M I N I S T R Y O F E D U C A T I O N , S C I E N C E A N D S P O R T S

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M I N I S T R Y O F E D U C A T I O N , S C I E N C E A N D S P O R T S

Republic of Ghana

TEACHING SYLLABUS FOR BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

(SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 2
-
4)

Enquiries and comments on this s yllabus should be addressed to:

The Director

Curriculum Research and Development Division (CRDD)

Ghana Education Service

P. O. Box 2739

Accra

Ghana

Tel: 021
-
683668

021
-
683651

September 2008


TEACHING SYLLABUS FOR BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

RATIONALE

A Business enterprise is an organization for managing resources to satisfy human needs and wants. A healthy

economy and an i mpr oved s t andar d of l i vi ng

depend on ef f i ci ent and pur pos ef ul management of r es our ces f or t he pr oduct i on of goods and s er vi ces. Wi t hout an ef f i ci ent ma
nagement s ys t em, no or gani zat i on

can achi eve any meani ngf ul gr owt h t o be abl e t o cont r i but e f i nanci al l y and s oci al l y t o i t
s owner ( s ), s t af f and t o t he nat i on i n gener al. One of t he maj or goal s of

Ghana s economi c devel opment i s t o i mpr ove t he management capabi l i t y t owar ds t he i mpr ovement of t he s t andar d of l i vi

ng of i t s peopl e.

The cour s e i n bus i nes s management wi l l

hel p t o devel op a bus i nes s management cul t ur e, whi ch i s vi t al f or pr omot i ng economi c devel opment. I t i s al s o i nt ended

t o acquai nt s t udent s wi t h knowl edge of pr i nci pl es and pr ocedur es i n bus i nes s, and s ki l l s t hat ar e neces s ar y f or

a s uc ce
s s f ul bus i nes s car eer. The cour s e wi l l

f ur t her l e ad t o t he ac qui s i t i on of at t i t udes t hat ar e ne ces s ar y f or s ucces s i n moder n bus i nes s pr act i c e.

GENERAL AI MS

Thi s s yl l abus i s des i gne d t o hel p s t udent s t o:

1. r ecogni ze t he ma i n f unct i onal ar e as
of bus i ne s s ma na ge me nt.

2. a cqui r e bas i c pr i nci pl e s a nd t ec hni ques f or ma na gi ng a pr of i t a bl e bus i nes s ent er pr i s e.

3. de vel op s ki l l s f or s ol vi ng bus i nes s pr obl e ms a nd mi ni mi zi ng bus i nes s r i s ks.

4. a cqui r e t he ca pabi l i t y f or de vel opi ng s ound f i nanci al ba s
i s f or bus i ne s s.

5. de vel op a ppr opr i at e at t i t udes a nd t he ne ces s ar y et hi c s f or moder n bus i nes s.

6. de vel op t he c apa bi l i t y f or gene r at i ng i dea s f or t he cr e at i on of ne w bus i nes s.

7. de vel op i nt er es t i n bus i nes s as a car e er opt i on.

SCOPE OF CONTENT

The cont ent of t hi s c our s e ha s been de s i gned i n s uch a wa y t hat i t wi l l of f er enough knowl e dge and s ki l l s t o s
t ude nt s t er mi nat i ng t hei r educat i on at t he end of

s eni or hi gh s c hool t o ma na ge bus i nes s e s e f f i ci e nt l y. I t al s o of f e r s ade qua
t e f oundat i on f or t hos e who wi l l pur s ue f ur t her e ducat i on i n Bus i nes s.

.

The cont e nt of t he s yl l abus i s cat e gor i ze d under t en s ect i ons as f ol l ows:

1. Nat ur e of mana ge me nt

2. Funct i ons of Mana ge ment

3. Mana ge me nt I nf or mat i on Tec hnol ogy

4. Le gal Envi r onment of Bus i nes s

5. Fi na nce a nd Fi nanci al I ns t i t ut i ons

6. Rol e of Gover nment i n t he Ec onomy

7. I nt er nat i onal Tr ade and Pr obl e ms of De vel opi ng Economi e s

8. Gl obal i zat i on a nd Economi c I nt e gr at i on

9. Ent r epr e ne ur s hi p and Sma l l Bus i nes s

10. Funct i ona l Ar ea s of Ma na ge ment.

ii


PRE
-
REQUISITE SKILLS AND ALLIED SUBJECTS

The study of Business Management requires sound k nowledge in English Language and Mathematics. Other subjects
which will help in the e
ffective study of

Business Management include Environmental Studies, Citizenship Education and Social Studies (at the Basic Educa
tion level). Students offering business

management should have credit in English Language, Mathematics
, and Integrated Science at the JHS level. Students offering this course are advised to take

Financial Accounting and Cost Accounting or Typewriting and Clerical Office Duties and one or two of the elective subjects un
der the Business programme.

ORGANIZATION OF THE SYLLABUS

The Sections of the syllabus are sub
-
divided into U

nits. The Sections and Units for the three years course are as follows:

iii


BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 2

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 3

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 4

TERM ONE

TERM ONE

TERM ONE

SECTION 1: NATURE OF MANAGEMENT

SECTION 1: LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF

SECTION 1: GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC

BUSINESS

INTEGRATION

Unit 1:

Forms of Business Organization

Unit 1:

Law of Contract

Unit 1: Globalization

Unit 2: Meaning and Process of Management

Unit 2: Principles of Agenc y

Unit 2: Ec onomic Integration

Unit 3:

Business and Society

Unit 3: Negotiable Instruments

SECTION 2: FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT I

SECTION 2: FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF

MANAGEMENT I

Unit 1:

Planning

Unit 1:

Elements of

Human Resource Management

Unit 2: Labour Relations

Unit 3: Fundamentals of Production Management

TERM TWO

TERM TWO

TERM TWO

SECTION 1: FUNCTIONS OF

SECTION
1: FINANCE AND FINANCIAL

SECTION 1: FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF

MANAGEMENT II

INSTITUTIONS

MANAGEMENT II

Unit 1: Decision
-
making

Unit 1:

