A Brief History of Family Therapy - Psychology and Child Development

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Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Historical Context

Freud


Implicit family influence

Jung


Wholeness


Synthesis of opposites

Adler


Behavior in context


Family structure


Really did a lot of family
therapy

Sullivan


Personality inseparable
from interpersonal


Therapist as a part of
this (not “observer”)

Fromm
-
Reichman


Extended Sullivan


Schizophrenic Family
Therapy


“Schizophrenogenic
Mother” (1948)

Allport


Acknowledged
social/contextual nature

Lewin


Field Theory

Dewey and Bentley


Context


Relation of
observer/observed

Cybernetics (1940's)

Physics

Organization, patterns, processes


vs. matter, material, and content

Feedback mechanisms


Communication

WWII

Interdisciplinary approach

Man and machine
together

(as a
system)

Teleology
-

purposive behavior

Gregory Bateson (40's & 50's)

Anthropologist

Translated language of “science” into
social science and communication terms

Translated psychology into
communication terms

Gregory Bateson (2)

Communication Theory


Paradox


Logical types


Levels of communication


Conflicted levels


Schizophrenia


Schizophrenogenic mothers (communication)


Double
-
bind hypothesis


Key concept is that psychopathology is interpersonal, not
intrapsychic

Post WWII

Zeitgeist


Faith in science


Cybernetics (physics)


Systems theory (biology)

Lots of Support for Research


Think tank


Exploration/experimentation

Major Players and Ideas

Ackerman
-

“Grandfather of Family Tx”


Child and Mother


Role relationships

Bowen


Mother/child symbiosis


Hospitalized BOTH!


Then whole families

Whitaker


“Atheoretical” (very unorthodox)


“Experiencing with families”


Conference where local families brought in and demos done




The Stage Is Set

Previous thoughts and thinkers set
stage for formal articulation of theories

Paradigm Shift (60's)


Kuhn: Scientific Revolution


From People to “Schools”

Golden Years (‘70
-
85)

Centers

“Masters”

Separation

MRI (not really a school at
first)

Major players cycled through MRI


Bateson, Satir, Haley, Weakland, Jackson,
Fisch, others

Legitimized family therapy

Communication approaches

Strategic Family Therapy

Brief Treatment Program

Psychodynamic

Bowen

Boszormenyi
-
Nagy

Ackerman

Experiential/Existential

Whitaker (atheoretical)

Kempler (Gestalt)

Satir (humanistic) (warmest,
“feelingest”)

Structural School

Salvador Minuchin


Male juvenile delinquents


inner city, low income, ghetto

Structural family therapy

Strategic

Jay Haley

Milan Group


Milan Italy


Strategic approach, with a twist


Palazzoli, Boscolo, others

Additional Schools

Communications


MRI


Satir

Behavioral and Cognitive
-
Behavioral

Post Golden Years (1985
-

?)

Critiques

Social Constructionism

Integration


Pluralism


Theoretical Integration


Technical/Systematic Eclecticism

Sociology of Psychology

Fragmented ideas

Coming together of ideas

Unique Coherent Theory

Separation and Differentiation

Absorption

Multidisciplinary

Anthropology

Counseling

Demography

Economics

Education

History

Home Economics

Human Development

Law

Psychoanalysis

Psychology

Public Health

Religion

Social Work

Sociology