Rok 2011 Ahrweiler P, Pyka A, Gilbert N (2011) A New Model for ...

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Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Rok 2011


Ahrweiler P, Pyka

A, Gilbert N (2011) A New Model for University
-
Industry Links in Knowledge
-
Based
Economies. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:218
-
235 In this paper, we apply the agent
-
based SKIN model (Simulating Knowledge Dynamics in Innovation Networks) t
o university
-
industry links.
The model builds on empirical research about innovation networks in knowledge
-
intensive industries with
procedures relying on theoretical frameworks of innovation economics and economic sociology. Our
experiments compare innova
tion networks with and without university agents. Results show that having
universities in the co
-
operating population of actors raises the competence level of the whole population,
increases the variety of knowledge among the firms, and increases innovati
on diffusion in terms of quantity
and speed. Furthermore, firms interacting with universities are more attractive for other firms when new
partnerships are considered. These results can be validated against empirical findings. The simulation
confirms that
university
-
industry links improve the conditions for innovation diffusion and enhance
collaborative arrangements in innovation networks.


Alam SS (2011) Entrepreneur's traits and firm innovation capability: an empirical study in Malaysia. Asian
Journal of
Technology Innovation 19:53
-
66 This research investigates how entrepreneurs' personality
traits affect firm innovation capability. It posits that entrepreneurs would feel inclined to become involved
into the different phases of the innovation process i
n the firm depending on their personality traits. The
convenient sampling of non
-
probability sampling was adopted. Most of the major towns in Peninsular
Malaysia have been chosen for the purpose of collecting the data. Hypotheses relating the personality f
actors
(achievement, opportunity, confidence, innovativeness, independent, risk taking and openness to experience)
and firm innovation capability were tested by using multiple regression analysis on survey data from a
sample of 1416 entrepreneurs from Mala
ysia. The study revealed that the personality traits of an
entrepreneur had significant impact on the firm innovation capability in Malaysia. The area on which this
study concentrates does not have many extensive academic researches yet. Even though this s
tudy has some
limitations and problems, it has several managerial implications. This study could be particularly useful for
policy makers to get some ideas and develop suitable training programs to help and assist the entrepreneur in
their future endeavors
.


Allarakhia M, Steven W (2011) Managing knowledge assets under conditions of radical change: The case of
the pharmaceutical industry. Technovation 31:105
-
117 There is no industry where firms link their search
for competitive advantage more closely to

intellectual property (IF) than those in the pharmaceutical
industry. Yet a major paradigm change is occurring in this industry. New technological developments are
increasingly being driven by advances in biology, nanotechnology, and the computational sci
ences. In this
paper, we investigate how this radical change in the investigation, discovery, and manufacture of
pharmaceuticals has affected intellectual property management practices. Large pharmaceutical firms, small
and medium enterprises (SMEs), and p
ublic institutional knowledge generators have recently started to
respond by developing new IF management techniques born from the use of consortia to manage the
complexities of knowledge generation. Hence, we leverage innovation and knowledge management
l
iterature, and use the innovation journey and case study methodologies to investigate both traditional
pharmaceutical IF practices as well as emerging strategies. We distil from this effort an IF model the
transition point model designed to assist firms to

effectively manage both knowledge assets and the
associated intellectual property in the current paradigm.


Ambos B, Ambos TC (2011) Meeting the challenge of offshoring R&D: an examination of firm
-

and
location
-
specific factors. R & D Management 41:107
-
11
9 This paper, through a systematic survey of 83
international R&D engagements of 36 German MNCs, seeks to extend previous research on the location
decisions of international R&D engagements and inform managers about the critical factors that may be
con
sidered when taking this important decision. Covering engagements in 21 countries, we show that the
knowledge intensity of the industry as well as variables pertaining to the process school of
internationalization play an important role when offshoring R&D
.


Antcliff R (2011) Industrial Research Institute's R&D Trends Forecast for 2011. Research
-
Technology
Management 54:18
-
23


Arza V, Lopez A (2011) Firms' linkages with public research organisations in Argentina: Drivers,
perceptions and behaviours. Te
chnovation 31:384
-
400 This paper analyses firms' drivers for linking to
public research organisations (PRO) (first goal) and compares perceptions and behaviours of linked vs.
unlinked firms (second goal). We used an original firm database constructed f
rom a representative survey
with information for linked and unlinked firms for year 2005 in Argentina. Drivers were estimated using a
Probit model, while differences in perceptions and behaviours between linked and unlinked firms were
assessed with propens
ity score matching techniques. For our first goal we found that (i) firms' knowledge
bases were not drivers for linking to PRO and (ii) networking capabilities matter but there is a substitution
effect between interacting with PRO and interacting with othe
r economic agents in the market when firms
aim at exchanging information rather than doing joint research. These findings may imply that current
linkages are not exploiting properly their knowledge potential; it may be worth designing a division of
labour
among PRO in their functions in PRO
-
industry interactions. For our second goal: we found that (i)
linked firms invest more in innovative activities; (ii) they are more prone to patenting; (iii) both groups of
firms value similarly PRO research outputs avai
lable at arm length (i.e. without direct linking). Given the
asymmetric development on appropriability tools between PRO and firms and the fact that all firms benefit
from PRO research outputs, the higher predisposition of linked firms towards patenting, s
uggests that
special attention should be placed at analysing the risks of a private appropriation of publicly created
knowledge.


Atuahene
-
Gima K, Wei YH (2011) The Vital Role of Problem
-
Solving Competence in New Product
Success. Journal of Product Innovat
ion Management 28:81
-
98 Problem solving, a process of seeking,
defining, evaluating, and implementing the solutions, is considered a converter that can translate
organizational inputs into valuable product and service outputs. A key challenge for the p
roduct innovation
community is to answer questions about how knowledge competence and problem
-
solving competence
develop and sustain competitive advantage. The objective of this study is to theoretically examine and
empirically test an existing assumption
that problem
-
solving competence is an important variable
connecting market knowledge competence with new product performance. New product projects from 396
firms in the high
-
technology zones in China were used to test the study's theoretical model. The res
ults first
indicate that problem
-
solving speed and creativity matter in new product innovation performance by playing
mediator roles between market knowledge competence and positional advantage, which in turn sustains
superior performance. This new insight

suggest that mere generation of market knowledge and having a
marketing
-
research and development (R&D) interface will not affect new product performance unless
project members have the ability to use the information and to interact to identify and solve c
omplex
problems speedily and creatively. Second, these results suggest that different market knowledge
competences (customers, competitors, and interactions between marketing and R&D) have distinct impacts
on problem
-
solving speed and creativity (positive,

negative, or none), which underscore the need to embrace
a more fine
-
grained notion of market knowledge competence. The results also reveal that the relative
importance of some of these relationships depends on the perceived level of turbulence in the env
ironment.
First, competitor knowledge competence decreases problem
-
solving speed when perceived environmental
turbulence is low but enhances problem
-
solving speed when perceived turbulence is high. Second,
competitor knowledge competence has a positive rel
ationship with new product performance when the
environmental turbulence is high but no relationship when the environmental turbulence is low. Third, the
positive relationship between problem
-
solving speed and product advantage is stronger when the perceiv
ed
environmental turbulence is high than when it is low, which implies that problem solving is more important
for creating product advantage when environmental turbulence is high and change is fast and unpredictable.
Fourth, the negative relationship betwe
en problem
-
solving speed and new product performance is stronger
when the perceived environmental turbulence is high than when it is low, which means that problem
-
solving
speed is more harmful for new product performance when change is fast and unpredictab
le. And fifth, the
positive relationship between product quality and new product performance is stronger when perceived
environmental turbulence is low than when it is high, which implies that product quality may more likely
lead to new product performance

when the environment is stable and changes are easy to predict, analyze,
and comprehend.


Badawy MK (2011) "Is open innovation a field of study or a communication barrier to theory
development?": A perspective. Technovation 31:65
-
67


Bajpai GN, Euchn
er J (2011) Innovation in Emerging Markets: an Interview with G. N. Bajpai. Research
-
Technology Management 54:12
-
16


Barrett CW, van Biljon P, Musso C (2011) R&D Strategies in Emerging Economies: Results from the
Mckinsey Global Survey. Research
-
Techn
ology Management 54:17
-
22 The 2011 McKinsey Global
Survey on R&D, performed in March, took place just as political instability in the Middle East brought
rising oil prices, and with them, a new round of economic uncertainty. Yet, respondents indicated
that R&D
budgets continue to rise, and a significant portion of that money could go to R&D centers in emerging
markets. The survey report offers unique insight and data regarding trends and concerns around managing
R&D in emerging markets.