Money

Unit 1: Principles of Marketing Management

Unit 2: Organizing

Unit 2: Banking

Unit 2: Business Finance

Unit 3: Delegation

Unit 3: Insurance and Risk Management

Unit 4: Directing

Unit 4: Stock Exchange

TERM THREE

TERM THREE

TERM THREE

SECTION 1: FUNCTIONS OF

SECTION 1: ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN

SECTION 1: ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND

MANAGEMENT III

ECONOMY

SMALL BUSINESS

Unit 1: Communication

Unit 1:

Entrepreneurship

Unit 2: Controlling

Unit 1:

Government Revenue

Unit 2: Small Business

Unit 2: Government Expenditure

SECTION 2: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGIES

SECTION 2: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND

Unit 1: Information Search Skills

PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPING

Unit 2: Computers in Business

ECONOMIES

Unit 1:

International Trade

Unit 2: Developing Economies and International

Trade

iv


TIME ALLOCATION

Business Management is allocated 6 periods of 40 minutes each per week. The number of periods may have to

be s uppl ement ed wi t h ext r a t i me i n or der t o

adequat el y cover t he s cope of t he s ubj ect.

SUGGESTI ONS FOR TEACHI NG THE SYLLAB
US

This syllabus has been planned to incorporate principles and processes of Business Management. To promote effective teaching

it is advised that schools adopt

the team teaching approach. In addition, the teacher must read this part of the
syllabus very carefully to understand fully the way and manner the s yllabus is

expected to be used.

General Objectives

: General Objectives have been listed at the beginning of each Section. The general objectives are a summary of the s
pecific objectives of

the various units contained in that Section. Read the general objectives very carefully before
you start teaching the sectio n. After teaching all the units of the

section, go back and read the general objectives again to be sure you have covered the objectives adequately in the course of

your teaching.

Sections and Units

: The syllabu
s has been planned on the basis of Sections and Units. Each year s work is divided into sections. A section c

onsists of a fairly

homogeneous body of knowledge within the subject. Within each section are units. A unit consists of a more relate
d and homogeneous body of knowledge and

skills.

The s yllabus is structured in five columns: Units, Specific Objectives, Content, Teaching and Learning Activities and
Evaluation. A description of the contents of

each column is as follows:



Column 1

Units

: The units in Column 1 are divisions of the major topics of the section. You are expected to follow the unit topics accor
ding to the linear order

in which they have been presented. However, if you find at some point that tea
ching and learning in your class will be more effective if you moved to another

specific objective in the unit or to another unit c ompletely before coming back to the next specific object
iv e or unit in the appropriate sequence, you are

encouraged to do so.

Column 2



Specific Objectives

: Column 2 show
s the Specific Objectives for each unit. The specific objectives begin with numbers such as 1.3.5 or 2.2.1.

e referred to as “Syllabus Reference Numbers”. The first digit in the syllabus reference number refers to the section
; the s

The
se numbers ar

econd digit refers to

the unit, while the third digit refers to the rank order of the specific objective. For instanc e, 1.3.5 means Sec tion
1, Unit 3 (of Section 1) and Specific Objective 5.

In other words, 1.3.5 refers to Specific Objective 5 of Unit 3 of Section 1.

Similarly, the syllabus reference number 2.1.1 means Specific Objective 1 of Unit 1 of Section 2. Using s y
llabus reference numbers provides an easy way fo
r

communication among educ ators. It further provides an easy way of selecting objectives for test construction. For insta
nce, Unit 1 of Section 2 has eight specific



objectives: 2.1.1

2.1.8. A teacher may want to base his/her test items/questions

on objectives 2.1.3 and 2.1.4 and not use the other six objectives. In this way,

the teacher would sample the objectives within units and within sections to be able to develop a test that accurately

reflects the importance of the various skills

taught in class.

You will note also that specific objectives have been stated in terms of the student i.e., what the student will be able to
do after instruction and learning in the unit.

Each specific objective hence starts with

the following, “The
student will be able to…” This in effect, means that you have to address the learning problems of

each individual student. It means individualizing your instruction as much as pos sible so that the majority of students wil
l be able to ma
ster the objectives of each

unit of the syllabus.

v


Column 3



Content

: The “content” in the third column of the syllabus presents a selected body of information that you will need to us e in te
a

ching the particular

unit. In s ome cases, the content presented is quite exhaustive. In other cases, you could add more information to the cont
ent presented.



Column 4

Teaching and Learning Activities (T/LA)

:

T/LA activities that will ensure maximum student participation in the lessons are presented in column 4.

Avoid rote learning and drill
-
oriented methods and rather emphasize participatory teaching and learning. Also emphasize the cognitive, affective a
nd psychomotor

domains of knowledge in your instructional s ystem wherever appropriate. You are encouraged to re
-
order the sugges ted teaching and learning activities and also

add to them where necessary in order to achieve optimum student learnin
g. As we have implied already, the major purpose of teac hing and learning is to make

students able to apply their knowledge in dealing with issues both in and out of school.

A suggestion that wi
ll help your students acquire the habit of analytical thinking and the capacity for applying their k nowledge to problems
is to begin each lesson

with a practical problem. Select a practical problem for each lesson. The selection must be made suc
h that students can use knowledge gained in the previous

lesson and other types of information not specifically taught in class. At the beginning of a lesson, stat
e the problem, or write the problem on the board. Let

students
analyze the problem, suggest solutions, etc., criticize solutions offered, justify solutions and evaluate the wort
h of possible solutions . There may be a

number of units where you need to re
-
order specific objectives to achieve require
d learning effects.



Column 5

Evaluation

: Suggestions and exercises for evaluating the lessons of each unit are indicated in Column 5. Evaluation exercises can be

i n t he f or m of

or al ques t i ons, qui zzes, cl as s as s i gnment s, es s ays, s t r uct ur ed ques t i ons, pr oj ect wor k, et c. Tr y t o as k ques t i ons and s et t a
s ks and as s i gnment s t hat wi l l chal l enge

your s t udent s t o appl y t hei r knowl edge t o i s s ues and pr obl ems and engage t hem
i n devel opi ng s ol ut i ons and pos i t i ve at t i t udes t owar ds t he s ubj ect. The

s ugges t ed eval uat i on t as ks ar e not exhaus t i ve. You ar e encour aged t o devel op ot her cr eat i ve eval uat i on t as ks

t o ens ur e t hat s t udent s have mas t er ed t h
e

i ns t r uct i on and behavi our i mpl i ed i n t he s peci f i c obj ect i ves of each uni t.

