95.

2.

Vertical:
Vertical applicatio
ns are industry
-
specific and only have appeal within the specific
Industry

for which
the application was written. Vertical applications are commonly used in industries such as: (a) retailing; (b)
utilities; (c) warehousing; (d) shipping; (e)
Medical

and (f
) law enforcement and public safety. These vertical
applications are often transaction oriented and normally interface with a corporate database. Other application
areas include: (a) mining; (b) forestry; (c)

agriculture; and (d) surveying etc.


B
enefits o
f mobile computing


Mobile computing technology
offers a

quick and easy way to increase efficiency, productivity and profitability whil
e
gaining better control of our

operations. The power and data storage capacity of today’s handheld PCs and Personal
Digi
tal Assistants (PDAs) has made low
-
cost mobile computing a practical reality.

Today’s world mobile computing is
using in various fields.

1.

Improved Information Accessibility
:
Mobile computing enables improvements in information accessibility.
The degree of i
mprovement is directly dependent upon the mobile hardware and communications equipment in
use. Mobile computing

technology (hardware, software,

and communications) provides a

wide range of options
that can be mixed and m
atched to fit the needs of each
indi
vidual mobile computing
application. The
improvements in information
accessibility enabled by mobile computing result in improved information flow
both to and from the central fixed information system. The mobile computer enables quick and efficient
inform
ation retrieval from the central information system. The ability to access central information and make
fixed o
r ad hoc queries of
corporate databases enables employees to get the information they need to complete
the job. The mobile computer also enables
transmission of current operational data, in native digital format,
from the mobile user to the central fixed information system. Once transmitted to the fixed information system,
the data from the mobile user can be processed and made available for all ot
her users of the central information
system. Thus, the
information available to a mobile user from the central

information system reflects current
information from other mobile users as well. Mobile computing eliminates the delay that occurs when an
employ
ee must physically return to the office at the end of the day and submit paper forms so that data entry
personnel can enter the information into the central information system. Even employees that are not
continuously connected to the fixed organizational
information system via a wireless link will experience
significantly improved information accessibility through mobile computing. One phone call at the end of the day
from the mobile user via a standard modem is all that is required to transmit the entire
day's transactions to the
central computer, saving travel and data entry time.
Additionally, any scheduling or
assignment changes for the
mobile employee for the following day can be transmitted to the employee during the same phone call. Mobi
le
computing
also significantly
speeds information accessibility when other media, such as: (a) facsimile; (b) audio
files; or (c) still images are concerned. Digital images or audio files can be accessed by the mobile user or
transmitted from the mobile user to the ce
ntral fixed organizational information
system. If

matched properly to
the work environment and task to be accomplished, the mobile computer will always be in the possession of the
mobile worker during the course of the day. Especially in the connected or w
eakly connected modes of
operation, this means that the mobile employee may be contacted throughout the workday via the mobile
computing device. Additionally, it means that the employee has access to other mobile employees via email or
other messaging sche
mes. As with many mobile computing applications, the type of mobile application and the
hardware, software, and communications used to support it will normally determine the degree and type of
information
accessibility. The

direct measurable results of imp
r
oved information accessibility
-
both

to and from
the mobile worker
are many. They include: (a
) improved

customer service; (b) reduced cycle times; (c) greater
accuracy; (d) fewer complaints; and (e) a reduction in required intermediate support staff.

2.

Incr
eased Operational Efficiency
:
Mobile computing enables improvements in the operational efficiency of
organizations that integrate the technology into their fixed information systems. It enables the computing power
and information contained within the fixed

information system to be structured around the optimum work flow
of a mobile worker, instead of altering the mobile worker's work flow to meet the optimum
configuration for
Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
852

computing. The mobile computer stays with the mobile employee, instead of the empl
oyee being required to
travel to the computer. Mobile computing can improve efficiency in many ways, including: (a) saving time; (b)
reducing waste; (c) cutting cycle times; (d) reducing rework; (e) enabling business process reengineering; (f)
improving ac
curacy; (g) decreasing time spent on customer complaints; and (h
) reducing unnecessary travel.