Bertels HMJ, Kl
einschmidt EJ, Koen PA (2011) Communities of Practice versus Organizational Climate:
Which One Matters More to Dispersed Collaboration in the Front End of Innovation? Journal of Product
Innovation Management 28:757
-
772 Dispersed collaboration provides
many benefits such as members'
closeness to local cultures and markets and reachability of talent worldwide. Hence, it is no surprise that
dispersed collaboration is frequently being used by product development teams. A necessary but not
sufficient conditi
on for innovation performance is the sharing of tacit, noncodified and explicit, codified
knowledge by the team. Situated learning theory, however, predicts that tacit knowledge sharing will be
largely prevented by "decontextualization." Therefore, increas
ing usage of dispersed collaboration will
decrease levels of tacit knowledge
-
crucial to innovation and organizational performance
-
in the business unit.
This research investigates the moderating role of mechanisms believed to enable tacit knowledge transfer

in
the front end of innovation. Using data from 116 business units, the moderating role of communities of
practice and organizational climate on the relationship between the proficiency of dispersed collaboration
and front end of innovation performance is

investigated. Encouragement of communities of practice is found
to moderate the relationship between proficiency of dispersed collaboration and front end of innovation
performance on the business unit level. More specifically, proficiency of dispersed col
laboration is not
related at all to front end of innovation performance in business units with low support for communities of
practice; but a positive relationship exists in business units with high support for communities of practice.
This study does not
provide support for the moderating effect of organizational climate on the relationship
between proficiency in dispersed collaboration and front end of innovation performance. However,
supportiveness of climate has a significant direct effect on front end
of innovation performance. The
findings of this study suggest that managers should simultaneously invest in increasing proficiency in
dispersed collaboration and supporting communities of practice. Either one by itself is insufficient. Because
of its signi
ficant direct effect, managers should also nurture an open climate favoring risk taking, trust, and
open interaction.


Bianchi M, Cavaliere A, Chiaroni D, Frattini F, Chiesa V (2011) Organisational modes for Open Innovation
in the bio
-
pharmaceutical indust
ry: An exploratory analysis. Technovation 31:22
-
33 This paper
investigates the adoption of Open Innovation in the bio
-
pharmaceutical industry, studying through which
organisational modes it is put into practice and how these modes are interwoven with t
he different phases of
drug discovery and development process. Two rounds of interviews with industry experts were carried out
to develop a model describing the adoption of Open Innovation by bio
-
pharmaceutical companies. This
framework was then applied to

an extensive and longitudinal empirical basis, which includes data about the
adoption of Open Innovation by the top 20 worldwide industry players, in the time period 2000
-
2007. The
paper provides a thorough discussion of how bio
-
pharmaceutical firms have
used different organisational
modes (i.e. licensing agreements, non
-
equity alliance, purchase and supply of technical and scientific
services) to enter into relationship with different types of partners (i.e. large pharmaceutical companies,
product biotech

firms, platform biotech firms and universities) with the aim to acquire (Inbound Open
Innovation) or commercially exploit (Outbound Open Innovation) technologies and knowledge. The
implications of the study for Open Innovation research and possible avenue
s for future investigation are
discussed at length in the paper.


Bianchi M, Chiaroni D, Chiesa V, Frattini F (2011) Organizing for external technology commercialization:
evidence from a multiple case study in the pharmaceutical industry. R & D Management
41:120
-
137
External technology commercialization (ETC) is increasingly being regarded as a strategic priority by
companies. ETC is the use of out
-
licensing to transfer technologies that are disembodied from products to
other organizations. Previous res
earch has focused on the economic and strategic dimensions but little
attention has so far been paid to how ETC should be organized. This paper explores whether and how firms
operating in different contexts adopt dissimilar organizational solutions for the
ir ETC activities. To this aim,
a theoretical framework is first developed that comprises the key constitutive elements of ETC organization
and a number of firm
-
level and deal
-
level factors that are supposed to influence organizational design
choices. Base
d on a multiple case
-
study analysis involving 16 out
-
licensing deals executed in seven Italian
pharmaceutical firms, the paper shows that the organization of out
-
licensing tasks and the allocation of
decision
-
making power is shaped by, and adapts to, the r
elevance of ETC in the corporate strategy, the
volume of ETC transactions, the stage of development of the technology being commercialized and the
competitive threats due to the deal. The paper is believed to be useful for licensing and R&D managers who
ca
n find practical insights into how ETC activities can be organized and which critical contextual factors
should be accounted for when designing such organization.


Bianchi M, Chiesa V, Frattini

F (2011) Selling Technological Knowledge: Managing the Complexities of
Technology Transactions. Research
-
Technology Management 54:18
-
26 With the diffusion of the open
-
innovation paradigm, more companies are selling their technological knowledge, disem
bodied from physical
artifacts, to other organizations in an attempt to maximize the rent
-
yield potential of the innovation process.
However; extracting revenues from technology sale remains a challenge for most firms due to the
peculiarities of technologi
cal knowledge as an object of commerce. A study of 30 companies actively
involved in technology sale and 75 single transactions illuminates two key aspects of technology
transactions: (1) the challenges that the technology sale process entails, and (2) the

practices that can be
adopted to manage the complexities of technology transactions. CTOs and R&D and technology managers
can use these insights to build a firm
-
level capability in selling technological knowledge.


Blau J (2011) The European Union Shoots
for the Stars. Research
-
Technology Management 54:3
-
5


Blau J (2011) German CTO Embraces and Exploits Change. Research
-
Technology Management 54:2
-
3


Blau J (2011) Building the Smart Grid in Europe. Research
-
Technology Management 54:2
-
3


Bloch

PH (2011) Product Design and Marketing: Reflections After Fifteen Years. Journal of Product
Innovation Management 28:378
-
380 This paper provides a brief assessment of the current state of design
research within the field of academic marketing. A defin
ition of design is provided that is based on user
benefits. This is followed by a set of prescriptions to enhance the prominence of design research in future
years. These prescriptions focus on research scope and the training of young scholars.


Bouten LM,

Snelders D, Hultink EJ (2011) The Impact of Fit Measures on the Consumer Evaluation of New
Co
-
Branded Products. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:455
-
469 A popular strategy
currently employed for new product introductions is co
-
branding. Suc
h a strategy allows a brand to innovate
with the support of a partner brand. The present study investigates how consumers perceive a new product
with two brands. Previous research focused on the logic of a brand combination by investigating the impact
of t
he fit between both existing product categories (i.e., product
-
product fit) and the fit between both brand
images (i.e., brand
-
brand fit) on the evaluation of a new co
-
branded product. However, no study has yet
focused on the relationships between both bra
nds and their existing product categories, and the specific new
product that has been developed. The present paper aims to improve the understanding of the potential
benefits of co
-
branding by taking the role of the new product into account. The empirical
study discussed in
this paper replicates and extends the model of Simonin and Ruth (1998) by adding two new measures to
their model. These measures are related to the fit of both existing product categories with the new product
(i.e., new
-
product
-
product f
it) and the fit of both brand images with the new product (i.e., new
-
product
-
brand fit). The results from this empirical study with 210 consumers in The Netherlands show that product
-
product fit, brand
-
brand fit, and new
-
product
-
brand fit have a significan
t positive impact on the evaluation
of a new co
-
branded product. New
-
product
-
product fit was not significantly related to consumer evaluations.
In addition, the results show that consumers prefer a new co
-
branded product that can be clearly associated
with

one of the brands in the partnership so that it can be categorized unambiguously. This paper discusses
these findings and provides implications for research and managerial practice in the important and growing
field of brand
-
driven innovation.