Las t l y, bear i n mi nd t hat t he s yl l abus cannot be t aken as a s ubs t i t ut e f or l es s on pl ans . I t i s, t her ef or e, neces s a
r y t hat you devel op a s cheme of wor k and l es s on

pl
ans for teaching the units of this syllabus.

Profile Dimensions

A central aspect of this syllabus is th

e concept of profile dimensions that should be the basis for instruction and assessment. A „dimension is a psychological u
n

it

ive such as follows: “The student will

for describing a particular learning behaviour. More than one dimension constitutes a profile of dimensions. A specific obj
ect

be able to describe…” etc., contains an action verb “describe” that indicates

what the student will be able to do after teach

ing has taken place. Being able to

“describe” something after the instruction has been completed means that the student has acquired “knowledge”.

Bei ng abl e t o expl ai n, s um
mar i ze, gi ve

exampl es, et c. means t hat t he s t udent has under s t ood t he l es s on t aught. Si mi l ar l y, bei ng abl e t o devel op, pl an, cons t r uct, e

t c. means t hat t he s t udent can “appl y”

“act i on ver b” t hat des c r i bes t he

t he knowl edge acqui r
ed i n s ome new cont ext. You wi l l not e t hat each of t he s peci f i c obj ect i ves i n t hi s s yl l abus cont ai ns an

behavi our t he s t udent wi l l be abl e t o demons t r at e af t er t he i ns t r uct i on. “Knowl edge”., “Appl i cat i on”. et c., ar e di mens i ons t
hat s ho
ul d be t he pr i me f ocus of t eac hi ng

and l ear ni ng i n s chool s. I ns t r uct i on i n mos t cas es has t ended t o s t r es s knowl edge acqui s i t i on t o t he det r i ment of ot her hi gh
er l evel behavi our s s uch as appl i cat i on,

anal ys i s, et c. W

e ar e t her ef or e i nt er es t ed i n t hi s
s yl l abus t o move away f r om t he s i mpl e di dact i c acqui s i t i on of “knowl edge” t o a new pos i t i o

n wher e s t udent s wi l l

be abl e t o appl y t hei r knowl edge, devel op anal yt i cal t hi nk i ng s ki l l s, s ynt hes i ze i nf or mat i on, and us e t hei r
knowl edge i n a var i et y of ways t o deal wi t h l ear ni ng

pr obl ems and i s s ues i n t hei r l i ves. We ar e i nt er es t ed mos t
of al l, t o pr oduce pr obl em
-
s ol vi ng per s ons and pr act i cal l y or i ent ed per s ons t hr ough t he educat i onal

s ys t em. Each act i on ver b i ndi cat es t he under l yi ng pr of i l e di mens i on of each par t i cul ar s peci f i c obj ect i ve.
Read each obj ect i ve

car ef ul l y t o know t he pr of i l e

di mens i on t owar d whi ch you have t o t each.

vi


DEFINITION OF PROFILE DIMENSIONS

Profile dimensions, as already stated, describe the underlying behaviours for teaching, learning and assessment.

In Business Management, the t wo profile

dimensions that have been specified for teaching, learning and testing are:

Knowl
edge and Understanding 45%

Application of Knowledge 55%

Each of the dimensions has been given a percentage weight that should be reflected in teaching, learning and tes ting.

The weights, indicated on the right of the

dimensions, show the

relative emphasis that the teacher should give in the teaching, learning and testing processes. The focus of this syllabus
is to get students

not only to acquire knowledge but also to understand what they have learnt and apply them practically.

The expl
anation and key words involv ed in each of the dimensions are as follows:

Knowledge and Understanding (KU)

knowledge The ability to:

remember, recall,

i dent i f y, def i ne, des cr i be, l i s t, name, mat ch, s t at e pr i nci pl es, f act s and concept s. Knowl edge i s t her ef or e t he

abi l i t y t o r emember or r ecal l mat er i al al r eady l ear ned and cons t i t ut es t he l owes t l evel of l ear ni ng.

under s t andi ng The abi l
i t y t o:

expl ai n, s ummar i ze, t r ans l at e, r ewr i t e, par aphr as e, gi ve exampl es, gener al i ze, es t i mat e or pr edi ct cons equences bas ed upon a

t r end. Under s t andi ng i s gener al l y t he abi l i t y t o gr as p t he meani ng of s ome mat er i al t hat may be ver bal, pi ct or i al, or s ymb
ol i c.

Appl i cat i on of Knowl edge ( AK)

The abi l i t y t o us e k nowl edge or appl y knowl edge, as i mpl i ed i n t hi s s yl l abus, has a number of l ear ni ng/behavi our l evel s. Th
e s e l evel s i ncl ude appl i cat i on, anal ys i s,

s ynt hes i s, and eval uat i on. Thes e may be cons i der ed and t aught s epar at el y, payi ng at t ent i on t o r ef l ect each of

t hem equal l y i n your t eachi ng. The di mens i on

“Appl i cat i on of Knowl edge” i s a s ummar y

di mens i on f or al l f our l ear ni ng l evel
s. Det ai l s of each of t he f our s ub
-
l evel s ar e as f ol l ows:

appl i cat i on The abi l i t y t o:

appl y r ul es, met hods, pr i nci pl es, t heor i es, et c. t o concr et e s i t uat i ons t hat ar e new and unf ami l i ar. I t al s o i nvol ves t he ab
i l i t y t o

pr oduce, s ol ve, oper at e, demon
s t r at e, di s cover, et c.