3.

Increased Management Effectiveness
:
Mobile computing technology can improve management effectiveness
by improving information quality, information flow, and abi
lity to control a mobile workforce. It makes the
most current and accurate information available to both the mobile worker and the users of the fixed information
system with which the mobile worker communicates. These benefits can be seen in all areas of t
he information
System, often, it is the improved ability to manage operations that is partly responsible for the performance
improvements seen in companies that introduce mobile computing technology.

4.

For Estate Agents
:

Estate agents can work either at ho
me or out in the field. With mobile computers they can
be more productive. They can obtain current real estate information by accessing multiple listing services, which
they can do from home, office or car when out with clients. They can provide clients wi
th immediate feedback
regarding specific homes or neighborhoods, and with faster loan approvals, since applications can be submitted
on the spot. Therefore, mobile computers allow them to devote more time to clients.

5.

Emergency Services
: Ability to receive

information on the move is vital where the emergency services are
involved. Information regarding the address, type and other details of an incident can be dispatched quickly, via
a Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) system using mobile computers, to one

or several appropriate mobile
units, which are in the vicinity of the incident.

6.

In courts
: Defense counsels can take mobile computers in court. When the opposing counsel references a case
which they are not familiar, they can use the computer to get dire
ct, real
-
time access to on
-
line legal database
services, where they can gather information on the case and related precedents. Therefore mobile computers
allow immediate access to a wealth of information, making people better informed and prepared.

7.

In comp
anies
: Managers can use mobile computers in, say, and critical presentations to major customers. They
can access the latest market share information. At a small recess, they can revise the presentation to take
advantage of this information. They can commun
icate with the office about possible new offers and call
meetings for discussing responds to the new proposals. Therefore, mobile computers can leverage competitive
advantages.

8.


Credit Card Verification
: At Point of Sale (POS) terminals in shops and super
markets, when customers use
credit cards for transactions, the intercommunication is required between the bank central computer and the POS
terminal, in order to effect verification of the card usage, can take place quickly and securely over cellular
chann
els using a mobile computer unit. This can speed up the transaction process and relieve congestion at the
POS terminals.

9.

Field Sales
:
The operational efficiency of sales personnel is significantly enhanced through mobile computing.
An excellent example of
these improvements can be seen by examining how mobile computing improves the
efficiency of remote insurance and financial planning sales. The mobile computer frees the sales agent to meet
with the client at the client's home, office, or other location. Cu
stomer data is collected, estimates and
comparisons are immediately calculated, the customer decides on the program of choice, the central computer is
immediately updated, and the customer is enrolled in the insurance or financial planning program. Without

mobile computing, this sales process would take days instead of minutes. In addition to accessing and updating
customer account information, mobile sales personnel can accomplish tasks such as printing invoices or other
information to leave with the custo
mer
.

10.

Transportation and Shipping
:
Using mobile computers in conjunction with GPS/GIS and an accompanying
vehicle information system (VIS), the operations of an entire transportation fleet can be managed from a central
location. The central office knows the

location, status, and condition of all vehicles, and operators have two
-
way
communication with the operations center. Using this information, vehicles can be optimally dispatched to
maximize efficiency as measured by: (a) time; (b) fuel consumption; and (
c) delivery priority. The mobile
computers enable significant performance improvements, achieved simultaneously with operational cost
reductions.


11.

General Dispatching
:
Mobile computers used in conjunction with Global Positioning System (GPS) and
Geographic
al Information System (GIS) data allow significant improvements in the operational efficiency of
various dispatch operations. For example, the central computer at a taxi company can track the location and
status of all its taxicabs and electronically dispa
tch the most appropriate
car to

a customer's location.
Additionally, the central computer can calculate an accurate approximation of when the taxi will arrive, enabling
improved customer service.

12.

