Dept. of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering ...

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Oct 26, 2013 (4 years and 17 days ago)

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III B.Tech
(cse
-
b)

I

Semester








Student Handbook

For

Data Communication and Computer Networks






Faculty:

Mr.P.Anjai
ah







Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



2



UNIT I

Syllabus:

Data communications and networking,network models,protocols and standards,the
OSI model,TCP/IP protocol suite,Addressing, data and signals,digital
transmission,,analog transmission,

Objectives:




To understand the basic conce
pts of

various topologies and models




To understand the

TCP/IP protocol suites




To understand the
the digital and analog signals

Lecture plan:

S.No.

Topic

No. of
L
ectures

1

Data communications and networking

1

2

network models, protocols and standards

2

3

the OSI model

2

4

TCP/IP protocol suite ,Addressing

1

5

data and signals

1

6

digital transmission

1

7

analog transmission,

1


TOTAL

9


Important Questions:

1.

What are some of the factors that determine whether a communication system is

a

L
AN or WAN?

2.

What is an internet? What is the Internet?

3. Why are protocols needed?

4. Why are standards needed?

5.How do the layers of the Internet model correlate
to the layers of the OSI model?


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



3



6.. What does the Nyquist theorem have to do with communi
cations?

7. What does the Shannon capacity have to do with communications

8.
E
xplain


a) Define the characteristics of a self
-
synchronizing signal.


b) List five line coding schemes discussed in this book.


c) Define block coding and give it
s purpose.



d) Define scrambling and give its purpose.

Assignment Questions:

1.

For each of the following four networks, discuss the consequences if a
connection fails.


a. Five devices arranged in a mesh topology


b. Five devices arranged in a star
topology (not counting the hub)


c. Five devices arranged in a bus topology


d. Five devices arranged in a ring topology

2.
What are the responsibilities of the various layers in OSI model?

3. What does the amplitude of a signal measure? What does the fre
quency of a
signal


measure? What does the phase of a signal measure?

4. How can a composite signal be decomposed into its individual frequencies?

5. Which characteristics of an analog signal are changed to represent the digital
signal


in each of th
e following digital
-
to
-
analog conversion?


a. ASK


b. FSK


c. PSK

d. QAM

CASE STUDY:



1. How to use the OSI Model to Troubleshoot

Networks
?



2.
G
ive a case study on one organization’s computer networks




Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



4



1.

What is the bit rate for high
-
definition TV (HDTV
) in

real
time?

2.

Suppose a computer sends a packet at the network layer to another
computer

somewhere in the Internet. The logical destination address of
the packet is
corrupted. What

happens to the packet? How can the source
computer be informed of

the sit
uation?







UNIT II

Syllabus:


Band width utilization ,transmission media,switching,telephone and cable
networks for data transmission,digital subscriber line,cable TV networks,cable TV
FOR Data transfer.

Obje
ctives:



To understand

bandwidth of channels



To understand cable TV networks



To understand
digital subscriber line

Lecture plan:


Topic

No. of
lectures

1

Band width utilization

1

2

transmission media


1

3

switching

2

4

telephone and cable networ
ks for data
transmission

1

5

digital subscriber line

1


7


cable TV FOR Data transfer.


1


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



5




TOTAL

7



Important questions

1. a
)Distinguish between multilevel TDM, multiple slot TDM, and pulse
-
stuffed
TDM.



b) Distinguish

between synchronous and stati
stical TDM.

2. a
). Define spread spectrum and its goal. List the two spread spectrum techniques
discussed


in this chapter.


b). Define FHSS and explain how it achieves bandwidth spreading.


c). Define
DSSS
and explain how it achieves bandwidth spreadi
ng.

3
.

Name the two major categories of transmission media. How do guided m
edia
differ from


Unguided

media
and what

are the thre
e major classes of guided media?

What
is the
significance?



Of

the

twisting in twisted
-
pair cable?

4. What are the

two approaches to packet
-
switching? Compare and contrast a
circuit
-
switched


Network

and a packet
-
switched
network.

5. What is DSL technology? What are the services provided by the telephone
companies?


Using

DSL? Distinguish between a DSL modem

and a DSLAM.

Assignments:


1. a) Distinguish between multilevel TDM, multiple slot TDM, and pulse
-
stuffed
TDM.


b) Distinguish between synchronous and statistical TDM.

2. What is the purpose of cladding in an optical fiber? Name the advantages of
opti
cal fiber over

twisted
-
pair and coaxial cable.

Case Study:

1.

Give a case study on private cable networks

?




Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



6



UNIT III

Syllabus:

Error detection and correction
,CRC, Data link control,framing,flow and error
control,point point protocol,HDLC,Multiple Acces
s And Random Access,ALOHA
and controlled Access

Objectives:



To understand the various error detection techniques



To understand
various point to point protocols




To understand the
various multiple access methods



Lecture plan

S.No

Topic

No. of
lectures

1

Error detection and correction


1

2

CRC

1

3

Data link control,framing

1

4

flow and error control

1

5

point point protocol

1

6

HDLC

1

7

Multiple Access And Random Access

1


ALOHA and controlled Access


1



7


Important Questions:


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



7



1. How does a
single
-
bit error differ from a burst error? Discuss the concept of
redundancy in error detection and correction and Distinguish between forward
error corrections versus error correction by retransmission.
?


2. Compare and contrast the Go
-
Back
-
NARQ Prot
ocol with Selective
-
Repeat

ARQ. And Compare and contrast HDLC with PPP. Which one is byte
-
oriented;
which one is bit
-
oriented?


3. Explain why collision is an issue in a random access protocol but not in
controlled

access or channelizing protocols. Comp
are and contrast a random access
protocol with a controlled access protocol. Compare and contrast a random access
protocol with a channelizing protocol.




Assignment:

1. In

CRC, show the relationship between the following entities (size means the
number

of bits):



a. The size of the
data word

and the size of the codeword



b. The size of the divisor and the remainder




c. The degree of the polynomial generator and the size of the divisor



d. The degree of the polynomial generator and the size

of the remainder

2.Which of the following CRC generators guarantee the detection of a single bit
error?


a.
x3
+
x
+ 1


b.
x
4
+
xl


c.
1


d.
x
2
+ 1

3.

Explain the reason for moving from the Stop
-
and
-
Wait ARQ Protocol to the
00Back
-

NARQ Protocol.


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



8



4. Compa
re and contrast a controlled access protocol with a channelizing
protocol.
and


Do we need

multiple access protocol when we use the 1ocalloop of the
telephone company to access the Internet? Why?


Case Study:

1.

Why does a circuit
-
switched network need end
-
to
-
end addressing during the
setup and teardown phases? Why are no addresses needed during the data
transfer phase for this type of network



UNIT
-
IV

Syllabus:

Connecting LANs,Backbone networks vrs virtual LANs,
connecting
devices,Backbonenetworks,cellulartelephony,satellitenetworks,SONET/SDH,Sonet
Networks,Virtual Circuit Networks,

,And ATM,ATM LANS.

Objectives:

To understand the
Backbone networks,


To understand
the virtual networks
.

To understand about SONET,

ATM LANs

Lecture plan

S.No

Topic

No. of
lectures


C
onnecting
LANs,

1


Backbone networks vrs virtual
LANs

1


Cellular

telephony

1


connecting
devices,Backbonenetworks

1


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



9




SONET/SDH,Sonet Networks,

1


Virtual Circuit Networks

1


Frame Relay Networks

1


ATM,ATM LANS.


1



8


Important Questions:

1.

What are the common Standard Ethernet implementations? What are the
common Fast


Ethernet implementations? What are the common Gigabit Ethernet
implementations?


and What are the common

Ten
-
Gigabit Ethernet implementations
?

2.

What is the difference between a BSS and an ESS? Discuss the three types
of mobility in a

wireless LAN and How is OFDM different from FDM?


3.

What is the relationship between D
-
AMPS and A
MPS? What is GSM? What
is the

function of the CDMA in IS
-
95?

4.

What is the relationship between SONET and SDH? What is the relationship
between


STS and STM ?

5.

Briefly describe the issues involved in using ATM technology in LANs.

Assignment:

1.


What are the common Standard Ethernet impleme
ntations? What are the
common Fast Ethernet implementations? What are the common Gigabit
Ethernet implementations?


and What are the common Ten
-
Gigabit Ethernet
implementations?

2.

Compare and contrast
CSMAlCD
with
CSMAICA.


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



10



3.

How does a VLAN save a company ti
me and money? How does a VLAN
provide extra

security for a network? How does a VLAN reduce network traffic? What is
the basis for membership in a VLAN?


4.

What is the function of a SONET regenerator? What are the four SONET
layers? Discuss

the functions of

each SONET layer?

Case Study
:


1.

When we have an overseas telephone conversation, we sometimes
experience a delay. Can you explain the reason?

2.

Can you explain why the vulnerable time in ALOHA depends on
Tpf'
but in
CSMA depends on
T
p?