anal ys i s The abi l i t y t o:

br eak down a pi ece of mat er i al i nt o i t s component par t s; t o di f f er ent i at e, compar e, di s t i ngui s h, out l i ne, s epar at e, i dent i f y

s i gni f i cant

poi nt s, et c., r ecogni ze uns t at ed as s um
pt i ons and l ogi cal f al l aci es, r ecogni ze i nf er ences f r om f act s, et c. Anal yt i cal abi l i t y under l i es

di s cr i mi nat i ng t hi nki ng.

s ynt hes i s The abi l i t y t o:

put par t s t oget her t o f or m a new whol e. I t i nvol ves t he abi l i t y t o combi ne, compi l e, c ompos e, devi
s e, pl an, r evi s e, des i gn ,

or gani ze, cr eat e, and gener at e new i deas and s ol ut i ons. Abi l i t y t o s ynt hes i ze under l i es c onver gent t hi nki ng.

eval uat i on The abi l i t y t o:

appr ai s e, compar e f eat ur es of di f f er ent t hi ngs and make comment s or j udgemen
t, cont r as t, cr i t i ci ze, j us t i f y, s uppor t, di s cus s,

concl ude, make r ecommendat i ons , et c. Eval uat i on r ef er s t o t he abi l i t y t o j udge t he wor t h or val ue of s ome
mat er i al bas ed on

s ome cr i t er i a.

vi i


You will note from the above that evaluation is generally the highest form of thinking and learning skill and is
therefore the most important behaviour. This, as

implied already, accounts for the poor performance of students and peopl
e generally on tasks that call for evaluative thinking. Give your students lots of chances

to do evaluative thinking.

The action verbs provided under the various profile dimensions and in the specific objectives of the s yllabus should help

you to s
tructure your teaching such as to

achieve the effects needed. Select from the action verbs provided for your teaching, in evaluating learning before, during
and after the instruction. Use the action

verbs also in writing your test questions.

FORM OF ASSESSMENT

It must be emphasized again that it is important that both instruction and ass essment be based on the profile dimensions of
the subject. In developing assessment

procedures, select specific objectives in such a way that you will be

able to assess a representative sample of the syllabus objectives. Each specific objective in

the syllabus in considered a criterion to be achieved by the student. When you develop a test that consis
ts of items or questions t
hat are based on a

representative sample of the specific objectives taught, the test is referred to as a “Criterion

-

Referenced Test”. In many cases, a teacher canno

t test all the

objectives taught in a term, in a year, etc. The assessment procedure you use i.e. class tests, home work, projects,

etc. must be developed in such a way that it

will consist of a sample of the important objectives taught over a period.

The West A
frican Examinations Council (WAEC) generally set two papers



1 and 2 at the WASSCE. Paper 1 is a objective test and Paper 2, a compulsory case

study and structured questions. Try to emulate this by developing an objective test paper (Paper
1) that consists of fifty items. Paper 2 is a 2 hour paper. It

consists of a compulsory case study (scenario
-
type) question and seven other essay questions out of which candidates will be expected to answer any three. The

case study question will carry 25 marks while other questions carry equal marks of 15 each.

The last row shows the weight of the marks allocated to each of the three test components. The two papers and continuous ass

essment are weighted differently.

Pape
r 1, the objective test paper is weighted 30%. Paper 2 is a more intellectually demanding paper and is therefore weigh
ted 70%. The percentages in the last

row show the contribution of each test paper to the total marks in the examination.

Distribu
tion Of Examination Paper Weights And Marks

Dimensions Paper 1 Paper 2 Continuous

Total marks % Weight of

Assessment

Dimension

Knowledge and Understanding 35
-

100 135 45

Appl i c at i on of Knowl edge 15 70
-

85 55

Tot al mar ks 50 70 100 220
-

% Cont ri but i on of Paper 21 49 30
-

100

The numbers in the cells indicate the marks to be allocated to the items/questions that test each of the dimensions within th
e respective papers.

The fifth column shows the total

mark s allocated to each of the dimensions. The numbers in this column are additions of the numbers in the cells and t
hey agree

with the profile dimension weights indicated in the last column. Of the tot
al marks of 220, the 135 marks for Knowledge and Understanding is equivalent to 45%.

5 marks for “Application” is equivalent to

The 8

55% of the total marks.

viii


Because of the large weight on Knowledge and Understanding,

continuous assessment should be used to test this dimension. A f urther advice would be to

undertake the practical skills component under continuous assessment. In this cas e, the assessment structure
will consist of two

tes t papers and Continuous

Assessment.

Item Bank

: Obviously the structure of assessment recommended in this syllabus will need a lot of work on the part of t
he teacher. In preparation for setting

examinati

on papers, try to develop an item bank. The term “item bank” is a general term for a pool of objective item
s, a pool of essa

y questions or a pool of

practical test questions. As you teach the subject, begin to write objective te
st items, essay questions, structured essay questions and practical test questions to fit

selected specific objectives which you consider important to be tested. If you proceed diligently, you will re
alize you have written more than 100
objective test

items, and more than 30 essay questions in a space of one year. Randomly selec t from the item bank to compose the test pape
rs. Select with replacement. This

means, as items/questions are selected for testing, new ones have to be written to replace those items/questi
ons already used in examinations. Items and

questions that have been used in examinations may als o be modified and stored

in the item bank.

An important issue in the preparation for a major examination such as the WASSCE is the issue of test
-
wiseness. To be test
-
wise means that the student knows

the mechanics for taking a test. These mechanics include writing

candidate s

index number and other particulars accurately and quickly on the answer paper;

reading all questions before selecting the best questions to answer; apportioning equal time to each question or spending mor
e time on questions that carr
y more

marks; making notes on each question attempted before writing the answer; leaving extra time to read over one s work;

finally

checking to see that the personal

particulars sup
plied on the answer sheet are accurate. Some good students sometimes fail to do well in major examinations

becaus e of weaknes s i n t he

mechani cs of t es t t aki ng; becaus e t hey ar e not t es t wi s e. Take your f i nal year s t udent s

t hr ough t hes e nec es s ar y mechani cs s o t hat t hei r per f or mance i n maj or

exami nat i ons may not be f l awed by t he s l i ght es t weaknes s i n t es t t aki ng.

