Topic 4 – Genetics

giantsneckignoredBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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Topic 4


Genetics

Assessment for Topic 4.1 Chromosomes, genes, alleles and mutations


4.1.1


Describe the structure and makeup of eukaryote chromosomes.


4.1.2


Define gene, allele, and genome.


4.1.3


Define gene mutation.


4.1.4


Explain

the consequences of a base substitution mutation in relation to the processes of
transcription and translation, using the example of sickle
-
cell anemia.

(Details are important)


Topic 4.2 Meiosis Assessment Statements


4.2.1


Explain

how meiosis is a re
duction division of a diploid nucleus.


4.2.2


Define homologous chromosomes

and draw a picture to supplement your definition
.


4.2.3


Outline the process of meiosis, including pairing of homologous chromosomes and
crossing over, followed by two division
s which results in four haploid cells.


4.2.4


Explain

that non
-
disjunction can lead to changes in chromosome number, illustrated by
reference to Down syndrome (Trisomy 21).


4.2.5


Explain

the process of karyotyping including the type of cells used (whe
re they are
collected).


4.2.6


Explain

the purpose of karyotyping and the ethical issues associated with karyotyping.


4.2.7


Explain

how to a
nalyze a human karyotype to determine gender and whether non
-
disjunction has occurred.


Topic 4.3 Theoretical

Genetics Assessment Statements


4.3.1


Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, locus,
homozygous, heterozygous, carrier and test cross.


4.3.2


Determine the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a monoh
ybrid cross using a Punnett
grid.

The parent genotypes for this cross are: TT x tt with T = tall and t = short.


4.3.3


Explain

what is meant by multiple alleles and give an example.


4.3.4


Describe ABO blood groups as an example of codominance and mult
iple alleles.


4.3.5


Explain

how the sex chromosomes control gender by referring to the inheritance of X and Y
chromosomes in humans.


4.3.6


Give an explanation for genes being present on the X sex chromosome and not on the Y sex
chromosome.


4.3.7


D
efine sex link
-
age.


4.3.8


Describe the inheritance of color blindness and hemophilia as examples of sex linkage.


4.3.9


Describe how a female can be heterozygous or homozygous with respect to sex
-
linked genes.


4.3.10


Explain

that female carriers ar
e heterozygous for X
-
linked recessive alleles.


4.3.11


Predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of offspring of monohybrid crosses
for the
following problems:


A. Cross Tt x Tt (autosomal)


B. Cross RW x RW (assume Codominance) R=red and W=white


C.
Cross RW x RW (assume Incomplete dominance) R=red and W=white


D. Cross X
b
X x XY b=baldness


4.3.12


Deduce the genotypes and phenotypes of individuals in pedigree charts. This is a pedigree for
the inheritance of alkaptonuria. Does alkaptonuria appea
r to be caused by a dominant allele or by a
recessive allele? What genotypes are possible for each of the individuals?




Topic 4.4

Assessment Statements


Genetic Engineering and biotechnology


4.4.1


Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
to copy and amplify minute quantities of
DNA.


4.4.2


Describe how gel electrophoresis works.


4.4.3


Explain

how gel electrophoresis is used in DNA profiling.


4.4.4


Describe the application of DNA profiling to determine paternity and also in forensic

investigations.


4.4.5


Analyze DNA profiles to draw conclusions about paternity or forensic investigations.

The figure
below can be used for forensic investigation.



4.4.6


Outline three outcomes of the sequencing of the complete human genome.


4.4.
7


Outline why bacteria can be used to make human insulin for diabetics.


4.
4.8


Outline a basic technique
used for gene transfer involving plasmids, a host cell (bacterium),
restriction enzymes (endonucleases), and DNA ligase.


4.4.9


Describe two exam
ples of the uses of genetically modified crops or animals.


4.4.10


Discuss the potential benefits and possible harmful effects of one example of genetic
modification.


4.4.11


Define clone.


4.4.12


Outline a technique for cloning using differentiated
animal cells.


4.4.13


Discuss the ethical issues of therapeutic cloning in humans.