Brettel M,

Heinemann F, Engelen A, Neubauer S (2011) Cross
-
Functional Integration of R&D, Marketing,
and Manufacturing in Radical and Incremental Product Innovations and Its Effects on Project Effectiveness
and Efficiency. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28
:251
-
269 Previous research commonly
emphasizes the positive effects of cross
-
functional integration on performance measures. However, cross
-
functional integration is a highly complex phenomenon which does not allow general conclusions in terms
of perfo
rmance impacts. Therefore, the present study assesses the impact of integrating the R&D, marketing,
and manufacturing functions on the effectiveness and efficiency of new product development (NPD)
projects. A multi
-
functional design is applied that conside
rs three functions, including manufacturing, which
has been often neglected in prior research on cross
-
functional integration. Further, the study distinguishes
between two phases of the NPD process, namely the development and commercialization phases. In
b
uilding the sample care was particularly taken to include a sufficient number of highly innovative NPD
projects to cover the full range in terms of project innovativeness. This allows assessing the moderating role
of project innovativeness on the effects o
f cross
-
functional integration on NPD performance. A research
model incorporating these ideas is theoretically developed and empirically validated by means of survey
data. One hundred and eighteen NPD project managers participated in the survey (50 increme
ntal and 68
radical innovation projects). Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the research model. More
concretely, partial least squares (PLS) was used as the most accepted variance
-
based approach. Generally,
the findings emphasize that the r
elationships between various facets of cross
-
functional integration and
performance measures are highly complex. The integration between R&D and marketing positively impacts
efficiency, but not effectiveness across different types of projects. Further, the

impact of integration between
marketing and R&D depends on the process stage and the degree of innovativeness. Findings regarding the
integration between R&D and manufacturing show a strong positive impact on efficiency in the
development phase. With resp
ect to the integration between marketing and manufacturing, no significant
effects on the performance dimensions can be observed for radical NPD projects. Overall, a positive impact
of integration between these departments on effectiveness in the commercia
lization phase emerges.


Broekhuizen TLJ, Delre SA, Torres A (2011) Simulating the Cinema Market: How Cross
-
Cultural
Differences in Social Influence Explain Box Office Distributions. Journal of Product Innovation
Management 28:204
-
217 This paper uses a

mixed method approach to show how cross
-
cultural
differences in social influences can explain differences in distributions of market shares in different markets.
First, we develop a realistic agent
-
based model that mimics the behavior of movie visitors an
d incorporates
the social influences visitors exert on each other before and after visiting movies. The simulation results
indicate that market inequalities are determined by social influences. In particular, we find that the social
influence derived from
the intended behaviors of others (coordinated consumption effect) has a stronger
effect on market inequalities than the social influence derived from the past behavior of others (imitation
effect). Second, we empirically validate the simulation results by
conducting a cross
-
national survey that
makes use of the cross
-
cultural differences in Hofstede's collectivism
-
individualism index as a proxy for the
level of social influence present in a market. The results of this field study, performed in China, the
Ne
therlands, Italy, and Spain, empirically show that social influences differ across countries, and that these
differences can explain the apparent differences in the dispersion of movies' market shares. The empirical
survey further contributes to understand
ing the role of social influence by revealing a U
-
shaped relationship
between Hofstede's collectivism
-
individualism index score and the degree of social influence.


Brown T, Katz B (2011) Change by Design. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:381
-
38
3 Over
the course of a century of professional practice, designers have mastered a set of skills that can be
productively applied to a wider range of problems than has commonly been supposed. These include
complex social problems, issues of organizatio
nal management, and strategic innovation. Conversely, non
-
designers
-
those in leadership positions in companies, governmental and non
-
governmental organizations,
professionals in a broad range of services and industries
-
can benefit from learning how to thin
k like
designers. We offer some large
-
scale and more finely grained ideas about how this might happen.


Bunduchi R, Weisshaar C, Smart AU (2011) Mapping the benefits and costs associated with process
innovation: The case of RFID adoption. Technovation 31:5
05
-
521 The successful implementation of any
innovation requires an understanding of its benefits and costs. This study examines the changes in the
magnitude of costs and benefits associated with technology process innovation adoption as the innovation
diffuses across different industries. Using RFID as an exemplar technology, the study shows that the
magnitude of benefits and costs associated with technological process innovation adoption within different
industries varies as technology diffuses beyond
early adopters to the early majority. During the early stages
of technology evolution, the development cost, the cost of capital, ethical costs and simple direct
implementation costs (in the form of the cost of tags) predominate. As a dominant design emerg
es the
profile of costs changes with the emphasis on initiation costs, more holistic direct implementation costs and
indirect implementation costs. A similar change in the emphasis of benefits is observed, with a shift from
direct to indirect benefits bein
g noticeable as the technology moves from early adopters to early majority
adopters. Our findings help to explain the difficulties in consistently measuring innovation outcomes
observed in the innovation implementation literature, and emphasize the need to

take into consideration the
stage of technology development as a significant factor that influences the realised outcomes from
innovation implementation.


Caerteling JS, Di Benedetto CA, Doree AG, Halman JIM, Song M (2011) Technology development projects
in road infrastructure: The relevance of government championing behavior. Technovation 31:270
-
283
Low
-
technology industries are largely neglected in technology management literature. Yet, recent studies
show the crucial importance of innovation in low
-
technology industries. In this study, we analyze
technology development projects in a specific low
-
technology industry, road infrastructure, being a major
sector and an important contributor to both GDP and employment. We focus on the effect of government
behavior on technology development projects in road infrastructure. In road infrastructure, government
plays an important role as a buyer and first user of technology. Based on the business strategy literature and
literature on technology policy, we test t
he relative importance of a firm's strategy and government behavior
in this low
-
technology industry. Specifically, we build and empirically test a conceptual model in which
government behaviors (technology championship and procurement policy) and strategic

orientation
(internal/cost orientation and innovation orientation) are antecedents to project performance, which is
assessed in terms of performance relative to budget, quality, and time objectives, and also in terms of
benefits to customers. Our empirica
l findings stress the value of government championing behavior and
show that this behavior is more important than innovative procurement policies. The results even suggest
that government championship is more important than a firm's strategic orientation.


Caetano M, Amaral DC (2011) Roadmapping for technology push and partnership: A contribution for open
innovation environments. Technovation 31:320
-
335 There are several tools in the literature that support
innovation in organizations. Some of the most
cited are the so
-
called technology roadmapping methods, also
known as TRM. However, these methods are designed primarily for organizations that adopt the market pull
strategy of technology
-
product integration. Organizations that adopt the technology push i
ntegration strategy
are neglected in the literature. Furthermore, with the advent of open innovation, it is possible to note the
need to consider the adoption of partnerships in the innovation process. Thus, this study proposes a method
of technology roadm
apping, identified as method for technology push (MTP), applicable to organizations
that adopt the technology push integration strategy, such as SMEs and independent research centers in an
open
-
innovation environment. The method was developed through actio
n
-
research and was assessed from
two analytical standpoints: externally, via a specific literature review on its theoretical contributions, and
internally, through the analysis of potential users' perceptions on the feasibility of applying MTP. The
results

indicate both the unique character of the method and its perceived implementation feasibility. Future
research is suggested in order to validate the method in different types of organizations


Candi M, Saemundsson RJ (2011) Exploring the Relationship Betw
een Aesthetic Design as an Element of
New Service Development and Performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:536
-
557 The
purpose of this research is to investigate the conditions under which the use of aesthetic design as an
element of ne
w service development is likely to improve performance
-
more specifically, to empirically
examine how aesthetic design can contribute to competitive advantage, resistance to imitation, and
profitability, and how these contributions are moderated by the proc
ess of commoditization. Based on
analysis of three rounds of longitudinal data collected one year apart in a population of new technology
-
based firms, the findings are that aesthetic design as an element of new service development can contribute
positively

to competitive advantage, resistance to imitation, and profitability, but that the effectiveness of
using aesthetic design to achieve these outcomes differs depending on the level of commoditization. Positive
relationships are found between the use of aes
thetic design and competitive advantage and profitability,
respectively, when the level of commoditization is high. Furthermore, the positive relationship between
aesthetic design and resistance to service imitation is stronger when the relative importance

of aesthetic
design in a firms' sector is low, that is, conditions under which aesthetic design is not already expected. This
research suggests that practitioners should consider using aesthetic design to counteract commoditization
when the markets in whi
ch they compete are characterized by ready access to services that meet customers'
needs and expectations for features, performance, and reliability, and expectations for aesthetic design have
not already become established. Furthermore, they should be awa
re that the use of aesthetic design may turn
into a baseline customer requirement, implying that while attention to aesthetic design is necessary to
compete it may cease to constitute a potential source of competitive advantage.


