Configuration Performance Power Quality Cost Issues

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Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







1

Power Electronics Conditioners:


Configuration Performance Power Quality Cost Issues

Introductory Considerations

Paulo F. Ribeiro, BSEE, MBA, PHD, PE


CALVIN COLLEGE

Engineering Department

Grand Rapids, MI 49546


http://engr.calvin.edu/PRibeiro_WEBPAGE/

PRIBEIRO@CALVIN.EDU


P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







2



Power Quality issues are becoming more complex and
requiring additional considerations as more advanced
generation and load
-
controlled techniques and power
electronics conditioners are utilized.




This paper makes some initial considerations regarding
power electronics conditioners configurations, performance,
power quality, and cost issues. The paper reviews the possible
configurations and discusses a number of technical issues and
trade
-
offs resulting design optimization process for different
applications.

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







3

Power Electronics Conditioners


Configurations

Shunt

Series

Shunt
-

Series

Interface

Configurations


P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







4

I
dc
V
dc
DC Power
AC Power

I
dc
V
dc
DC Power
AC Power

Voltage Source Converter


Current Source Converter


Power Electronics Conditioners


Configurations

Converter

Topologies


P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







5

System bus
Converter
Sw itch ing
DC -AC
C
+
V
dc
s
Shun t Com pensa tion
System bus
V
T rans fo rme r leakage
induc tance
T rans fo rme r
o
X
V
I
Coup ling
C
+
V
dc
s
Converter
Sw itch ing
DC -AC
T rans fo rme r leakage
induc tance
T rans fo rme r
Coup ling
Se r ies Com pensa tion
o
X
V
I
V
V

Voltage Source Converter

Power Electronics Conditioners


Configurations

Preferred

Topology


P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







6

VSI
CSI
Natural
Forced
Synchronous
PWM
Hard
Soft
Two-Level
Multi-Level
SCR
GTO
IGBT
IGCT
????
System
Commutation
Approach
Switching
Technology
Transition
Approach
Circuit
Topology
Device
Type
Power Electronics Conditioners


Design Decision Tree

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







7

Power Electronics Conditioners

Performance Considerations

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







8

Electronic Loads Sensitivity


Reliability


FACTS

as

a

Power

Quality

Controller


FACTS

as

a

Power

Quality

Value

Added

Benefit


Advanced

FACTS

Devices

Can

Further

Improve

PQ

Control


Power

Quality

Compatibility

Issues


Power Electronics Conditioners

Power Quality Considerations

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







9

Power Electronics Conditioners

Power Quality Considerations

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







10

Power Electronics Conditioners

Cost Considerations

In

order

to

establish

a

realistic

cost

estimate

for

a

power

electronics

conditioner

system,

the

following

steps

are

suggested
:





identify

the

system

issue(s)

to

be

addressed
;




select

preliminary

conditioner

characteristics

(power,

voltage

and


current

requirements
;




model

s/

study

performance

in

response

to

system

demands

to


establish

effectiveness

of

the

device
;




optimize

system

specification

and

determine

system

cost
;




determine

utility

financial

benefits

from

conditioner
;




compare

conditioner’s

cost

and

utility

financial

benefits

to

determine


adequacy

of

utility’s

return

on

investment
.




P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







11

While each system shall be tailored to individual utility needs and
applications the target should be to minimize the costs on a per
kilowatt basis of the lowest cost generation units.


On a per unit active or reactive power basis, the new class of devices
will cost more than the costs for traditional devices, but will provide a
much higher performance which needs to be thoroughly evaluated.

Power Electronics Conditioners

Cost Considerations

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







12

Technology
Transmission Line
Transfer Enhancement
Cost Range
Operating principle
Procurement
Availability
Reconductor lines
Increase thermal capacity
$50K to $200K per
mile
Increases thermal limit for line
Competitive
Fixed or Switched Shunt
Reactors
Voltage reduction – Light
Load Management
$8-$12 kVAR
Compensates for capacitive var-
load
Competitive
Fixed or Switched Shunt
Capacitors
Voltage support and
stability
$8-$10 kVAR
Compensates for inductive var-
load
Competitive
Fixed or Switched Series
Capacitors
Power flow control,
Voltage support and
Stability
$12-$16 kVAR
Reduces inductive line
impedance
Competitive
Static VAR Compensators
Voltage support and
stability
$20-$45 kVAR
Compensates for inductive
and/or capacitive var-load
Competitive
Thyristor Controlled Series
Compensation (TCSC)
Power flow control,
Voltage support and
stability
$25-$50 kVAR
Reduces or increases inductive
line impedance
Limited
competition
STATCOM
Voltage support and
stability
$80-$100 kVAR
Compensates for inductive and
capacitive var-load
Limited
competition
STATCOM w/SMES
Voltage support and
stability
$150-$300 kW
Compensates for inductive
and/or capacitive var-load plus
energy storage for active power
Limited
Unified Power Flow
Controller (UPFC)
Power flow control,
Voltage support, and
Stability
$150-$200 kW
SVC and TCSC functions plus
phase angle control
Sole source
Unified Power Flow
Controller (UPFC) w/SMES
Power flow control
Voltage support and
Stability,
$250-$350 kW
SVC and TCSC functions plus
voltage regulator, phase angle
controller and energy storage
Sole source
Shaded area indicates technologies that are either permanently connected or switched on or off with mechanical switches. (i.e. these are
not continuously controllable)
Power Electronics Conditioners

Cost Considerations

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







13

Conclusions



In

the

design

optimization

process

for

specifying

power

conditioners

several

technical

and

cost

issues

need

to

be

considered
.

The

designer

has

overcome

several

technical

challenges

that

will

bring

about

adequate

performance

at

a

cost

competitive

with

other

technologies
.





It

should

be

noted

that

the

performance

of

power

conditioners

can

improved

by

the

utilization

of

new

topologies

and

technologies

and

the

use

of

energy

storage

to

its

capabilities
.




The the overall system dynamic performance improvement is
very dependent on the location where a compensator is
connected.




The next presentations will go into the details of some of the
generic observations made here.

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







14

8:20 am
-

P1
-

Introductory Considerations.
P.F. Ribeiro, USA

8:45 am
-

P2
-

Modeling Considerations of FACTS Devices.
L. A.
S. Pilotto, Brazil

9:10 am
-

P3
-

Power Quality Considerations on Shunt/Series
Current and Voltage Conditioners
-

E. H. Watanabe, M. Aredes,
Brazil

9:35 am
-

P4
-

Voltage Control Performance Enhancement by
Adding Energy Storage to Shunt Connected Voltage Source
Converters.
M. Steurer, S. Eckroad, USA

Session 16


Power Electronics Conditioners:


Configuration Performance Power Quality Cost Issues

P. Ribeiro

October, 2002







15

Session 17


FACTS, Power Compensation and Equipments

10:30 am
-

An Overview of Static VAR Compensators Technology
Evolution on a Brazilian Generation and Transmission Utility.
M. C. Lima, H. Tyll, C. S. Araújo, Brazil



10:55 am
-

A New Technique to Control Reactive Power
Oscillations Using STATCOM, T.
M.
L. de Assis, E. H. Watanabe, L. Alberto S. Pilotto, R. B. Sollero,
Brazil



11:20 am
-

Lecture 3


Advanced FACTS Devices and
Applications: Performance, Power Quality and Cost
Considerations,
P. Ribeiro, USA