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geographertonguesAI and Robotics

Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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W
HAT

IS

ARTIFICIAL

INTELLIGENCE
?


Artificial

intelligence
,

analyzes the methods of
human thinking

and

like

artificial

attempts

to

develop

their

guidelines
.
One

point

of
view
,
may

seem

to

attempt

to

think

of a
computer
-
programmed

but
this

defines

the

present

rapidly

changing

and

may

develop

in
the

future

regardless

of
the

human

intellect

has a
new

orientations

toward

the

concept

of
artificial

intelligence
.


DEFINITION


According to an
idealized approach to
artificial intelligence
,
h
uman

intelligence is
unique, perception,
learning, connecting
multiple concepts,
thinking, ideas,
execution, problem
solving, higher cognitive
functions such as
communication, or
exhibit the expected
behavior of an artificial
autonomous operating
syst
em.



HISTORY


"Artificial intelligence"
concept as old as the
history of modern
computer science. The
idea is the father,
"machines can think?"
Mathison

Turing put
forward the question.
During

World

War

II,
Crypto

Analyses

was

needed

so

electromechanical

devices

manufactured

thus was born the
concept of computer
science and artificial
intelligence
.




DEVELOPMENT

PROCESS

1
The first research and artificial neural
networks

2
New
approaches


T
HE

FIRST

RESEARCH

AND

ARTIFICIAL

NEURAL

NETWORKS



Idealized definition of
artificial intelligence is
one of the first studies
was conducted by
McCulloch and Pitts.

This is suggested by the
researchers, using a
computational model of
artificial nerve cells,
propositional logic,
physiology and theory of
computation based on
Turing.





Identified as appropriate in this network
structures suggested that the ability to learn
could win.


Shannon and Turing in the 1950s to write
programs for computers chess.

The first artificial
neural network
-
based computer SNARC,
Minsky

at MIT in 1951 and was made by Edmonds.


Continues to work at Princeton University,
McCarthy,
Minsky
, along with Shannon and
Rochester in 1956, Dartmouth held a two
-
month
open trial.


At this meeting, along
with entering the
basis of many studies,
the most important
feature of the meeting
proposed by McCarthy
t
o evaluate the name
of
A
rtificial

I
ntelligence
.


NEW

APPROACH


Then Newell and Simon, developed the first
program produced according to the approach of
thinking like a human being.

Simon, then took
out


the hypothesis that physical symbol.

This
theory formed the starting point of those engaged
in the work of people making independent
intelligent systems.



Simon's the definition of artificial intelligence
approaches, two different scientists is important
because it indicates that the trend:

Symbolic

Artificial

Intelligence
,
Cybernetics

Artificial

Intelligence



A
PPROACHES

AND

CRITICISM



1.
Symbolic

artificial

intelligence



Simon's approach to symbolic logic
-
based studies
has been dominant in the next few years and a
number of programs to show the achievements
and problems in artificial worlds are used.



Later on, these problems do not represent in any
way in real life and artificial intelligence toy
accused of being the worlds only be successful in
these areas and suggested that it can not solve
problems in real life.




This is the most famous programs developed by
Weizenbaum

Eliza, opposite appears to be able to
chat with, just opposite the man was doing some
operations on sentence
s.


Similar approaches were used during the first
machine translation, but the results could not be
better.



2.

Cybernetics
,
artificial

intelligence



Artificial Neural Networks as Cybernetic fronts,
including work in the same situation. Basic
structures the work of many researchers stopped
the emergence of some important deficiencies.




E
XPERT

SYSTEMS


Each stream also
suffered two failures, to
solve every problem,
instead of general
-
purpose systems are
equipped with
information for a
particular field of
expertise to the
development of
programs that led to the
idea of using artificial
intelligence field, and
this again led to a
revival.



Expert systems developed a methodology called
as soon as possible. But here is a typical situation
is extremely common, with suggestions for a car
repair expert system program was that the car
does not know what business is doing. Despite
this, the first commercial applications of expert
systems has brought with it success. Artificial
intelligence came slowly become an industry.




N
ATURAL

LANGUAGE

PROCESSING



Anthropology of human intelligence with
advanced science reveal the link between the lay
language, artificial intelligence work conducted
in the same language again became important.


Human intelligence had never understood the
concepts directly.
S
upport

of people understood
the power of the language being thought. In this
way, concepts of the human mind with the
thought process is faster than the animal's brain.



Natural languages used
by people who
understand computers,
the study of
communication began to
accelerate.


First, the field of expert
systems was met with
interest.


Then, aroused interest
among those interested
in symbolic artificial
intelligence with.


Today, symbolic artificial intelligence researchers
can establish a connection between the data
using special artificial intelligence languages.


All of these developments and processes in a
group at the end of the artificial intelligence
researcher, who can think like a human being
will continue to explore systems, while the other
is a group of commercial value, and rational
decision
-
systems (expert systems) focused on.


T
HE

FUTURE

OF

ARTIFICIAL

INTELLIGENCE


Expected to unite all areas
of artificial intelligence
research in the future.


Cybernetics is an Artificial
Brain
-
modeled approach
,
s
imulated

the human mind
is a symbolic approach to
cognitive processes
,


flexible as the human mind
will

,
Expert
S
ystems

of
knowledge as a competent
and rational approach
.


With a balanced mix of
these, Artificial Intelligence,
in the future to create an
alternative to human
intelligence.

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