Cassimon D, Engelen PJ, Yo
rdanov V (2011) Compound real option valuation with phase
-
specific
volatility: A multi
-
phase mobile payments case study. Technovation 31:240
-
255 Multi
-
staged R&D
projects are copy
-
book cases of compound real options. Traditional compound option models
assume a
constant volatility over the lifetime of the project. Building on the n
-
fold compound option model of
Cassimon et al. (2004), we extend this model to allow for phase
-
specific volatility estimates, while
preserving the closed
-
form solution of the m
odel. We illustrate the extended model with a case study of a
real option valuation of a multi
-
stage software application project by a large mobile phone operator and we
show how project managers can estimate phase
-
specific volatilities.


Castellion

G (2011) The Innovation Manual: Integrated Strategies and Practical Tools for Bringing Value
Innovation to the Market. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:611
-
613


Cavagnoli D (2011) A conceptual framework for innovation: An application to hu
man resource management
policies in Australia. Innovation
-
Management Policy & Practice 13:111
-
125 This paper explores the
concept of innovation within the field of organizational innovation. The aim is to offer a theoretical
framework for human resourc
e management policies to extend their goal domains from labour productivity
and organizational flexibility, to include innovation. This paper argues for a change in the way strategic
organizational and staffing investments are made. Innovation requires the

input of innovative individuals.
Individuals learn within a frame of reference. In the workplace, individuals learn within the organizational
systems of rewards. Organizational innovation depends heavily on this frame of reference for fostering and
mainta
ining the innovative capacities of the firm. However, as habits can lead to innovation, habits can also
hinder innovation. This paper identifies this double
-
edged outcome. It seeks to provide the basis for a
theoretical framework that enables a link to be
drawn between management, innovation, workplace relations
and organizational practices.


Cerf VG, Euchner J (2011) The Future of the Internet: Implications for Managers an Interview with Vinton
G. Cerf. Research
-
Technology Management 54:15
-
21


Chavez
SMA (2011) Behavioural additionality in the context of regional innovation policy in Spain.
Innovation
-
Management Policy & Practice 13:95
-
110 This paper analyses the impact of R&D public
funding on the technological cooperation between manufacturing fi
rms in the period from 1998 to 2005.
Special attention is paid to the different levels of government
-
promoted innovation policies, and how these
differences in governmental decisions affect cooperation activities with different partners, universities or
te
chnological centres, customers and suppliers. Matching estimators are used to address endogeneity
problems, and the results show that regional subsidies are especially effective in fostering cooperation with
universities and technology centres in those fir
ms not currently engaged in R&D cooperation. On the other
hand, the results show that subsidies at a national level have a higher impact by stimulating cooperation with
universities and technology centres of those firms already engaged in R&D cooperation.


Chen J, Chen YF, Vanhaverbeke W (2011) The influence of scope, depth, and orientation of external
technology sources on the innovative performance of Chinese firms. Technovation 31:362
-
373 It is
commonly accepted nowadays that external knowledge sourc
es are important for firms' innovative
performance. However, it is still not clear, what dimensions of firms' external knowledge search strategy are
crucial in determining their innovation success and whether these search strategies are contingent on
diffe
rent innovation modes. In this study, we analyse how the innovative performance is affected by the
scope, depth, and orientation of firms' external search strategies. We apply this analysis to firms using STI
(science, technology and innovation) and DUI (d
oing, using and interacting) innovation modes. Based on a
survey among firms in China, we find that greater scope and depth of openness for both innovation modes
improves innovative performance indicating that open innovation is also relevant beyond scienc
e and
technology based innovation. Furthermore, we find that decreasing returns in external search strategies,
suggested by Laursen and Salter (2006), are not always present and are contingent on the innovation modes.
Next, we find that the type of externa
l partners (we label it "orientation of openness") is crucial in explaining
innovative performance and that firms using DUI or STI innovation modes have different sets of relevant
innovation partners. This shows that the orientation of openness is an impor
tant dimension
-
in addition to the
scope and depth of openness. As respondents are located in China, this study provides evidence that open
innovation is also relevant in developing countries.


Chen KH, Guan JC (2011) Mapping the innovation production proce
ss from accumulative advantage to
economic outcomes: A path modeling approach. Technovation 31:336
-
346 The research about the
innovation production process (IPP) is burgeoning. Our understanding of the interdependent interactions
between functionally d
istinct innovation activities during it from a systemic perspective is rather unclear,
yet, which is beneficial to empirical innovation management. This study, based on systems thinking,
presents a novel analytical framework to empirically and quantitative
ly map the IPP jointly associated with a
path modeling approach, which helps in untangling the interactive mechanism between stage
-
specific
innovation activities with distinct functions within an IPP from accumulative advantage to economic
outcomes. We use

the attractive analytical framework to guide an empirical investigation to the China's
high
-
tech industries' IPP at the macro
-
regional level. Our empirical study confirms the dominant role of
previous innovation capital accumulation in the whole IPP embed
ded into regional innovation systems of
China's high
-
tech industries. That is, we prove the existence of accumulative advantage phenomenon in the
regional IPP. The examination results show that there is a significant Matthew effect of technological
innovat
ion accumulation on technological innovation inputs as well as the Path dependence of technological
innovation outputs/outcomes on technological innovation accumulation. This indicates that the innovation
-
practitioners should promote innovation capital acc
umulation for sustainable innovations and economic
profits in a long time. At the same time, our findings suggest that, in order to alleviate the cross
-
regional
unbalance of innovation development and promote radial innovations in China's high
-
tech industr
ies, both
policy
-
makers and innovation
-
practitioners should try to get rid of the dependence on the previous
accumulated innovation capital.


Chesbrough H, Euchner J (2011) The Evolution of Open Innovation: an Interview with Henry Chesbrough.
Research
-
Tech
nology Management 54:13
-
18


Chesbrough H, Euchner J (2011) Open Services Innovation: an Interview with Henry Chesbrough.
Research
-
Technology Management 54:12
-
17


Chiaroni D, Chiesa V, Frattini F (2011) The Open Innovation Journey: How firms dynam
ically implement
the emerging innovation management paradigm. Technovation 31:34
-
43 Open Innovation is currently one
of the most debated topics in management literature. Nevertheless, there are still many unanswered
questions in Open Innovation researc
h. Especially two issues require further investigation: (i) understanding
the relevance of Open Innovation beyond high
-
tech industries and (ii) studying how firms implement Open
Innovation in practice. The paper addresses these topics by studying, through
an in
-
depth case study, the
journey that the Italian leading cement manufacturer, has undergone to move from a Closed to an Open
Innovation paradigm. The paper shows that the Open Innovation paradigm is implemented along a three
-
phase process that comprise
s the stages of unfreezing, moving and institutionalising. Moreover, it emerges
that the changes through which Open Innovation has been implemented involve four major dimensions, i.e.
networks, organisational structures, evaluation processes and knowledge
management systems. They should
be therefore conceived as the managerial and organisational levers an innovating firm can act upon to
streamline its journey toward Open Innovation. Theoretical and managerial implications of using these
levers for implement
ing Open Innovation are discussed at length.


Chidambaram R (2011) Research and Innovation: an Indian Perspective. Research
-
Technology Management
54:22
-
26 In the short term, in a developing country like India, the GDP growth rate is dependent more on
innovation capacity than on scientific strength. But if a high growth rate is to be sustained over a long
period, the country must also lay a strong foundation for basic research. The Office of the Principal
Scientific Adviser identifies programs in critic
al areas for technological self
-
reliance and develops initiatives
to fill the gaps in India's scientific and technological development scenario. Enhancing academia
-
industry
interactions to help make India globally competitive in various technology sectors
is essential. Attracting
talented young people to careers in science and technology and encouraging international collaborations are
also important focus areas.