GRADI NG PROCEDURE

To i mpr ove as s es s ment and gr adi ng and al s o i nt r oduce uni f or mi t y i n s chool s, i t i s r e
commended t hat s chool s adopt t he f ol l owi ng gr ade boundar i es f or as s i gni ng

gr ades on s t udent s t es t r es ul t s.

Gr ade A: 80



100%
-

Excel l ent



Gr ade B: 70

79%
-

Ver y Good

Gr ade C: 60



69%
-

Good



Gr ade D: 45

59%
-

Pas s

Gr ade D: 35



44%
-

Weak

Gr ade F: 34% and bel ow
-

Ver y Weak

I n mar k i ng your cl as s exami nat i on s cr i pt s, i t i s ver y i mpor t ant t hat you devel op a mar ki ng s cheme. A mar k i ng s cheme, as yo
u ar e awar e, cons i s t s of t he poi nt s f or

t he bes t ans wer you expect f or each ques t i on, and t he mar ks al l ocat ed f or each

poi nt r ai s ed by t he s t udent as wel l as t he t ot al mar ks f or t he ques t i on. For

i ns t ance, i f a ques t i on car r i es 20 mar ks, and you expect 6 poi nt s i n t he bes t ans wer, you coul d al l ocat e 3 mar ks or
par t s of i t, dependi ng upon t he qua
l i t y of t he

poi nt r ai s ed by t he s t udent, t ot al i ng 18 mar ks, and t hen gi ve t he r emai ni ng 2 mar ks or par t of i t f or or gani zat
i on of ans wer. For obj ect i ve t es t paper s you may

devel op an ans wer key t o s peed up t he mar ki ng.

I n as s i gni ng g
r ades t o s t udent s t es t

r es ul t s; you may appl y t he above gr ade boundar i es and t he des cr i pt or s whi ch i ndi cat e t he meani ng of each gr ade. The gr ade

boundar i es ar e al s o r ef er r ed t o as gr ade cut
-
of f s cor es. For i ns t ance, t he gr ade cut
-
of f s cor e f or a B gr ad
e i s 70% i n t he exampl e. When you adopt a f i xed cut
-
of f

s cor e gr adi ng s ys t em as i n t hi s exampl e, you ar e us i ng t he cr i t er i on
-
r ef er enced gr adi ng s ys t em. By t hi s s ys t em a s t udent mus t make a s peci f i ed s cor e t o be

awar ded t he r equi s i t e gr ade. Thi s s ys t em of gr adi ng chal l enges s t udent t o s t udy har der t o ear n bet t er gr ade
s. I t i s hence a ver y us ef ul s ys t em f or gr adi ng

achi evement

t es t s.

ix


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 2

T
ERM ONE

SECTION 1

NATURE OF MANAGEMENT

General objectives: The student will:

1. be aware of the forms of business organizations being operated in Ghana.

2. appreciate the need to study management.

3. recognize the soc
ial, ethical and legal responsibilities of business.

4. recognize the need for business to respond to their social, ethical and legal responsibilities.

5. acquire skills in using principles learnt to solve problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

FORMS OF

1.1.1 explain the concept of

Concept of business organization

Assist students to discuss the concept of

BUSINESS

business organization.

Entity i nvolved in the

business organi zati on.

ORGANIZATION

transformation of resources into

products and services i n order to

Note:

Stress on the importance of

meet the needs of people.

management

What forms of business

1.1.2 identify the major forms of

Major forms of business

Assist students to i dentity and discuss the

organization are more

business organization and

organizati ons

characteristics of each form of business

sustainable over time?

their characteristics.

-

Sol e pr opr i et or s hi p,

or ga ni zat i on.

-

Par t ner s hi p,

Or gani ze a debat e on t he

-

Li mi t e d l i abi l i t y c ompa ny,

t opi c.

-

Publ i c cor por at i on,

-

Co
-
operatives

Students to discuss the

1.1.3 descri be the procedures for

Procedures for the formati on of

Guide students to rol e play the

advantages and

the formation of the various

various busi ness organizations.

procedures for the formation of various

disadvantages of

business organizations.

business organizations. Emphasize the

partnership.

documents used for registrati on.

State the advantages and

1.1.4 Outline the advantages and

Advantages and disadvantages of

Guide students to brainstorm to bring out

disadvantages of sole

disadvantages of the various

various busi ness organizations

advantages and disadvantages of the

proprietorship. Why is it

forms of business

e.g., Sole proprietorship,

various forms of business organizations.

common in Ghana?

organization.

partnership, limited liability

company, public corporation and

co
-
operatives.

10


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

UNIT 1

(CONT’D)

1.1.5 descri be the methods for

Methods for distribution of profits or

discuss methods for sharing profi ts and

FORMS OF

distribution of profits and

losses i n business organizations

l osses i n various business organizations.



BUSINESS

absorpti on of losses in various

-

Sole proprietor

owner takes all

ORGANIZATION

forms of business

profits and bears all losses

organization.

-

Partnership



partners share

profits and losses i n agreed

rati os.

-

Companies



profits are shared

according to number of shares

held by individual shareholders.

1.1.6 outline the causes of business

Causes of business failure

discuss the reasons why some

Write an essay on causes

failure.

-

Mana ger i al i ncompet e nce

bus i nes s es f ai l. E.g. manage r i al

of bus i nes s f ai l ur e.



-

I ns uf f i ci e nt capi t al

i nc ompet enc e

l a c k of compet e nt

UNI T 2

-

Wea k c ont r ol s ys t e m, et c.

ma na ger s f or t he bus i nes s ent er pr i s e.

MEANI NG AND



a nd

1.2.1 expl ai n

ma na ge ment

Me ani ng of ma na ge me nt a nd goal s

St udent s br ai ns t or m t he mea ni ng of

St udent s i n gr oups di s c us s

„ goal s .

