Electrical and Computer Engineering

gilamonsterbirdsElectronics - Devices

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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DEC 2003

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Jeff Frolik, Assistant Professor




DEC 2003

Outline


Where are electrical devices used?


Fields within Electrical Engineering


Exciting future for Electrical Engineers


Wireless Communications (in your lifetime)

DEC 2003

Where are Electrical Devices Used?


Home


Office


Medical


Military


Manufacturing


Power

DEC 2003

Home


Television


VCR


Remote Control


Antenna


Clock Radio


Audio Compact Disk


Home Computer


Electric Stove


MP3 Player


Electric Water Heater


Microwave Oven


Video Games

DEC 2003

Work Place


Desktop PC


Laptop PC


Copy/Fax Machine


Computer Network


Video Conferencing


Cellular Telephone


Supercomputers

DEC 2003

Medical


Ultrasonics


MRI Imaging


CAT scan


EKG


EEG


Digital Thermometers

DEC 2003

Military


Radar


Guided Missile


Smart Bomb


Aerospace Electronics


Autopilot/UAV


Infrared Imaging


Digital Image Processing


Satellite


Global Positioning System

DEC 2003

Manufacturing


Robotics


Inventory Control


Visual Inspection System


Electronic Instrumentation


Computer
-
controlled
Processes


Semiconductors


Electric Welding


Laser Cutting


Computer Integrated
Manufacturing


http://www.extremepumpkins.com/detsciencen.html

DEC 2003

Power Systems


Power Generator


Motor


Transformer


Transmission Line


Distribution System


Alternative Energy Sources

DEC 2003

Where are Electrical Devices Used?


EVERYWHERE!

DEC 2003

Fields within Electrical Engineering


Aerospace Electronics


Antennas


Broadcast Technology


Circuits and Systems


Communications


Computers


Consumer Electronics


Control Systems


Education


Electromagnetics


Industrial Electronics


Instrumentation

DEC 2003

More Fields within Electrical Engineering


Lasers


Magnetics


Microwave


Plasma Science


Power Electronics


Reliability


Robotics


Semiconductors


Signal Processing


Ultrasonics


Vehicular Technology

DEC 2003

Exciting Future for Electrical and Computer Engineers


High Definition TV


Superconductors


Smart Weapons


Supercomputers


Electric Cars


Micromotors


Sensing Computers


Virtual Reality


Microelectromechanical
Systems (MEMS)


Video Phones


Lasers


Clean Power Sources


Smart Cars


Smart Robots


Computer Vision

DEC 2003

Wireless Communications During Your Lifetime
(So Far!)





DEC 2003

Wireless Communication Systems: WHY?

Camel’s Hump School survey:

1.
Better what?

2.
Better what?

3.
Better what?

DEC 2003

Wireless Communication Systems: WHY?

Wired transmission media
-

wire/fiber


Wireless transmission media
-

air


Quick installation of infrastructure



e.g., straight to mobile in developing countries


User mobility




Shared access of channel (airwaves)




DEC 2003

Today’s Talk

WLAN

Your life (thus far)

DEC 2003

Frequency Spectrum

How is the “air” shared?


Different applications use different frequency
bands
:



AM radio:


530
-
1600 kHz


FM radio:


88
-
108 MHz


TV:


CH 2
-
13: 54
-
88 & 178
-
216 MHz





CH 14
-
83: 470
-
890 MHz


Cellular:


824
-
894 MHz


Cellular PCS:

1.8
-
2.0 GHz


Wi
-
Fi:


2.45
-
2.50 GHz, 5.725
-
5.875 GHz


DBS Satellite:

12.2
-
12.7 GHz


Note: the higher you go in frequency, the more “room” you have

Spectrum Analyzer

DEC 2003

Mobile Communications

Two
-
way Radio

1.
Pro

2.
Pro


3.
Con

4.
Con

Cell Phone

1.
Pro

2.
Pro


3.
Con

4.
Con


DEC 2003

1G Cellular Systems (1983)


“Advanced” Mobile Phone System (AMPS)


Limited coverage: few cell towers


Channelized analog system


What was wrong with it?



DEC 2003

1G Cellular Systems (1983)


“Advanced” Mobile Phone System (AMPS)


Limited coverage: few cell towers


Channelized analog system


What was wrong with it?


Hint: What is the biggest component in your cell phone?

DEC 2003

1G Cellular Systems (1983)


“Advanced” Mobile Phone System (AMPS)


Limited coverage: few cell towers


Channelized analog system


Question what was wrong with it?


Battery Killer


Few sites


further distance to transmit


Analog system


always sending a signal during call


DEC 2003

The Fix

Demand for service


Increased coverage area


Increase cell density


Advances in digital technology


2G systems (1993)


Digital systems compress and send “data” as available


Result: more efficient use of batteries


Less distance to send


Less time sending

DEC 2003

What’s next?

3G systems


Voice


Internet


Music


Video


Games


Images courtesy: Motorola

DEC 2003

What’s next?

3G systems


Voice


Internet


Music


Video


Games


Images courtesy: Motorola

Problem?

DEC 2003

What’s next?