Chiesa V, Frattini F (2011) Commercializing Technological Innovation: Learning from Failures i
n High
-
Tech Markets. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:437
-
454 Commercialization is known to be
a critical stage of the technological innovation process, mainly because of the high risks and costs that it
entails. Despite this, many scholars
consider it to be often the least well managed phase of the entire
innovation process, and there is ample empirical evidence corroborating this belief. In high
-
tech markets, the
difficulties encountered by firms in commercializing technological innovation
are exacerbated by the
volatility, interconnectedness, and proliferation of new technologies that characterize such markets. This is
clearly evinced by the abundance of new high
-
tech products that fail on the market chiefly due to poor
commercialization. Y
et there is no clear understanding, in management theory and practice, of how
commercialization decisions influence the market failure of new high
-
tech products. Drawing on research in
innovation management, diffusion of innovation, and marketing, this art
icle shows how commercialization
decisions can influence consumer acceptance of a new high
-
tech product in two major ways: (i) by affecting
the extent to which the players in the innovation's adoption network support the new product; (ii) by
affecting the
post
-
purchase attitude early adopters develop toward the innovation, and hence the type of
word
-
of
-
mouth (positive or negative) they disseminate among later adopters. Lack of support from the
adoption network is found to be an especially critical cause of
failure for systemic innovations, while a
negative post
-
purchase attitude of early adopters is a more significant determinant of market failure for
radical innovations. There follows a historical analysis of eight innovations launched on consumer high
-
tech

markets (Apple Newton, IBM PC
-
Junior, Tom Tom GO, Sony Walkman, 3DO Interactive Multiplayer,
Sony MiniDisc, Palm Pilot, and Nintendo NES), which illustrates how commercialization decisions (i.e.,
timing, targeting and positioning, inter
-
firm relationships
, product configuration, distribution, advertising,
and pricing) can determine lack of support from the innovation's adoption network and a negative post
-
purchase attitude of early adopters. The results of this work provide useful insights for improving th
e
commercialization decisions of product and marketing managers operating in high
-
technology markets,
helping them avoid errors that are precursors of market failure. It is also hoped the article will inform further
research aimed at identifying, theoretic
ally and empirically, other possible causes of poor customer
acceptance in high
-
tech markets.


Choi J (2011) Evolution of innovation focus of online games: from technology
-
oriented, through market
-
oriented, and to design
-
oriented soft innovation. Asian Jou
rnal of Technology Innovation 19:101
-
116
This paper aims at analysing the evolutionary innovation patterns of the online games industry in Korea.
Online games, as IT
-
based and creative service products, are important in the development trajectory of
Ko
rea, in that Korea created a new global leadership for the online games industry breaking the traditional
catch
-
up innovation pattern. Two research hypotheses are examined and accepted based on questionnaire
surveys and in
-
depth interviews. First, a quanti
tative analysis as to the hours of online game playing for 250
games over the last 19 months demonstrates that a few games dominate the online game market in Korea,
which implies network externalities in the online games industry. Second, from the perspect
ive of evolution,
the innovation focus of online games changes from technology
-
oriented, through market
-
oriented, and
finally to design
-
oriented soft innovation. This paper introduces network externalities as the reasons why
design
-
oriented (non
-
technologi
cal) soft innovation has become significant in online games over time. The
results of this study suggest managerial and policy implications. Online games companies are recommended
to expand the research and development (R&D) capabilities of non
-
technologic
al and soft innovation in
combination with those of technological innovation to improve strategic competitiveness. From the point of
innovation policies, the redefinition of R&D scopes is required as a pre
-
requisite step for diversifying the
government R&D

support into the areas of non
-
technological and soft innovation capabilities. The
government effort to grow human resources with a high level of creative capabilities relevant to soft
innovation also needs to be made.


Collins L (2011) 'Cambridge Phenomen
on' Hits Mid life Crisis. Research
-
Technology Management 54:5
-
6


Conn S (2011) The Future of Innovation. R & D Management 41:218
-
218


Cowlrick I, Hedner T, Wolf R, Olausson M, Klofsten

M (2011) Decision
-
making in the pharmaceutical
industry: analysis of entrepreneurial risk and attitude using uncertain information. R & D Management
41:321
-
336 The main purpose of this study was to investigate judgments made by employees from the
phar
maceutical industry and allied health
-
care sectors in a set of four different drug discovery and
development cases derived from real scenarios. Each case study related to go/no
-
go decisions taken from
various steps in drug discovery through preclinical and

clinical development (investigational new drug) on
to market introduction (new drug application) and treatment of the target population. Using a web
-
based
questionnaire, 52 respondents made five sets of judgment within each drug case whether to continue o
r halt
further project development. For each case, additional details of the developmental scenario were disclosed
to the respondent after completion of each judgment response. We also assessed to what extent the
individual judgments given by the responden
ts were influenced by work experience and functional role,
education, or their perceived entrepreneurial character. Our study demonstrates that health
-
care employees
differ substantially in their individual intuitive judgments of benefit and risk in go/no
-
go decisions during
the drug discovery and development process. This lack of coherence and wide variability with respect to the
drug development cases selected may reflect judgment in the real world. Such judgments are usually taken
from incomplete informa
tion, and individual decision
-
making rules vary substantially between experts in the
field. Further knowledge about this inherent human functional judgment variability may be helpful to form a
better understanding of individual decision
-
making in relation
to inherent uncertainties. Additional research
may also clarify how personal experience within drug discovery and development influences judgment and
help to optimize decision outcomes in the drug development sector. Importantly, a deeper insight of the
fu
ndamentals and rules that shape individual and group decision
-
making of everyday drug discovery and
development may help to optimize the decision processes in the pharmaceutical industry.


Creusen MEH (2011) Research Opportunities Related to Consumer Respo
nse to Product Design*. Journal
of Product Innovation Management 28:405
-
408 This essay identifies five research opportunities that
concern consumer response to product design. The first opportunity involves the need for more research on
the interaction

between form and function in consumer product evaluations. To this end, more knowledge
about how product appearance characteristics influence consumer evaluation of both product form and
function, and how this differs between countries and in time, is nee
ded. The second research opportunity
concerns the influence of consumer input in the front end of new product development on product success.
Although the positive effect of market information use on product success is known, more actionable insight
into w
hich consumer information or input is beneficial in which circumstances is largely missing. The third
opportunity for research concerns how to include subjective product attributes in concept testing. Getting
valid feedback from consumers, which includes f
unctional as well as emotional and experiential aspects, can
improve proficiency in the early stages of product development. In this essay, several ways of approaching
this research endeavor are highlighted. Next to enhancing market receipt and the assessm
ent of product
design, two topics that concern consumer response to product design from a more managerial viewpoint are
identified. The first of these is strategic management of product styling. The importance and opportunities of
visual design for brand m
anagement has gained more attention in the literature; different strategies and the
cases in which they are beneficial are issues for further research. And finally, the design of product service
systems (PSSs) provides opportunities for future research. He
re, engendering perceptual unity between
products and services and an explicit managing of meanings and feelings that PSSs should communicate are
issues at play.


Crews C (2011) Flash Foresight: How to See the Invisible and Do the Impossible. Research
-
Tech
nology
Management 54:63
-
64


Cruz
-
Gonzalez J, Amores
-
Salvado J (2011) Technological Innovation. An Intellectual Capital
-
Based View.
R & D Management 41:319
-
319


Dahl A, Lawrence J, Pierce J (2011) Building an Innovation Community. Research
-
Technol
ogy
Management 54:19
-
27 OVERVIEW: Companies are increasingly using social media and other
technologies to broaden the approach to idea generation and innovation both within and outside the walls of
the organization. However, managers can tend to focus
on installing the technology, rather than on
designing a socio
-
technical system that can meet the organization's goals and foster authentic participation.
In 2008, Pitney Bowes, a $5.4 billion provider of technology and services for mail and digital
commun
ications, initiated an effort to build an employee innovation community aimed at driving organic
growth and fostering a culture of innovation among its 30,000 employees around the globe. The Pitney
Bowes Employee Innovation Program team took a human
-
center
ed approach and used primary research and
co
-
creation with individuals across all levels. of the organizational hierarchy to design a program that both
met company objectives and satisfied a value proposition for managers and employees. The resulting
progr
am delivered measurable value inside of two years, as well as providing intangible benefits such as
employee engagement, improved internal processes, and increased customer satisfaction. The outcomes
illustrate the types of results managers can expect from

a thoughtfully designed and implemented innovation
community and the design principles and key success factors provide guidance to managers looking to
initiate a similar approach.