PROCESS OF

I nvol ves coor di nat i ng a nd

ma na ge ment.

how t he y woul d s et goal s

MANAGEMENT

over s eei ng t he wor k ac t i vi t i e s of

a nd us e t he pr oces s of

Not e:

s t r es s t ha t ma na ge ment ai ms at

ot her s t o a chi e ve or ga ni zat i onal

pl anni ng, or gani zi ng,

goal s.

a ccompl i s hi ng goal s ef f i c i ent l y and

di r ect i ng and c ont r ol l i ng i n

Goa l s:
-

a par t i c ul ar f ut ur e s t at e of

ef f ect i vel y.

t hei r s chool act i vi t i es and

t hi ngs t o be achi e ve d by t he

wr i t e r e por t f or cl a s s f or um.

bus i nes s.

1.2.2 expl ai n t he f unct i ons of

The f our bas i c f unct i ons of

As s i s t s t udent s t o di s cus s why i t i s

ma na ge ment.

ma na ge ment

neces s ar y t o pl an, or ga ni ze, di r e ct a nd

-

pl a nni ng

c ont r ol t he act i vi t i es of or gani zat i ons.

-

or gani zi ng

-

di r ec t i ng

-

cont r ol l i ng

1.2.3 i de nt i f y t he di f f er ent l e vel s of

Le vel s of ma na ge me nt

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s t he di f f er e nt

What i s t he r el at i ons hi p

ma na ge ment.

-

Top ma na ge ment

l e vel s of ma na ge ment des i gne d i n hel pi ng

bet ween t he ma na ger s of a

-

Mi ddl e ma na ge ment

t o meet c or por at e obj ect i ves.

c ompa ny and t he boar d of

-

Lowe r ma na ge ment

di r ect or s?

1.2.4 i de nt i f y t ypes of mana ger s by

Types of Mana ger s

Gui de s t udent s t o des cr i be t he f unct i ons

t hei r f unct i ons i n or gani zat i ons.

-

Fi nanc e

of e ach of t he ma na ger s l i s t e d under

-

Mar ket i ng

c ont e nt.

-

Human Res our ce

-

Pr ocur e ment

-

Oper at i ons et c

11


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

MEANING AND

1.2.5 identify careers in business

Careers in management

Guide students to discuss careers in

PROCESS OF

management.

e.g. Human Resource Manager,

management.

MANAGEMENT

Finance Manager,

Accounts Manager,

Marketing Manager,

Transport Manager, etc.

1.2.6. explain the meaning and roles

Meaning of Manager

Students brainstorm to come out with the

Students interview some

of the manager.

Someone who coordinates and

meaning of manager and what they do.

managers in their

oversees the work of other people

Guide learners to discuss the roles of

locality and present a

in order to achieve organizational

managers in an organization. E.g.

report to be discussed

goals.

Entrepreneurial role



managers may be

in class.

regarded as entrepreneurs who use the

Roles of managers

i nformation at their di sposal to achieve

Interpersonal

positive change in the form of a new

-

Fi gur e hea d

pr oduct or i dea or r es t r uct ur i ng t hei r

-

Lea der

bus i nes s es.

-

Li ai s on

I nf or mat i onal

-

Moni t or

-

Di s s e mi nat or

-

Spoke s pe r s on

Deci s i onal

-

Ent r epr ene ur,

-

Di s t ur banc e handl er,

-

Re s our ce al l ocat or,

-

Ne got i at or

1.2.6 expl ai n how c ul t ur e i nf l ue nces

Rel at i ons hi p bet ween Ma nage me nt

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s how

ma na ge ment pr a ct i ce s i n

a nd Cul t ur e.

ma na ge ment and cul t ur e ar e r el a t ed. E.g.

Gha na.

s t r es s on c or e val ues i n t he Gha nai a n

c ul t ur e t hat pr omot e good ma na ge ment

pr act i ce. E.g., t r ut h, t ea mwor k, l oyal t y a nd

hones t y.

1.2.7 di f f e r ent i at e admi ni s t r at i on

Di f f er enc e bet wee n a dmi ni s t r at i on

St udent s t o br ai ns t or m on t he di f f er enc es

f r om ma na ge ment.

a nd mana ge me nt.

bet ween a dmi ni s t r at i on and ma na ge me nt.

Admi ni s t r at i on



i nvol ves

i mpl e ment at i on of pol i ci es.

Gui de l ear ner s t o di s cus s t he poi nt s

r ai s e d t o ei t he r a cce pt or r ej ect.

12


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:



Management

is concerned with

MEANING AND

pl anning, organizing, directing and

PROCESS OF

control ling of organizational

MANAGEMENT

activities.

UNIT 3

1.3.1 explain business environment.

Meaning of business environment

Discuss with students the meaning and

Students in groups to

The forces, both internal and

i mportance of business environment. E.g.

interview business owners

BUSINESS AND

external, to the business that

business organi zati ons obtain resources

in their community about

SOCIETY

influence its activities

from, and are dependent on the

the followi ng:

environment i n whi ch they operate.

i) qualities they expect from

their workers

1.3.2 identify forces in the internal

Internal forces:
-

e.g. physical

Discuss with learners the forces in the

ii) the factors that influence

and external business

facil ities, financial and human

i nternal and external business

their businesses both

environment.

resources, management style

environment using rel evant examples.

internally and externall y

External forces
-

e.g. technology,

and submit their reports.

economic, social, political and legal

1.3.3 differentiate among ethical,

Ethical, legal and soci al

Guide students to differentiate between

Organize a debate on the

legal and social responsibilities

responsibili ties of business

ethical, l egal and soci al responsibilities of

social responsibiliti es of

of business.

business.

business

Using reports from the media, guide

Outline the responsibilities

students to discuss the ethical, legal and

of a business towards its

soci al responsibiliti es of business towards

employees, the community

their employees and the communities

and the government?

within which they are located.

1.3.4 identify business stakeholders.