3.


In analyzing ALOHA, w
e use only one parameter, time; in analyzing
CSMA, we use two parameters, space and time. Can you explain the reason


UNIT
-
V

Syllabus:

Network layer,logical addressing,
IP
v4,IPv6,Addresses, internetworking ,internet
protocol,ICMP,IGMP,ICMPV6,Network layer d
elivery,forwarding and Routing

Unicast routing protocols, multicast routing protocols
.

Objectives
:

To understand about
logical addresing

To understand about
various networking protocols

Lecture plan

S.No

Topic

No. of
lectures

1

Network layer,logical
addr
essing,
IP
v4,IPv6,Addresses

1


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



11



2

internetworking ,internet protocol,

1

3

ICMP,IGMP,ICMPV6

1

4

Network layer
delivery,forwarding and Routing

1

5

Unicast routing protocols,

1

6

multicast routing protocols

2



7


Important Questions:

1.

What is dotted deci
mal notation in IPv4 addressing? What is the number of
bytesin an IPv4 address represented in dotted decimal notation? What is
hexadecimal notation in IPv6 addressing? What is the number of digits in an
IPv6 address represented in hexadecimal notation?

2.

De
fine fragmentation and explain why the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols need to
fragment

some packets. Is there any difference between the two protocols in
this matter?


3.

Why is there a restriction on the generation of an ICMPv4 message in
response toa failed ICMPv4

error message? What is the purpose of including
the IPv4 header and the first 8 bytes of datagram data in the error
-
reporting
ICMPv4 messages?

4.

What is the basis of classification for the four types of links defined by
OSPF? Why do OSPF messages propagate
faster than RIP messages? What
is the purpose of BGP?

Assignment:


1.
What is the address space in each of the following systems?


a. A system with 8
-
bit addresses


b. A system with 16
-
bit addresses


c. A system with 64
-
bit addresses

2. Chang
e the following IP addresses from dotted
-
decimal notation to binary
notation.


a. 114.34.2.8


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



12




b. 129.14.6.8


c. 208.34.54.12


d. 238.34.2.1

3. Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to dotted
-
decimal
notation.


a. 01111111 11110000 01100111

01111101


b. 10101111 11000000 11111000 00011101


c. 11011111 10110000 00011111 01011101


d. 11101111 11110111 11000111 00011101

4. Find the class of the following IP addresses.


a. 208.34.54.12


b. 238.34.2.1


c. 114.34.2.8


d. 129.14.6.8

5. Find the cla
ss of the following IP addresses.


a. 11110111 11110011 10000111 11011101


b. 10101111 11000000 11110000 00011101


c. 11011111 10110000 00011111 01011101


d. 11101111 11110111 11000111 00011101

6. Find the netid and the hostid of the following IP addresses
.



a. 114.34.2.8


b. 132.56.8.6


c. 208.34.54.12


CASE STUDY:

1.

What is the maximum number of simultaneous calls in each cell in
a
n

15
-
136(D
-
AMPS) system, assuming no analog control channels?


2.

Find out why there are two security protoc
ols (AH and ESP)
in
IPv6.







Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



13




UNIT
-
VI

Syllabus:

Transport layer: process

to

process
delivery,UDP,TCP,and SCTP,
Congestion
Control,And
Quality of service
,techniques to improve QOS,integrated
services,Different
ial services,Qos In Switched .

Objectives:



To
understand
the transport layer services



To know
various protocols of transport layer



To know

how to achieve Quality of service

Lecture plan

S.No

Topic

No. of
lectures

1

Transport layer: process



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2

3

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1

4

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2


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1



8






Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



14



Important Questions

1.

Compare the TCP header and the UDP header. List
the fields in the TCP header


that are missing from UDP header. Give the reason for their absence.


2. UDP is a message
-
oriented protocol. TCP is a byte
-
oriented protocol. If an



application

needs to protect the boundaries of its message, which
protocol


should be used, UDP or TCP?
1.
Explain the significance of dual signature in


SET?

3
.
The following is a dump of a UDP header in hexadecimal format.


0632000DOO lCE217


a. What is the source port number?


b. What is the destination port num
ber?


c. What is the total length of the user datagram?


d. What is the length of the data?


e. Is the packet directed from a client to a server or vice versa?


f. What is the client process?

4
. An IP datagram is carrying a TCP segment destined for address

130.14.16.17/16. The

destination port address is corrupted, and it arrives at
destination 130.14.16.19/16.

How does the receiving TCP react to this error?