Dahl DW (2011) Clarity in Defining Product Design: Inspiring Research Oppo
rtunities for the Design
Process. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:425
-
427 The author argues that given the holistic,
cross
-
functional, and unique nature of the process of product design, more research is needed to understand
product design
teams. Specifically, future research should address internal processes cultivated within the
product design team, macro influences in the product design environment, and the definition of product
design team membership.


De Clercq D, Thongpapanl N, Dimov D

(2011) A Closer Look at Cross
-
Functional Collaboration and
Product Innovativeness: Contingency Effects of Structural and Relational Context. Journal of Product
Innovation Management 28:680
-
697 This study applies a contingency perspective to examine ho
w the
intra
-
organizational context influences the relationship between cross
-
functional collaboration and product
innovativeness. It focuses on the role of (1) formal, structural factors directly controllable by top
management decisions and (2) more intang
ible, relational factors as potential enhancements of the firm's
ability to convert cross
-
functional collaboration into product innovativeness. A study of 232 firms confirms
the hypotheses, finding that the relationship between cross
-
functional collaborati
on and product
innovativeness is stronger for higher levels of decision autonomy and shared responsibility (structural
context) and social interaction, trust, and goal congruence (relational context). In addition, a post
-
hoc
analysis using a configurationa
l approach to organizational contingencies reveals that organizations'
relational context is more potent than their structural context for converting cross
-
functional collaboration
into product innovativeness. The study's implications and future research d
irections are discussed.


Deevi SC (2011) Breaking Away: How Great Leaders Create Innovation That Drives Sustainable Growth
-
And Why Others Fail. Research
-
Technology Management 54:60
-
62


Deevi SC (2011) The Role of the Cto. Research
-
Technology Manageme
nt 54:9
-
10


Di Benedetto CA (2011) Untitled. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:618
-
618


Di Benedetto CA (2011) Untitled. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:436
-
436


Di Benedetto CA (2011) Special Issue on Product Design Re
search and Practice. Journal of Product
Innovation Management 28:320
-
320


Di Benedetto CA (2011) The Thomas P. Hustad Best Paper Award for 2009. Journal of Product Innovation
Management 28:146
-
147


Di Benedetto CA (2011) Untitled. Journal of Prod
uct Innovation Management 28:2
-
2


Duysters G, Lokshin

B (2011) Determinants of Alliance Portfolio Complexity and Its Effect on Innovative
Performance of Companies. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:570
-
585 Alliance formation is
often described as a mechanism used by firms to increase voluntary
knowledge transfers. Access to external
knowledge has been increasingly recognized as a main source of a firm's innovativeness. A phenomenon
that has recently emerged is alliance portfolio complexity. In line with recent studies this article develops a
mea
sure of portfolio complexity in technology partnerships in terms of diversity of elements of the alliance
portfolio with which a firm must interact. The analysis considers an alliance portfolio that includes different
partnership types (competitor, custome
r, supplier, and university and research center). So far factors that
determine portfolio complexity and its impact on technological performance of firms have remained largely
unexplored. This article examines firms' decisions to form alliance portfolios o
f foreign and domestic
partners by two groups of firms: innovators (firms that are successful in introducing new products to the
market), and imitators (firms that are successful at introducing products which are not new to the market).
This study also ass
esses a nonlinear impact of the portfolio complexity measure on firms' innovative
performance. The empirical models are estimated using data on more than 1800 firms from two consecutive
Community Innovation Surveys conducted in 1998 and 2000 in the Netherl
ands. The results suggest that
alliance portfolios of innovators are broader in terms of the different types of alliance partners as compared
to those of imitators. This finding underlines the importance of establishing a `` radar function'' of links to
va
rious different partners in accessing novel information. Specifically, the results indicate that foremost
innovators have a strong propensity to form portfolios consisting of international alliances. This underlines
the importance of this type of partnersh
ip in the face of the growing internationalization of R& D and global
technology sourcing. Being an innovator or imitator also increases the propensity to form a portfolio of
domestic alliances, relative to non
-
innovators; but this propensity is not strong
er for innovators. Innovators
appear to derive benefit from both intensive (exploitative) and broad (explorative) use of external
information sources. The former type of sourcing is more important for innovators, while the latter is more
important for imit
ators. Finally, alliance complexity is found to have an inverse U
-
shape relationship to
innovative performance. On the one hand, complexity facilitates learning and innovativeness; on the other
hand, each organization has a certain management capacity to d
eal with complexity which sets limits on the
amount of alliance portfolio complexity that can be managed within the firm. This clearly suggests that
firms face a certain cognitive limit in terms of the degree of complexity they can handle. Despite the note
d
advantages of an increasing level of alliance portfolio complexity firms will at a certain stage reach a
specific inflection point after which marginal costs of managing complexity are higher than the expected
benefits from this increased complexity.


Ei
senberg I (2011) Lead
-
User Research for Breakthrough Innovation. Research
-
Technology Management
54:50
-
58 The best companies often work closely with their customers to uncover needs and wants that
can be translated into new or improved product or servic
e offerings. The lead
-
user research method goes a
step further, looking not only to the typical customer but to those users whose needs and preferences lead the
market. These lead users, as they are called, will modify products or use them in unforeseen wa
ys to meet
their needs. The lead
-
user research method was developed as a systematic way to mine the insights and
innovations of these lead users. Since it was pioneered in the late 1990s, the lead
-
user method has evolved
and grown. This paper offers an upd
ate on the use of the method and on adaptations to increase its efficiency
using online search and communities as well as an overview of lessons learned from experiences on more
than 20 lead
-
user projects.


Engel JS (2011) Accelerating Corporate Innovation
: Lessons from the Venture Capital Model. Research
-
Technology Management 54:36
-
43 The last half century has seen the emergence of a new model of
business innovation featuring the convergence of entrepreneurs, rapid technological change, and venture
cap
ital. This combination has proven an effective force at realizing disruptive innovation that has often left
incumbents shattered in their wake. What can the mature enterprise learn from this venture capital model of
innovation management? What is the role
of the CTO in identifying and adopting these approaches? This
article investigates the ten leading strategies employed by venture capitalists and entrepreneurs to test new
ideas and commercialize innovations quickly. The most disruptive innovations are see
n to be those that go
beyond technical discovery to embrace business model innovations that disrupt supply chains,
disintermediate incumbents, and create new markets. This article presents the tools the modern CTO needs
to participate in this dynamic proce
ss.


Eppinger S (2011) The Fundamental Challenge of Product Design. Journal of Product Innovation
Management 28:399
-
400 Product design practice is an evolving art form. We have made tremendous
improvement in methods for and execution of the process in
recent years. Yet the challenge of
environmental sustainability of products is one area where design practice remains largely in the dark ages.
This essay argues that we need to embrace the imperative of design for environment and must evolve design
practi
ces to address this challenge.


Erickson LB (2011) Herding Cats: Being Advice to Aspiring Academic and Research Leaders. Research
-
Technology Management 54:62
-
63


Erickson LB (2011) Web 2.0 and Social Networking for the Enterprise. Research
-
Technology
Management
54:67
-
68


Esslinger H (2011) Sustainable Design: Beyond the Innovation
-
Driven Business Model. Journal of Product
Innovation Management 28:401
-
404 This essay discusses an evolving business model, the sustainability
-
driven business model,

that designers are especially well suited to implement and promote. Designers have a
responsibility to connect and coordinate human needs and dreams with new opportunities and inspirations
from science, technology, and business in order for products and t
heir usage to be culturally relevant,
economically productive, politically beneficial, and ecologically sustainable.