Primary stakeholders

Students to investigate busi nesses and

PROJECT

Owners, employees, management

i ndustries that pose threats to the

Give reasons to show why

environment i n terms of pollution or

certain types of business

Secondary stakeholders

degradation.

are more prone to

Customers, suppli ers, community,

environmental pollution and

Note:

Highl ight the activities of the

media, etc.

degradation.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

1.3.5 analyze the ethical, legal and

Business responsibi lities towards

Students to submit report

social responsibilities

stakeholders

on social responsibilities of



businesses have toward their

e.g. communi ty

pollution control

businesses in their locality.

stakeholders

Students to identify and discuss cases

1.3.6 cite evidences of how

Government



pay taxes.

where businesses have responded

businesses have collecti vely or

favourably or otherwise to social

individually responded to the

responsibili ties and exhibited ethical

call for social responsibility.

consciousness.

13


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 2

SECTION 2

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT I

General objectives: The student will:

1. appreciate the importance of pl anni ng as the fi rst step in the management process.

2. be aware of the different types of planning managers engage in.

3. acquire skills in using principles learnt in solving problems through case study (scenario).

U
NIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

2.1.1 explain the concept of

Meaning of planni ng

PLANNING

discuss the meani ng of planning.

planni ng.

Invol ves defini ng goals,

establishing strategies for

achieving those goals and

developing pl ans to i ntegrate and

co
-
ordinate activities.

2.1.2 outline the importance of

Importance of planning

Students to write five

brainstorm to come out with the

planni ng.

-

gives direction

reasons why planning is

i mportance of planning.

-

pr omot es coor di nat i on bet we en

i mpor t a nt.

va r i ous de par t me nt s

di s cus s poi nt s r ai s ed.

-

ens ur es t hat bus i nes s keeps

a br ea s t wi t h t e chnol ogy

-

compel s ma na ger t o l ook t o t he

f ut ur e

-

pr omot es s t a bi l i t y

-

ens ur es c ohe s i on

2.1.3 out l i ne t he s t eps i n t he

St eps i n t he pl anni ng pr oces s

di s cus s t he s t e ps i n t he pl a nni ng pr oce s s

pl anni ng pr oces s.

-

s et t i ng goa l s

E.g. s et t i ng goal s



det er mi ni ng t he t a r get

-

gat her i ng i nf or ma t i on

t hat t he or gani zat i on wa nt s t o a chi e ve.

-

de vel opi ng al t er na t i ve pl a ns

-

e val uat i ng al t er nat i ve pl ans

-

s el ec t i ng t he bes t pl a n

-

de vel opi ng bac k
-
up pl an

-

i mpl e me nt i ng a nd moni t or i ng

pl ans.

14


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (C

ONT’D

)

The student will be able to:

PLANNING

2.1.4 identify the types of planning.

Types of planning

Through discussion, gui de students to

Strategi c
-

long term planning

disti nguish between strategic, tactical and

carried out by top management to

operational pl anning

develop broad overall strategy to

realize the mission of the business.

Tactical



refers to medi um term

pl anning, carried out by middle

management for the various

functional departments to realize

their goals.

Operational



short
-
term planning

carried out by l ower management

to achieve operati onal objectives.

2.1.5 explain pl anning tools.

Planning tools

Assist students to discuss planning tools.

Look for samples of



-

For eca s t i ng

a ppl yi ng a s et of

-

For eca s t i ng

budget s f r om t he

ma t he mat i c al r ul es t o a s er i e s of

-

Sc hedul i ng

I nt er net

/CDs/School s

pas t dat a t o pr edi ct f ut ur e

-

Budget i ng

Acc ount s Of f i ce f or cl a s s

va l ue s.

Emphas i ze t he a ppl i ca t i on of t he pl anni ng

di s cus s i on.

-

Sc hedul i ng



pl anni ng of t i me

t ool s i n pr oduct i on or pr oj e ct

f or r eachi ng obj ect i ves.

ma na ge ment.

-

Budget i ng
-

al l ocat i ng r es our c es

E.g. s chedul i ng i s us e d f or pl anni ng t he

t o s peci f i c a ct i vi t i es.

t i me f or compl et i ng c us t ome r s or der s.

Not e: Fi nd i nf or mat i on on t he us e of

l ogi cal f r a me wor k a nal ys i s and cr i t i ca l

pat h anal ys i s i n pr oj ect ma na ge me nt.

2.1.6 s t at e t he l i mi t at i ons of pl anni ng.

Li mi t at i ons t o pl anni ng

Di s c us s t he l i mi t at i ons of pl a nni ng

St udent s i n gr oups, s el ect a



-

l ac k of ac cur at e dat a

E.g. l ac k of a ccur at e dat a

s omet i mes

bus i nes s, s et goal s,

-

i ns uf f i ci e nt t i me

t he dat a whi c h i s us ed t o f or e cas t

de vel op pl ans wi t h

-

l ac k of e xper t i s e, et c.

pr oduct i on and s al es f i gur es mi ght not be

a ccompanyi ng budget and

a ccur at e and t hus af f e ct t he f or eca s t.

s ubmi t f or cl a s s di s c us s i on.

( See Cont ent of 2.1.3)

15


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 2

TERM TWO

SECTION 1

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT II

General objectives: The student will:

1. appreciate the importance of decision
-
making in business.

2. be aware of the importance and effects of organizing.

3. appreciate the importance of di recti ng in management.

4. acquire skill in using principles learnt in solving problems through case study (scenario).

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT1

The student will be able to:

DECISION
-
MAKING

1.1.1 define decisi on
-
making.

Defi nition of decision
-
making

Students to brai nstorm to bring out the

Making a choice from two or more

meaning of decision
-
making.

al ternative courses of action.

Assist students to discuss each element in

Teacher to develop a

1.1.2 analyze the steps in

Steps in the decision
-
making

the sequence of the deci sion
-
making

Case study (scenario) to

decision
-

making process.

process

test students

process using an example.

i) identify or define the problem

understanding of the steps

ii) gather information on the

Guide students to make a decision on a

in the decision
-
making

problem

school situation using the steps outl ined.

process.

iii) develop possible alternative

solutions

iv) make a choice/decision

v) implement the selected

solution

vi ) follow
-
up, control and make

revisions as necessary

Students to discuss vari ous situations in

Students to role play a

1.1.3 explain why decision
-
making is

Importance of decision
-
making

which decisions are made.

situation in class whi ch

necessary in business.