Assignment:


1. How are congestion control and quality of service related?

What is a traffic
descri
ptor?

2
. What is the relationship between the average data rate and the peak data rate?

3
. What is the definition of bursty data? What is the difference between open
-
loop
congestion control and closed
-
loop

congestion control?

4
. Name the policies that can
prevent congestion. Name the mechanisms that can
alleviate congestion.

5
. What determines the sender window size in TCP?


How does Frame Relay
control congestion?

6.
What attributes can be used to describe a flow of data? What are four general
techniques to

improve quality of service?





Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



15



Case study:

1. Find more information about ICANN. What was it called before its name was
changed?

2
. TCP uses a transition state diagram to handle sending and receiving segments.

Find out about this diagram and how it handle
s flow and control.

3. SCTP uses a transition state diagram to handle sending and receiving segments.

Find out about this diagram and how it handles flow and control.


UNIT
-
VII

Syllabus:

Domain Name space, distribut
ion of namespace, DNS messages, types of records,
registers,DDNS,Remote Logging,Email,Telnet and file Transfer



Objectives:



To know about Network Management Architecture



To understand about various versions of SNMP



To know about SNMP message formats

Lectu
re plan:

S.No

Topic

No. of lectures

1

Domain Name space

1

2

distribution of namespace

2

3

Intrusion Detection Systems

1

4

DNS messages, types of
records

1

5

DDNS

1


Remote Logging,Email

1


Telnet and file Transfer

1


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



16





8


Important Questions:

1.


What

is an advantage of a hierarchical name space over a flat name space
for a system

the size of the Internet?


2. What is the difference between a primary server and a secondary server?


3. What are the three domains of the domain name space?



4. What is the difference between local and remote log
-
in in TELNET? How

are control and data characters distinguished in NVT? How are options

negotiated in TELNET? Describe the addressing system used by SMTP.In

electronic mail, what are the tasks of a
user

agent? In

electronic mail,


what is MIME?

Assignment:

1.

What is an FQDN? What is a PQDN? What is a zone? How does caching
increase the Efficiency of name resolution?

What are the two main

categories of DNS messages?Why was there a need for D
DNS?

2.

Determine which of the following is an FQDN and which is a PQDN.


a. xxx


b. xxx.yyy.





c. xxx.yyy.net




d. zzz.yyy.xxx.edu.


3. Determine which of the following is an FQDN and which is a PQDN.



a. mil.



b.

edu.



c. xxx.yyy.net



d. zzz.yyy.xxx.edu

Case Study
:

1.

In SMTP, show the connection termination phase from aaa@xxx.com to
bbb@yyy.com.

2.

What do you think would happen if the control connection were accidentally
severed


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



17




during an FTP transfer
?





UNIT
-
VIII

Syllabus:

WWW and HTTP,
Network Management:SNMP, multimedia,Digitizing audio and
vedio,streaming line audio / video,real time interactive audio/vedio,VOIP.

Objectives:



To
know about
Applica
tion Layer Protocols



To understand
Audio and video concepts

Lecture Plan:

S.No

Topic

No. of
lectures

1

WWW and HTTP

2

2

Network
Management:SNMP

2

3

multimedia,Digitizing audio
and vedio

2


streaming line audio / video

1


real time interactive
audio/ve
dio

1


VOIP.

1



9


Important Questions:


Dept
.

of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group of Institutions



18



1.

How is HTTP related to WWW? How is HTTP similar to SMTP? How is
HTTP similar to
FTP?

What is a URL and what are its components? What
is a proxy server and how is it related to HTTP?

2.

Show the effect of the follow
ing HTML segment.

The publisher of this book is <A HREF="www.mhhe">

McGraw
-
Hill Publisher
<fA>


3.
What is the purpose of RTSP in streaming stored audio/video?




How does jitter affect real
-
time audio/video? Discuss how SIP is used in the



Transmission

of multimedia?


3.

When would you use JPEG? When would you use MPEG? In JPEG, what is
the function of

blocking?


Why is the DCT needed in JPEG?


Assignment:


1
. Decode the following.


a. 02 04 01 02 14 32


b. 30060201 11 0201 14


c. 300
904034143420202 14 14


d. 30 OA 40 04 2351 6271 0202 14 12

2. Find the meaning of the source description items used in the RTCP source description


packet. Specifically, find the meaning of CNAME, NAME, EMAIL, PHONE, LOC,


TOOL, NOTE, and PRIY.

CA
SE STUDY:

1.

length Find the format of an RTCP bye message. Pay particular attention to
the packet and the parts repeated for each source. Give case study