3G systems


Voice


Internet


Music


Video


Games


Images courtesy: Motorola

Problem: more time on per
hour results in shorter battery
life

DEC 2003

Television Broadcasting


Terrestrial Broadcast TV


An analog system of limited range


Each channel occupies 6 MHz



Regular Cable: same technology, just over wire



Need for an alternative?


Cable not available everywhere


Cable had a “monopoly”


Analog system had a limited number of channel (82)

DEC 2003

Satellite Broadcast Television

HUB

Shaped pattern

22,400 miles

DEC 2003

Direct to Home Satellite TV (1986)

C
-
band (4 GHz)


6 foot dishes


Analog system


6 MHz channels


Few channels per satellite




Image: Dave’s Web Shop

DEC 2003

Direct to Home Satellite TV (1986)

C
-
band (4 GHz)


6 foot dishes


Analog system


6 MHz channels


Few channels per satellite




Image: Dave’s Web Shop

Problems?

DEC 2003

Direct to Home Satellite TV (1986)

C
-
band (4 GHz)


6 foot dishes


Analog system


6 MHz channels


Few channels per satellite




Image: Dave’s Web Shop

Problems:



cumbersome/expensive equipment



expensive hardware



limited channel selection

DEC 2003

DBS Receiver Technology


Ku
-
band (higher
frequency) enables small
receiving dish


Digital signal provides


CD quality sound


“Better” picture


Additional services


More channels:
“500!”

DEC 2003

DBS Summary


Promise of high
-
quality, nation
-
wide service obtained


DirecTV and Echo Star


Advantages


Easy to add new customers (database change)



Disadvantages


Large customer and venture investment up
-
front


No standard among providers


Compression can break down


Cable has caught up


Limited bandwidth, HDTV?



Rainfade (FL
-

high gain slope and rain rates)

DEC 2003

Satellite Radio (2002)


Two competing and incompatible systems: XM
and Sirius


Like Direct Broadcast Television in idea


Smaller antenna


No need to point



Coming next, Digital Radio in the AM and FM
bands.


Static free


Additional features (e.g., play list)

Image: Sony

DEC 2003

Iridium (1998)


Cell coverage around the world through a 66
satellite network


Low earth orbit: 485 miles


First phones were brick size/weight


Pricing is way too high (dollars/minute) for
general consumer


Land based systems in other countries built
out faster than expected


$4 B and company filed for
bankruptcy


Niche market for private planes, boats, artic
explorers and military



Lesson learned (probably not): Just because
you can do something, doesn’t mean you
should


Source: Iridium

DEC 2003

Wireless Networks (2000)

Laptop

Laptop

Laptop

Network

W
-
LAN

802.11 b (WI
-
FI)

Slave
-

PDA

Slave
-

Cell

Slave
-

Laptop

Master
-

Car

W
-
PAN

Bluetooth

DEC 2003

Bluetooth
-

PAN


In the office


In the car


Soda machine

DEC 2003

Coverage Area in Wireless




Source:
University of Kansas' Information &
Telecommunications Technology Center


and Kansas Applied Remote Sensing
Program


Not uniform in practice

DEC 2003

So what is happening now!

TODAY: 10 million users in the US check mail or surf the web wirelessly via mobile
phones or handheld computers



WLAN


802.11b (11 Mbps) and Bluetooth (720 kbps)



Satellite based systems


XM and Sirius digital radio


OnStar telematics



In building wireless


Your mobile phone becomes part of the company exchange inbuilding


Maintains regular mobile functions off
-
campus



THE FIELD IS MARKET DRIVEN!







DEC 2003


What is Next? Wireless Sensor Networks


Very sophisticated, low
-
cost and ubiquitous sensing
networks using many, broadly distributed sensors


NETWORK

3G, WLAN

DEC 2003

Very sophisticated,
low
-
cost

and ubiquitous sensing
networks using many, broadly distributed sensors


The system is sophisticated but the individual
components can be “dumb”


Wireless Sensor Networks


DEC 2003

Why is this an important area?

Industry

~90% of instrumentation costs deal with installation
(e.g., mounting and routing of cabling)


Military


Can sensor systems replace human sentinels and save
lives?


Environmental


In situ

sensing is more accurate than remote sensing

DEC 2003

Sample Wireless Sensor Application:

Smart Bobbers


Ubiquitous sensing of watershed
processes (e.g., chemicals,
hydrology and nutrients)


Fully integrated floating sensing,
processing and communicating
device


Information enables dynamic
modeling and adaptive
management of resources

Data Reception &
Sensor Fusion

Dynamic

Modeling

Adaptive
Management

Watershed

C

N

H

H

H

N

N

C

C

DEC 2003

DEC 2003

End Result:

Remote
Monitoring of
Spatial
-
Temporal
Data

http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/recenteqs/latest.htm

DEC 2003

Student Project
-

Hardware

DEC 2003

Math is Important!


FM modulation




















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cos(
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FM









CALCULUS


Power Series Expansion

DEC 2003

Communications is Important!


Engineers must be able to communicate their ideas


To their colleagues/clients


In written reports


In oral presentations

DEC 2003

Key Points


Electrical Engineers work in all aspects of society


In less than 20 years, wireless communications has become
nearly ubiquitous


Technology without a market is doomed to fail


Your math courses and communication skills form a key
foundation for electrical engineering



The future is up to you!