Ettlie JE, Rosenthal SR (2011) Service versus Manufacturing Innovation. Journal of Product Innovation
Management 28:285
-
299 This artic
le describes how service and manufacturing firms are different when it
comes to innovation, based on a survey of firms in both sectors. Overall, four of the five hypotheses
developed for comparative study of new offerings were supported by the analyses of
38 new products and
29 new services. First and foremost, there appear to be real differences between how manufacturing and
services approach the innovation process, primarily because of the way organizations formalize
development of new offerings in these
two sectors. Manufacturing is more likely to report the need for new
strategies and structures when products are new to the industry or new to the firm. However, services are
more likely to convert novelty into success. Services are significantly more like
ly to have a short beta testing
process and to exploit general manager (internally sourced) ideas for new offerings as an alternative to
formal innovation structures. However, manufacturing and services exhibit a similar tendency to exploit
customer (exter
nally sourced) ideas for new offerings. The potential contribution of this study is to point the
direction for future work in the nascent research stream of service innovation, highlighting areas where there
appear to be fundamental differences between the

innovation process in services and other sectors of the
economy. Key differences appear to be the alternative ways services formalize the innovative process, the
unique way services test customer concepts, and the combined role of general managers and pro
fessionals in
the development process. These differences have managerial implications. Working closely with customers,
service managers should proceed with their own unique approach to the innovative process, especially with
respect to prototyping and beta

testing. Senior managers in service organizations should participate in the
ideation process for successful new service offerings, as part of their strategy
-
making responsibilities.


Euchner J (2011) The Other Side of Innovation: Solving the Execution Cha
llenge. Research
-
Technology
Management 54:66
-
67


Euchner J, Christensen C (2011) Managing Disruption: an Interview with Clayton Christensen. Research
-
Technology Management 54:11
-
17


Euchner J, Henderson A (2011) The Practice of Innovation: Innova
tion as the Management of Constraints.
Research
-
Technology Management 54:47
-
54 Successful innovation requires the management of multiple
contexts: those of the customer the offering itself the business model for the offering, and the strategic aims
of
the hosting corporation. An approach to managing these contexts and the constraints they impose was
developed and implemented at Pitney Bowes. Although it is designed to manage multiple constraints, the
approach is based on a deep and continuing reliance o
n the customer for direction. In this paper the
constraint
-
driven process is discussed and examples of innovation based on the approach are reviewed.


Euchner JA (2011) Innovation's "Skilled Incompetence". Research
-
Technology Management 54:10
-
11


Euch
ner JA (2011) Innovation and Risk. Research
-
Technology Management 54:9
-
9


Euchner JA (2011) Innovation Puzzles. Research
-
Technology Management 54:9
-
10


Festel G, De Cleyn SH, Boutellier R, Braet J (2011) Optimizing the R&
D Process Using Spin
-
Outs: Case
Studies from the Pharmaceutical Industry. Research
-
Technology Management 54:32
-
41 OVERVIEW:
R&D spin
-
outs offer pharmaceutical companies an increasingly attractive mechanism for increasing the
effectiveness of R&D activi
ties by allowing companies to maintain a clear focus on core activities and yet
still exploit discoveries that are less central to the core business. This study analyzed 42 European R&D
spin
-
outs with regard to background, realization, and further developm
ent. Interviews were conducted with
key personnel in both parent companies and spin
-
outs to explore the underlying strategy and success factors.
Key aspects of successful spin
-
outs are a clear focus on core activities and a cadre of highly motivated
employ
ees. The use of spin
-
outs has resulted in increased activity along the entire pharmaceutical value
chain, producing an increase in drugs introduced to the market in recent years. However, spin
-
outs are also
responsible for the disintegration of established

value chains, resulting in higher coordination and
transaction costs. Spin
-
outs offer managers a potential option to refocus their activities and reduce costs. The
successful examples and potential pitfalls offered here illustrate best practices for manag
ing spin
-
outs to
maximize R&D productivity.


Figueiredo P (2011) The New Age of Innovation: Driving Cocreated Value through Global Networks.
Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:138
-
139 The New Age of Innovation: Driving Cocreated
Value through
Global Networks. Generation Blend: Managing across the Technology Age Gap Conquering
Innovation Fatigue: Overcoming the Barriers to Personal and Corporate Success.


Frey KL (2011) Generation Blend: Managing across the Technology Age Gap. Journal of Product

Innovation Management 28:139
-
141


Fuchs C, Schreier M (2011) Customer Empowerment in New Product Development. Journal of Product
Innovation Management 28:17
-
32 The traditional new product development (NPD) model, in which
companies are exclusivel
y responsible for coming up with new product ideas and for deciding which
products should ultimately be marketed, is increasingly being challenged by innovation management
academics and practitioners alike. In particular, many have advocated the idea of de
mocratizing innovation
by empowering customers to take a much more active stake in corporate NPD. This has become feasible
because the Internet now allows companies to build strong online communities through which they can
listen to and integrate thousands

of customers from all over the world. Extant research has provided strong
arguments that indicate that customer empowerment in NPD enables firms to develop better products and at
the same time to reduce costs and risks if customers in a given domain are w
illing and able to deliver
valuable input. Customer empowerment, however, not only affects the firm's internal NPD processes as
reflected in the products that are ultimately marketed. Instead, it might also affect the way companies are
perceived in the mar
ketplace (by customers who observe that companies foster customer empowerment in
NPD). This paper provides the first empirical study to explore how customers from the "periphery" (i.e., the
mass that does not participate) perceive customer empowerment stra
tegies. Customer empowerment in NPD
is conceptualized along two basic dimensions: (1) customer empowerment to create (ideas for) new product
designs; and (2) customer empowerment to select the product designs to be produced. Therefore, customers
may be emp
owered to submit (ideas for) new products (empowerment to create) or (2) to "vote" on which
products should ultimately be marketed (empowerment to select). In the course of two experimental studies
using three different product categories (T
-
shirts, furnit
ure, and bicycles) both customer empowerment
dimensions (as well as its interaction) are found to lead to (1) increased levels of perceived customer
orientation, (2) more favorable corporate attitudes, (3) and stronger behavioral intentions. These findings

will be very useful to researchers and managers interested in understanding the enduring consequences of
customer empowerment in NPD. Most importantly, the results suggest that empowerment strategies might
be used to improve a firm's corporate association
s as perceived by the broad mass of (potential) customers.
In particular, marketers might foster customer empowerment as an effective means of enhancing perceived
customer orientation. Customers will in turn provide rewards, as they will form more favorabl
e corporate
attitudes and will be more likely to choose the products of empowering as opposed to nonempowering
companies, ceteris paribus. Customer empowerment thus constitutes a promising positioning strategy that
managers can pursue to create a competiti
ve advantage in the marketplace.


Fuller J, Hutter K, Faullant R (2011) Why co
-
creation experience matters? Creative experience and its
impact on the quantity and quality of creative contributions. R & D Management 41:259
-
273 This article
introduces 'v
irtual design competitions' as a new means of opening up the innovation process and enriching
the companies, 'design
-
ideas' by utilizing the creativity of a multiplicity of external designers and enthused
consumers all over the world. The 'Swarovski Enligh
tened (TM) jewellery design competition', explored in
this study, demonstrates the enormous potential of virtual co
-
creation platforms. It further highlights the
importance of the co
-
creation experience and its impact on the quantity and quality of designs

submitted.
First, we introduce the idea of virtual co
-
creation platforms and the requirements on the design of such a
platform. Second, we explore the impact of the co
-
creation experience on the content contributed by
participants. Our study shows that co
-
creation experience significantly impacts the number of contributions
by consumers as well as the quality of submitted designs. Our paper contributes to a better theoretic
understanding of the impact of a participant's perceived autonomous, enjoyable, and

competent experience,
as well as participants' perceived sense of community on their experience. From a managerial perspective, it
provides guidance in designing successful idea and design competitions. While innovation managers may be
interested in creat
ive contributions, for participants, it is the experience which matters. Fully featured
community platforms rather than single idea submission websites are required to attract creative users to
submit their ideas and designs.


Gao XD (2011) Effective Strat
egies to Catch up in the Era of Globalization: Experiences of Local Chinese
Telecom Equipment Firms. Research
-
Technology Management 54:42
-
49 OVERVIEW: Firms in
emerging markets have traditionally followed one of two strategies to catch up with multinat
ional
enterprises (MNEs): developing customized products, services, or innovative business models or buying and
absorbing technology from MNEs. In the era of globalization, these strategies are no longer effective. The
new strategy to succeed is innovation
-
based differentiation, developing core technologies and advanced
product offerings that are delivered at a low cost and with excellent customer service. Using this strategy,
leading local firms are quickly catching up with MNEs in market development, tech
nology development, or
both.


