Information management - ASQ Groups

glazierhedgeManagement

Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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I
nformation
management


Information sources

Customer

The customer is a critical source of information, including requirements, personal identification
information, other demographic information, and feedback. Management of customer information,
including protection of critical records and confidential information, is an important consideration
-

and
is often regulated by industry standards or governing agencies.

[
The primary input for a sustaining system is the energy source
. For Service, the cu
stomer is the source
of all energy, money, and requirements. Customers may not be coherently aware of their final desires
regarding a service, but should be communicated with often to obtain information on:
](GS)



Perception of Service including:

o

Ability

to meet directly targeted outcomes

o

Ability to meet unanticipated Ancillary use

o

Alignment with Expectations



Use of Service including:

o

Timeliness / frequency of use

o

Whether service is self
-
prompting or should be delivered with a periodic
reminder

o

Ancillary
uses put forth by customer



Evolution of Service including:

o

How customer systems have changed, and how the service can be evolved

o

Whether another need has arisen which may threaten or enhance the service

o

Ancillary uses put forth by customer

Application



Active:

o

Surveys

o

Questionnaires

o

Interviews

o

Test Studies



Passive:

o

Social Trends (Yelp, etc.)

o

Sales Rates

o

Marketshare analysis


Supporting Information

References


Internal (performance information, processes, plans)

Internal information exists in a variety o
f forms and is generated in a variety of ways. Some examples
include procedures and work
instructions
, reference guides, process performance data, reporting and
analysis, associate performance evaluations and records, and day
-
to
-
day communications and
i
nformation generated (
e
-
mail, documents, completed forms, processing results
, etc.). Managing
information requires a level of review of what is important and to whom. Company policies regarding
information management are often documented in several ways

-

examples include record
management policies and procedures, e
-
mail protocol and limitations, and shared storage space
access and guidelines.


Application

Supporting Information

References


Customer relationship/information management

Accessibility,
reliability


Information management processes should ensure controls for both information security
(accessibility/availability) and content integrity (accuracy/reliability/preservation).

Application

User interface with appropriate security levels to con
trol access to d
ocuments
identified as confidential, strictly confidential, or internal use

Electronic document review and approval systems implemented as an

electronic
repository
system

to facilitate knowledge reuse
.

Technical and individual factors
interactions are considered to determine reuse of retrievable information.

Electronic signatures

Document repository maintenance; e.g., versions, archiving, obsolescence

Supporting Information

ISO 9000:2003

Section 4.2
.4

21 CFR Part 11



References

Tools

There are many tools available for information management, from entire "business process
management" data and workflow management systems, to
internally developed processes and
storage practices
. The commonality is
that tools are applied to manage information and access to it.
Examples of specific tool applications are databases to manage customer relations or to manage
information (procedures, reference materials) used to support services.

Application

Business process mining Contemporary information systems (e.g., WfM, ERP, CRM,
SCM, and B2B systems) record business events in so
-
called event logs. Business
process mining takes these logs to discover process, control, data, organizational,
and social str
uctures.

Supporting Information


References

Dijkman, R. , Dumas, M. , Van Dongen, B.

Similarity of business process models: Metrics and evaluation

(2011) Information Systems


Personally identifiable information (PII)

When managing customer
information, careful considerations should be made to protect personally
identifiable information (PII). Leaks not only represent major performance failures, but could also
present significant corporate risk. Access to PII should be protected via defined s
ecurity procedures,
with access limited to associates who require that information to perform their work. Associates with
access should be trained on the organization's security policies and processes, as well as on the
potential consequences of not protec
ting customer privacy.

Application

The HIPAA Privacy Rule establishes national standards to protect individuals’ medical
records and other personal health information and applies to
health plans, health care
clearinghouses, and those health care providers
that conduct certain health care
transactions electronically.


The Rule requires appropriate safeguards to protect the
privacy of personal health information, and sets limits and conditions on the uses and
disclosures that may be made of such informatio
n without patient authorization. The Rule
also gives patients rights over their health information, including rights to examine and
obtain a copy of their health records, and to request corrections.

The HIPAA Security Rule establishes national standards to

protect individuals’ electronic
personal health information

that is created, received, used, or maintained by a covered
entity. The Security Rule requires appropriate administrative, physical and technical
safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integri
ty, and security of electronic protected
health information.


HIPAA
mandates protection for patient information for
Medical Device Systems
that
are
off
-
the
-
shelf or custom hardware or software products used alone or in combination that
display unaltered
medical device data, or transfer, store or convert medical device data for
future use, in accordance with a preset specificatio
n. For example, devices that
collect and
store data from a blood pressure cuff for future use or that transfer thermometer readin
gs
to be displayed at a nursing station for future use.

Supporting Information


References

45 CFR
Part 160

and Subparts A and E of
Part 164

Reporting


Visibility


Reporting is often a stakeholder's means of gaining visibility into process performance. Reporting
requirements, therefore, should be developed with an understanding of specific
stakeholder roles and
their business needs. Poorly designed reporting can lead to significant gaps in information and
knowledge and other information availability and presents process management challenges.

Application

Use of p
rocedure to document the proc
ess used in formulating management

reports.

