Braitenberg Vehicles - ClassNet

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Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Braitenberg Vehicles

A little history…


Valentino Braitenberg (born 1926) is a
cyberneticist and former director at the
Max Planck Institute for Biological
Cybernetics in Tübingen, Germany.


Wrote “Vehicles: Experiments in
Synthetic Psychology”, where these
vehicles were designed

But what is a

‘Braitenberg Vehicle’?

A vehicle representing the simplest form of
behavior
-
based artificial intelligence

or
cognition

(i.e. intelligent behavior) :

a.
derived from sensor/motor interaction
between the device and its
environment,

b.
without any need for an internal
memory, representation of the
environment, or inference.


The basic setup..

Body

Light Sensor

Wheel/motor

Inhibitory Circuit

Excitatory Circuit

Non
-
motored wheels under here

To keep it standing

Definitions


Inhibitory circuit: when sensor gets
activated, motor slows down



Excitatory circuit: when sensor gets
activated, motor speeds up



Sensor is a light sensor, unless
otherwise noted

Vehicle 1: Alive

Demonstrates basic function of Braitenberg vehicle

Goes towards a light source in front of it

Vehicle 2: Cowardly

Demonstrates basic “fight or flight” instinct in animals

Turns away from light if one sensor is activated more than the other

If both are equal, light source is “attacked”

Vehicle 2b: Aggressive

If light source is placed near either sensor, vehicle will face it


and go toward it

Basically demonstrates territorial instincts

Vehicle 3: Loving

Will go until it finds a light source, then slow to a stop

If one side sees light, vehicle turns in the direction of light

Models love/adoration


--
Crossing circuits has a similar reaction

A little more complicated:

Vehicle 3c: Knowing

Red: Light Sensor

(photoresistor, photodiode)

Green: Temperature Sensor

(thermistor)

Blue: Organic Material Sensor

Grey: Oxygen Sensor

Repeats all our previous vehicles capabilities, with different senses

Turns towards light, doesn’t like heat, loves organic material, searches


for Oxygen

Performs the brain functions of some of the simplest living beings

Other types of vehicles


Vehicle 4b: all links both excitatory and
inhibitory but non
-
monotonic


Non
-
monotonic: motors do not increase
and decrease speed linearly (e.g. may
go (fastest
-
slowest
-
slowest
-
fastest in
speed)


Other vehicles can be found:

http://instruct.westvalley.edu/lafave/Vehi
cles_online.html

Moral of the Story


“Law of Uphill Analysis and Downhill
Invention”:
machines are easy to
understand if you’re creating them; much
harder to understand ‘from the outside’.


if we don’t know the internal structure of
a machine, we tend to
overestimate

its
complexity.

Most information was taken from


http://instruct.westvalley.edu/lafave/Vehi
cles_online.html