Garcia R, Jager W (2011) From the Special Issue Editors: Agent
-
Based Modeling of Innovation Diffusion.
Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:148
-
151


Gobble M (2011) Intellectual Property Cases Reshaping Biotech. Re
search
-
Technology Management 54:5
-
6


Gobble MAM (2011) IRI Announces New Research
-
on
-
Research Working Groups. Research
-
Technology
Management 54:6
-
7


Goffin K, Koners U (2011) Tacit Knowledge, Lessons Learnt, and New Product Development. Journal o
f
Product Innovation Management 28:300
-
318 New product development (NPD) is a complex activity that
is dependent on knowledge and learning. Much of the knowledge generated in NPD is tacit; it is difficult to
express, connected with problem solving, and

dependent on the interactions within teams. Post
-
project
reviews (PPRs) are recognized as a highly effective mechanism for stimulating learning in NPD teams but,
surprisingly, neither the typical "lessons learnt" that emerge from PPRs nor the role of taci
t knowledge in
NPD learning have previously been studied. To address this gap, five in
-
depth case studies were conducted
at leading German companies. Three main sources of data were used: interviews with experienced NPD
personnel using repertory grid techn
ique, inspection of company process and project documentation, and
observations of PPR discussions. Systematic coding of the qualitative data was conducted by two
researchers working in parallel and verified through checks involving independent researchers
. The coding
process identified the lessons learnt and also the usage of metaphors and stories (which signifies tacit
knowledge generation). The lessons that NPD personnel perceive to be the most important were identified
from the repertory grid data. Thes
e included: knowing how to deal with project budgets, solving technical
problems, meeting schedules, resource management, and managing organizational complexity. Four lessons
learnt appear to be particularly closely linked to tacit knowledge: dealing with
project budgets, problem
solving, coping with time schedules, and coping with changes in product specifications. Data triangulation
showed that the five companies did not capture many lessons in their reports on PPRs. In addition, it appears
that the learn
ing that was related to tacit knowledge was not captured for dissemination. Although the results
from our exploratory sample cannot be generalized, there are some important implications. The results
indicate that R&D managers should capitalize on the tacit

knowledge within their organizations through
mentoring (to transfer the lessons that are most closely linked to tacit knowledge), and encouraging the use
of metaphors and stories to transfer key NPD knowledge. Future research needs to verify the results u
sing a
larger sample, focus on how NPD professionals learn, and identify the mechanisms that facilitate the transfer
of tacit knowledge and project
-
to
-
project learning. Tacit knowledge is a popular management concept but
one that is poorly understood, as e
mpirical evidence to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical concepts is
sadly lacking. This provides a unique opportunity for NPD scholars
-
they have the ideal arena in which a
deeper understanding of tacit knowledge can be generated.


Griffin A (2011)

Legitimizing Academic Research in Design: Lessons from Research on New Product
Development and Innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management 28:428
-
433 This article traces
how academic research in the domain of new product development and innov
ation has become "legitimized"
over the last several decades and makes three suggestions for how academics in the research domain of
design can pursue a similar legitimization process. Specifically, academics researching design issues should:
(1) partner w
ith a professional design association; (2) develop a high
-
quality peer
-
reviewed journal focusing
on design issues; and (3) organize an A
-
level association design special
-
interest group.


Guiltinan J (2011) Progress and Challenges in Product Line Pricing. J
ournal of Product Innovation
Management 28:744
-
756 In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in research on product line
pricing. Modelers in multiple disciplines have offered methods for the optimal design/selection and pricing
of the pro
ducts in new or modified product lines. Behavioral scientists have contributed insights on how
consumers' perceptions of product line prices, attributes, and quality levels influence their evaluation of the
alternative choices. Significantly, the work of b
oth modelers and behavioral scientists is distributed across
three types of product line contexts: price
-
quality product lines, multi
-
attribute product lines, and product
lines that include a core product plus options. This paper reviews this literature, a
nd assesses its usefulness
for managers. One observation is that, while scholars have developed approaches to optimization that offer
increased scope and tractability, the applicability of these models is constrained by the narrow specification
of profit f
unctions, and the limited consideration of competitive and other dynamic forces. A second
conclusion is that the managerial usefulness of the behavioral science research on perceptions and product
-
line choice has been limited by a dependence on attribute
-
b
ased estimation of utilities, uncertainty about
possible interaction effects, and an excessive focus on the cannibalization aspects of product line pricing.
Based on the review, a research agenda is identified for enhancing the applicability of research on

consumer
perceptions and choice to product line pricing decisions, and for building more complete product line price
optimization models.


Guimon J (2011) Policies to benefit from the globalization of corporate R&D: An exploratory study for EU
countries.
Technovation 31:77
-
86 This article explores how the globalization of corporate R&D has led to
the emergence of new policy strategies across the EU, involving a more proactive role of governments and a
closer connection between innovation policies and F
DI promotion policies. The first part presents an
analytical framework encompassing the main policy objectives and instruments at stake, which aims at
facilitating the design and evaluation of policies geared towards the globalization of corporate R&D. Bot
h
the policies to attract inward FDI in R&D and those towards R&D offshoring are addressed, as well as the
distinct policy implications of alternative entry modes. The second part provides evidence of the evolution
of European policies in response to the g
lobalization of corporate R&D, pointing out a set of country
-
specific examples and suggesting avenues for policy intervention at the EU level. Although the focus is on
the EU, this study may inform policy learning in other developed and developing countrie
s alike.


Guo B, Guo JJ (2011) Patterns of technological learning within the knowledge systems of industrial clusters
in emerging economies: Evidence from China. Technovation 31:87
-
104 Through an interview
-
based
exploratory study and a follow
-
up survey
-
based quantitative analysis, this paper investigates the
technological learning pattern in terms of structure and mechanisms of interaction within the knowledge
system of two industrial clusters in China. Unlike the recent studies that suggest that indust
rial cluster
comprises disconnected leader
-
centered communities, we argue that the different leader
-
centered
communities within the knowledge systems of industrial clusters are not disconnected from each other.
Instead, those communities are inter
-
connecte
d through the so
-
called 'knowledge spanning mechanisms'.
Regarding the interaction dimension of technological learning pattern, this paper argues that in analyzing
learning behavior in the knowledge networks of industrial clusters, it is necessary to synth
esize the learning
opportunity perspective and the absorptive capacity perspective to better understand and explain the
similarities and dissimilarities in technological learning behavior among different cluster types, across
cognitive subgroups, and betwe
en product innovation and process innovation. Our study reveals that in the
context of emerging countries, the following four factors are decisive for technological learning
opportunities inside the knowledge networks of industrial clusters: the underlying

complexity of technology
in clusters, the inter
-
connectedness between product and process, path dependency in knowledge searching,
and the incremental nature of a cluster's technological development.


Gwynne P (2011) A Different Approach to Drug Discovery. Research
-
Technology Management 54:5
-
6


Gwynne P (2011) Resuscitating the Rare Earths. Research
-
Technology Management 54:3
-
5


Gwynne P (2011) Can the US Ride Out The Gathering Storm? Research
-
Technology Management 54:3
-
5


Gwynne P (2011) Dealing with the Chinese Dragon. Research
-
Technology Management 54:2
-
3


Hammedi W, van Riel ACR, Sasovova Z (2011) Antecedents and Consequences of Reflexivity in New
Product Idea Screening. Journal o
f Product Innovation Management 28:662
-
679 Pre
-
development
activities, such as new product idea screening, are considered to play an important role in innovation
success. At the screening stage, a management team evaluates new product and service ideas

and makes a
first go/no
-
go decision under high levels of uncertainty and ambiguity. Paying more attention to the
decision
-
making process in the screening stage appears important because too rigorous a use of rigid
evaluation criteria and inflexible method
s have been shown to have an adverse effect on market performance
of novel products. The present study proposes and tests a model of team
-
level antecedents and consequences
of reflexivity
-
the explicit evaluation and discussion of working methods, tools, an
d criteria within a team.
Recently, researchers have proposed that cognitive style and leadership style are major antecedents of
decision
-
making performance. This study posits that reflexivity offers an explanation of how
transformational leadership and co
gnitive style can eventually affect decision