Styleguides developed with preformatted reports designed from requirement
gathering activities.

Requirements identification and collection tools and processes.

Supporting Information


A Work Instruction or proced
ure is developed that describes requirements for
reports used by management to support business decisions
.
Included in the
description are report types, page count, charts, graphs, and raw data requirements.
For example, the

reports
may
document the result
s of performance against
documen
ted metrics and
compliance with applicable statutes and regulations
.


References




NASA. Responsible Office: Code J/Office of Management Systems. Management
Report Preparation Process. April 28, 2000.

Types of reporting


As

reporting needs are determined, considerations should be made to understand how data can be
provided (frequency, actual or aggregate) and how the information will be used. A variety of report
types (scorecard, dashboard, exception report, etc.) will allow

information to be displayed in ways that
promote desired decisions and actions.

Application

Quality dashboards to support reviews of product and service quality

Business and management reviews for compliance



Supporting Information

Product and service
quality

metrics are periodically reviewed and saved as
evidence of meeting
ISO Standard requirements for

periodic management
review.

Reports covered by this OWI are prepared on a periodic basis


quarterly,

biannually, annually or less frequently. They c
an be in response to

external requirements from the Executive or Legislative Branches of the

Federal Government or other Federal Agencies or in response to internal

Agency requirements. This OWI does not cover ad hoc inquiries from an

outside governmental
body or other party.


References


Balanced scorecard


A service balanced scorecard (BSC) provides a "dashboard type" summary view of organizational
performance.
Traditional BSC categories include financial, customer, processes, and learning and
growth. Process performance in service often focuses on efficiency and can also often include critical
customer measures (e.g., service level performance
-

call handle time
, speed of answer, other
customer wait times).

Application

Service Scorecard framework that encompasses seven key elements of service
success: Growth, Leadership, Acceleration, Collaboration, Innovation, Execution,
and Retention (
GLACIER
).

Call Center

A part of the larger set of KPI’s, a Call Center balance scorecard has variables:

1. Cost per call, to evaluate the profitability of the
call center
. C
ost per call
must
be maintained
at
an
afforda
ble level, for

employees
to receive

fair

compensation
and
to

prevent

major

financial

losses.

2.
Reven
ue per successful call. C
all center
sales of

products or services
must be
optimized to generate revenue

at each call
.

3.
First resolution call. Such calls are called one and done. It

means that a caller
resolves
pr
oblems with just one call.

4. Customer satisfaction

5. Time on hold

6. Drop rate

Field Service

A field service balance score card implemented w
hen service organizations are
trying to impr
ove their day
-
to
-
day operations.

Initially,
business goals
identified

and the respective key performance indicators (KPIs) that help achieve those
goals

are defined
.

Typical field service KPIs could be categorized into 3 groups, namely: Productivity,
Customer Satisfaction and Total cost of ownership. Each group usually inc
ludes
many performance indicators (ex. Workforce value, Resources cost, Utilization,
Overtime ratio, Inventory levels, SLA quality, Missed SLA ratios, Customer
communication accuracy, First
-
time resolut
ion ratio, cost of change etc.
).


Supporting Informat
ion

Use
of
scorecards
by organizations is suggested
to complement Six Sigma, ISO
9000, CMMI, ITIL, or other organization
-
specific programs

References

Call Center Metrics.
How a call center operator generates revenue
.

October 3rd,
2010

Gupta, P.K. & Tyagi, R. K. (2008).
A Complete and Balanced Service Scorecard:
Creating Value Through

Sustained Performance Improvement
.

Hinenzon, A. (2011). Field Service Performance Management and the
Balanced

scorecard Framework

Information security

Key attributes


Information security is focused on protecting information confidentiality, integrity,
accessibility, and
preservation. In some cases, industry
-
specific standards define required controls and even
recommend processes for protection of these attributes. Security policies should also include
provisions for revoking access to personally identif
iable information (PII) when it is no longer required.



[
Secure information is information that may be retrieved in entirety, without damage to content
or container. This includes protection from:



Accidental or malicious deletions, in whole or part,



Acci
dental or malicious modifications, in whole or part,



Accidental or malicious relocations, in whole or part.
]


Application

Supporting Information

References


Encryption


A common process for maintaining information security and protecting sensitive data
that are
transferred between systems (intranet, e
-
commerce, mobile telephones, Bluetooth devices). It
involves a process of transforming information to make it unreadable to anyone except those
possessing special knowledge (or a "key"). Equally important t
o protecting the confidentiality of
information through encryption is the protection of the authenticity of information and the integrity of
the information decryption (making information "readable" again).

Application

Application encryption technologies;
for example, SSL solutions.


Supporting Information


References


Knowledge management


Organizations benefit from the definition of standard processes for capturing and retaining associate
artifacts and learning in a way that they can be accessed and re
ferenced by others as input for
continual improvement. Examples include capture of lessons learned, projects and their results,
process changes and their outcomes, presentation slide decks, articles, and analysis results.
Knowledge management adds context
to information to make it more valuable to an organization.
Knowledge management includes not only information, but an understanding of strategy, methods, or
application of that information to bring value.


Application

Change management


Supporting
Information

References