Hotel Operations
:
Connecting the cleaning and hospitality st
aff of a hotel with mobile computing can
significantly improve the efficiency of hotel operations. As guests check out and rooms are vacated, the central
computer wirelessly signals cleaning staff that the rooms are ready for cleaning. Problems that are id
entified
during cleaning, such as broken appliances or faulty plumbing, are immediately communicated to the mobile
maintenance team for action. As soon as cleaning is complete and repairs are accomplished, the cleaning staff
member wirelessly updates the c
entral computer and the room is immediately available for check
-
in by a new
guest. The same system can be used to efficiently direct mobile hospitality personnel in


response to guest requests for information and service.

Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
853

13.

News Reporting
:
Mo
bile computers dramatically improve the efficiency of news media operations. Reporters
equipped with mobile computers and accompanying electronic devices can cover
news

or sporting event, take
digital video or still photographs, digitally record audio inte
rviews, compose the text of the news story, and
transmit the completed product back to the central agency for editing and immediate publication. In the media
industry, the timing and quality of news coverage is critical. Mobile computing increases the qual
ity of the
information from the media crews and significantly decreases the
time required to process and transmits

the
story for publication.

14.

Health Care
:
Mobile medical care, whether in
-
home, on the road, or within a hospital, is more efficient with
mobil
e computing. The mobile healthcare worker can access patient records for reference purposes, and is able
to update records with current diagnosis and treatment information. Emergency medical technicians (EMTs)
responding at the scene of an accident can use

mobile computers to capture patient information, treatments
accomplished

vital signs, and other critical data. This information is wirelessly transmitted to the receiving
hospital, which then prepares to receive and treat the patient, or recommend another

hospital facility with more
appropriate
treatment facilities
depending upon the nature and severity of the injuries. The more efficient hand
-
off between

ambulance EMTs and hospital staff made possible by mobile computing can save lives that
otherwise migh
t have been lost.

15.

Fieldwork
:
Almost any form of fieldwork can be made significantly more efficient through the application of
mobile computing. Parking control officers and utility inspectors are two examples of field workers who can
receive operational b
enefits from mobile computing. Parking control officers use handheld computers to check
the registration and violation history of parking offenders. Parking violations are issued immediately and
towing/backup can be requested when required. Utility inspect
ors
have
historically used paper forms to capture
information such as consumer power consumption and utility equipment status (transformers, transmission
towers, etc.). Using mobile computers, inspectors can be given instructions on inspections to be accom
plished
and information can be captured and validated at the source.

16.

Mobile Automation
:
General business travelers also reap the benefits of mobile computing. E
-
mail,
Spreadsheets
, presentations, and word processing are the four primary tasks accomplished

by these business
travelers. Laptops, Palmtops, and portable Clamshell computers with usable
-
size keyboards enable
businesspeople to stay in touch and accomplish the tasks they need for job effectiveness.
Using powerful mobile
computers in conjunction wit
h high
-
speed connectivity, mobile workers can perform work normally
accomplished at the office while on the road or in the field.

17.

Results
:
Just as mobile computing enables improved operational efficiency, it also enables improved
management effectiveness.

Mobile computers make more timely and accurate information

available to
managers. Mobile computers improve the manager's ability to track work in progress. They also improve the
ability of managers to communicate with mobile personnel. Additionally, mobil
e computers provide better
information to mobile
employees, so

they can make more informed decisions locally and minimize the need for
management decisions from the central office


V.

LIMITATIONS OF MOBILE COMPUTING

1.

Insufficient Bandwidth
: Mobile Internet acc
ess is gen
erally slower than direct cable
connections, using
technologies such as GPRS and EDGE, and more recently 3G networks. These networks are usually available
within range of commercial cell phone towers. Higher speed wireless LANs are inexpensive bu
t have very
limited range.

2.

Security Standards
: When working mobile, one is dependent on public networks, requiring careful use of
Virtual Private Network (VPN). Security is a major concern while concerning the mobile computing standards
on the fleet. One
can easily attack the VPN through a huge number of networks
interconnected through the line.

3.

