FOUNDATION OF CYBERNETICS

geographertonguesAI and Robotics

Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

154 views

FOUNDATION OF CYBERNETICS

1

Siddharth Deshpande


WHAT IS CYBERNETICS
?


Cybernetics began as the science of communication
and control in the animal, machine, and society; i.e.
special types of systems. It operates on two levels: study
of an observed system & study of the people studying a
system. Originated from R & D process in the
development of the atomic bomb
-

applied scientific
theory & principles in real
-
world setting.

2


CYBERNETICS


Cybernetics

is the interdisciplinary study of the
structure of regulatory systems.



Cybernetics is closely related to control theory
and systems theory



The term
cybernetics

stems from the Greek
κυβερνήτης (
kybernētēs
, steersman, governor,
pilot, or rudder


the same root as government).

3




CYBERNETICS



Cybernetics is preeminent when the system under
scrutiny is a closed loop system.



Cybernetics as the theory of control mechanisms in
technology and nature is founded on the concepts of
information and feedback, but as part of a general
theory of systems.

4



Cybernetics does not ask "what is this thing?" but "what does it
do?" and "what can it do?"



There was also



a return from the machine to the living organism, which
accelerated progress in neurology, perception, the mechanisms
of vision In the sixties MIT saw the extension of cybernetics and
system theory to industry, society, and ecology.


5


Theoretical
-
sciences of complexity
--
including AI, neural
networks, dynamical systems, chaos, and complex
adaptive systems.




Practical
-
Many of the concepts used by system
scientists come from the closely related approach of
cybernetics: information, control, feedback,
communication.


6

7

STEERING LOOP AS A
FEEDBACK

feedback

Detection of error

Comparing heading with
goals of reaching port

Adjust rudder to
correct heading


Correction of Error

Ships
Heading

8

AUTOMATION OF FEEDBACK

Thermostat

Heater

Temperature of Room Air

9

THE FEEDBACK LOOP

‘Cybernetics introduces for the first time


and not only by saying it, but methodologically


the notion of circularity, circular causal systems.’



Heinz von Foerster


PIONEERS


Three men can be regarded as the pioneers of great
breakthroughs (in cybernetics): the mathematician
NORBRT WEINER, who died in 1964, the
neurophysiologist WARREN McCULLOCH, who died in
1969; and JAY FORRESTER, professor at the Sloan
School of Management at MIT.

10

11

NOBERT WEINER

FOUNDER OF CYBERNETICS

12

CYBERNETIC EARLY USES


‘Cybernetics saves the souls, bodies, and material
possessions from the gravest dangers.’



Socrates according to Plato


‘The future science of government should be
called “la cybernetique.”’


André
-
Marie Ampere,
1843


‘Until recently, there was no existing word for
this complex of ideas, and…I felt constrained to
invent one....’



Norbert Wiener

APPROACH TO CYBERNETICS


If

a

true

cybernetic

approach

to

problem

solving

is

adopted



The

planner

must

first

define

his

goals

and

criteria

for

their

achievement

as

clearly

and

with

little

ambiguity



Modern

Cybernetics

has

attempted

to

understand

how

systems

describe

themselves,

control

themselves,

and

organize

themselves
.

13


EXAMPLES OF CYBERNETICS



An example of a cybernetic system is the home
furnace that responds via thermostatic control to
changes in temperature for the purpose of
maintaining a reasonably constant temperature in the
home.


In Automobiles the Automatic Cruise Control can also
be considered as example of Cybernetics.


14

15

ASIMO

A live example ASIMO the robot made by HONDA
Corp which uses Principles of Cybernetics.


DICK AND CAREY APPROACH



Dick & Carey shows evidence of an underlying
system and approach to instruction.



This model highlights the principle that is
applicable to solve any kind of problem.


The approach can be broken apart and each
part examined and it has a linear structure.

16


CONTD.


If we would uncover those general laws, we would be
able to analyze and solve problems in any domain,
pertaining to any type of system by following all D & C
steps


17


SCOPE OF CYBERNETICS


Explanation of communication =
psychology


Modeling of learning =
cognitive science


Limits of knowing =
epistemology


Hearer makes the meaning =
post
-
modernism


Reality as social construction =
constructivism


Reliable methodologies of describing =
science

18


Measuring understanding & agreement

=
science of subjectivity

=
second
-
order cybernetics


19


CYBERNETICS QUOTED

‘…communication and control in animal and machine’



Norbert Wiener

‘… the science of observing systems’



Heinz von Foerster

‘… the art of defensible metaphors’



Gordon Pask

‘… the study of the immaterial aspects of systems’



W. Ross Ashby

‘… only practiced in Russia and other under
-
developed countries

---

Marvin Minsky


20

REFERENCES

1.pespmc1.vub.ac.be/CYBSYSTH.html

2. link.springer.de/link/service/journals/0042

3. cyvision.if.sc.usp.br

4. www.evolutionaryethics.com

5.
www.xmission.com/~cyberman

6. Wikipedia.org

7. http://www.gwu.edu/~asc/asc
-
foundation.html






21







THANK YOU

22