Power consumption
: When a power outlet or portable generator is not available, mobile computers must rely
entirely on battery power. Combined with the compact size

of many mobile devices, this often means unusually
expensive batteries must be used to obtain the necessary battery life. Mobile computing should also look into
Greener IT, in such a way that it saves the power or increases the battery life.

4.

Transmission

interferences
: Weather, terrain, and the range from the nearest signal point can all interfere with
signal reception. Reception in tunnels, some buildings, and rural areas is often poor.

5.

Potential health hazards
: People who use mobile devices while drivi
ng are often distracted from driving are
thus assumed more likely to be involved in traffic accidents. Cell phones may interfere with sensitive medical
devices. There are allegations that cell phone signals may cause health problems.

6.


Human interface with
device
: Screens and keyboards tend to be small, which may make them hard to use.
Alternate input methods such as speech or handwriting recognition require training.


V
I
.




Issues
i
n Mobile Computing

1.
Security Issues

A.
Confidentiality
: Preventing unauthor
ized users from gaining access to critical information of any particular user.

B.
Integrity
:
Ensures unauthorized modification, destruction or creation of information cannot take place.

Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
854

C.
Availability
: Ensuring authorized users getting the access they r
equire.

D.
Legitimate
:

Ensuring that only authorized users have access to services.

E.
Accountabilit
y
: Ensuring that the users are held responsible for
their

security related activities by arranging the user
and his/her activities are linked if and when
necessary.

F. Wireless networks have relatively more security requirements than wired network. A number of approaches have been
suggested and also the use of encryption is has been proposed.


2.

Bandwidth:
Bandwidth utilization can be improved by logging

(bulk operations against short requests) and
compression of data before transmission. Additionally, lazy write back and file
perfecting

can help the network in times
of peak demands. Lazy write back is very helpful in the sense that the data to be written

may undergo further
modifications. The technique of caching frequently accessed data items can play an important role in reducing contention
in narrow bandwidth wireless networks. The cached data can help improve query response time. Since mobile clients
often disconnect to conserve battery power the cached data can support disconnected operations

3.

Location Intelligence:
As the mobile computers move they encounter networks with different features. A mobile
computer must be able to switch from infrared m
ode to radio mode as it moves from indoors to outdoors. Additionally it
should be capable of switching from cellular mode of operation to satellite mode as the computer moves from urban and
rural areas. In mobile computing as computers are working in cells

and are being serviced by different network providers,
the physical distance may not reflect the true network distance. A small movement may result in a much longer path if
cell or network boundaries are crossed. It will also lead to updating of the locat
ion dependent information as described
above. This can increase the network latency as well as risk of disconnection. Service connections must be dynamically
transferred to the nearest server. However, when load balancing is a priority this may not be poss
ible.

4. Power Consumption:
Mobile Computers will rely on their batteries as the primary power source. Batteries should be
ideally as light as possible but at the same time they should be capable of longer operation times. Power consumption
should be mini
mized to increase battery life. Chips can be redesigned to operate at lower voltages. Power management
can also help. Individual Components, be powered down when they are idle.

5.
Revising the technical architecture
:
Mobile users are demanding. They are im
portant to the business world. To
provide complete connectivity among users the current communication technology must be revised to incorporate mobile
connectivity. Additionally, application and data architectures must also be revised to support the demand
s put upon them
by the mobile connectivity.

6.
Reliability, coverage, capacity, and cost
:
At present wireless network is less reliable, have less geographic coverage
and reduced bandwidth, are slower, and cost more than the wired
-
line network services. It

is important to find ways to
use this new resource more efficiently by designing innovative applications.

7.

Integration with legacy mainframe and emerging client/server applications
:

Application development paradigms
are changing. As a result of the IT
industry's original focus on mainframes, a huge inventory of applications using
communications interfaces that are basically incompatible with mobile connectivity have been accumulated. Still the
application development trend is geared towards wired networ
k.

8.
End
-
to
-
end design and performance
:
Since mobile computing involves multiple networks (including wired) and
multiple application server platforms, end
-
to
-
end technical compatibility, server capacity design, and network response
time estimates are dif
ficult to achieve.

9.
Business challenges
:
In addition to these technical challenges, mobile computing also faces business challenges. This
is due to the lack of trained professionals to bring the mobile technology to the general people and development of

pilot
projects for testing its capabilities.


VII.




Tactics
f
or Success

After the selection decision for a
particular mobile

computing application has been
made, implementing

the system just
as carefully w
ill help to ensure that the end
users are
satisfied

and

full value is
realized
. The following
implementation

tactics, based on the most
recent mobile

computing project experiences,
should help

projects move smoothly

1.

Understand the integration of workflow, i
nformation flow, and technology
:
Mobile computing
is not the
entire solution; it addresses specific tasks within the care delivery
process. Understanding

the points where
technology is provided and the information collected or displayed for the end user will lead to a
clear map

of the
necessary changes in

the
current process

and rol
es. In many projects, implement
ing the process, roles, and
responsibility
changes is

far more challenging than installing the new technology.

2.


Set user expectations
:
Take the time to under
-
stand, document, and set expectations r
elated
to each

functionality and technology that will
be installed
. Many device manufacturers and
application

vendors claim
incredible functionality and access to information. Remember that
mobile does

not necessarily mean wireless,
real
-
time access

to dat
a. Make sure that end users are not led to believe that the application is going to
give them

access to

the same services and function
ality that they h
ave on their PCs with wired con
nections. Mobile
computing will give them
basic functions

with the added b
enefit of mobility

3.

Pilot the application
:
A great implementation

advantage with mobile computing is that
piloting is

possible. The
cost for the handheld
devices, software
, and basic data synchronization
interfacing

is very low, especially if the
vendor is
willing to

partner with the organization to gain
experience

with implementations and have
reference
sites
. By starting small, users get a clear under
-
standing of how mobile computing impacts their

work
Goswami

et al., International Journal of Advanced Rese
arch in Computer Science and Software Engineering
3
(
9
),

September
-

201
3
, pp.
8
4
6
-
8
5
5

© 201
3
, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved


Page |
855

environment. Pilot implementations
identify

process an
d technology adjustments that will improve user
acceptance and the overall
success of

the project when it is rolled out.


VIII.




Conclusion

Mobile computing is an important, evolving technology. It enables mobile

personnel to effectively communicate and
int
eract with the fixed organizational

information system while remaining unconstrained by physical location. Mobile
computing offers significant benefits for organizations that choose to integrate the technology into their fixed
organizational information sy
stem. Mobile computing is made possible by portable computer hardware, software, and
communications systems that interact with a non
-
mobile organizational information system while away from the normal,
fixed workplace. Mobile computing is a versatile and p
otentially strategic technology that improves information quality
and accessibility, increases operational efficiency, and enhances management effectiveness. Mobile computing may be
implemented using many combinations of hardware, software, and communicati
ons technologies. The technologies must
be carefully selected and the applications designed to achieve the business needs required from the overall organizational
information system. Here in this paper we have in term identified some of the challenging iss
ues, applications of mobile
computing along with few of the characteristics of Mobile computing.


R
EFERENCES

1.

Mobile Computing: Characteristics, Business Benefits, and the Mobile Framework, by James Bryan Zimmerman,
University of Maryland European Division
-

Bowie State.

2.

Challenging Issues and Limitations of Mobile Computing by
Deepak G and Dr. Pradeep B S, Department of CSE,
Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Department of CSE, Rajarajeswari College of Engineering, Bangalore,
India

3.

Wireless and Mobile
Computing, by Fran Turisco and Joanna Case, First Consulting Group

Mobile Computing, by
Vijay Kumar,
University of Missouri
-
Kansas City Kansas City, MO 64110, USA.

4.

www.shiresystems.com

5.

http:
//www.tutorialspoint.com/mobile_computing/index.htm

6.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_computing#Definitions

7.

http://www.ahqa.org/pub/uploads/wirelessandmobilecomputing.pdf