-

For allocating resources of a

would call for a decision to

business

be made by the class.

-

To negotiate with labour on

conditions of service

-

For fixing prices

-

Responding to changes in

Business environment.

16


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

DECISION
-
MAKING

1.1.4 differentiate between

Differences

Guide students to differentiate between

programmed and

Programmed decisions:
-

routine

programmed and non
-
programmed

non
-
programmed decisions.

and repetitive.

decisions.

Non
-
programmed decisions:
-

are

one
-
off decisions.

1.1.5 identify the levels of

Decisions by levels of

Discuss with students the levels of

Match l evels of

management and types of

management

management and types of decisions they

management with types of

decisions each level makes.

i. Strategic decisions
-
made by top

make.

decisions listed.

Management

ii. Tactical decisions
-
made by

middle management

iii. Operational decisions
-
made by

lower management

1.1.6 describe persons and groups

Parties in decision
-
making

Discuss the types of persons and

Students in groups, discuss

involved in the decision
-

process

committees generally used for decision
-

how committees are formed



making process.

i. i. Board of Directors

for policy

maki ng.

and brainstorm for the

decisions

advantages and

ii. Internal special ists and

disadvantages of decision
-

outside consultants
-

for

making by committees.

technical decisions

Discuss how a commi ttee is consti tuted

Present reports to class.

ii i. Committees made up of

and how it works.

representati ves from different

divisions of the business



for

decisions that affect the

divisions concerned.

1.1.7 apply the decision
-
making

Application of decision
-
making

Select some business probl ems. Assign a

process i n actual decision

process to a selected business

problem to each group of students. Each

situations.

problem.

group to select its chairperson and

secretary and go through the decision
-

maki ng process to arrive at a final

problem solution.

Monitor and advise the groups.

Summarize di scussion on ways for

arri ving at decisions.

17


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

ORGANIZING

1.2.1 explain organi zing.

Meaning of organizing

discuss how material, human and financial

It is the function or process of

resources are organized in organizations.

arranging and structuring work to

accomplish the organization s

goals

1.2.2 Outl ine the importance of

Importance of organizing

discuss the importance of organizing in

organizing.

Determi ne:

business. E.g. determi ning what needs to

-

what nee ds t o be done

be done s o t hat wor k ca n be pr oper l y

-

how i t wi l l be done

al l ocat ed.

-

and who i s t o do i t.

1.2.3 e xpl ai n t he act i vi t i es i nvol ved

Act i vi t i es of or gani zi ng

di s cus s t he act i vi t i es i nvol ve d i n

St udent s pr es e nt a r e por t

i n or ga ni zi ng

-

det er mi ni ng wor k t o be done

or ga ni zi ng. E.g. det er mi ni ng wor k t o be

on how t he y or ga ni ze t hei r

-

di vi di ng t he t ot al wor k l oa d

done.

s t udi e s i n c l as s.

-

def i ni ng pos i t i ons

Thi s i nvol ves i de nt i f yi ng t he va r i ous t as ks

-

as s i gni ng t as ks

t hat ha ve t o be under t a ken.

Pr i nci pl es of or ga ni zi ng

1.2.4 out l i ne t he pr i nci pl es of

-

aut hor i t y

di s cus s t he pr i nci pl e s of or ga ni zi ng. E.g.

or ga ni zi ng.

-

di vi s i on of l a bour

a ut hor i t y i s t he power t o comma nd

-

r es pons i bi l i t y

r e s our ces a nd exa ct obe di e nc e.

-

di s ci pl i ne

-

uni t y of comma nd, et c.

1.2.5 def i ne or gani zat i onal s t r uct ur e.

Def i ni t i on of or gani zat i on s t r uct ur e

br ai ns t or m t o come out wi t h a n

St udent s wr i t e a r e
por t on

The di vi s i on of t he wor k of t he

e xpl a nat i on of or ga ni zat i onal s t r uct ur e.

t he i mpor t a nce of

or ga ni zat i on i nt o t he dut i es and

or ga ni zat i ona l s t r uct ur e i n

t a s ks and as s i gni ng per s onnel t o

di s cus s r eas ons why a n or ga ni zat i on mus t

e ver y bus i nes s s et
-
up.

s uch t as ks.

ha ve a s t r uct ur e.

1.2.6 i de nt i f y t ypes of or ga ni zat i onal

Types of or gani zat i onal s t r uct ur e

di s cus s t he t ypes of or gani zat i onal

s t r uct ur e.

-

Li ne

s t r uct ur e l i s t e d.

-

Li ne a nd s t af f

-

St af f

-

Funct i onal

18


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

ORGANIZING

1.2.7 define organizational chart.

Defi nition of Organi zational chart

discuss the meani ng of organizational

Students should draw the

A pictorial representation of the

chart.

organizational chart of their

structure of an organization,

Illustrate the drawing of an organi zati onal

school.

rel ationships among workers and

chart usi ng the ti tles in a typical

di visions of work.

organizati on.

1.2.8 descri be the types of

Types of organi zational charts

discuss the two major types of

organizational charts.

-

Ve r t i cal

or ga ni zat i onal cha r t s.

-

Hor i zont al

1.2.9 a nal yze t he advant a ge s a nd

Advant a ge s a nd di s advant age s of

l i s t and e xpl a i n advant a ge s and

di s adva nt a ges of

or ga ni zat i ona l c har t s.

di s adva nt a ges of or gani zat i onal char t s.

or ga ni zat i ona l c har t s.

1.2.10 i dent i f y and i nt er pr et f or mal

For mal a nd i nf or mal r el at i ons hi ps

di s cus s t he r el at i ons hi ps i n a n

a nd i nf or mal r el at i ons hi ps

-

Li ne,

or ga ni zat i on a nd t hei r a dvant a ge s a nd

e xi s t i ng a mong e mpl oyee s of

-

Funct i onal, a nd

di s adva nt a ges. I de nt i f y f or ma l and

a n or ga ni zat i on.

-

Li ne
-
and
-
s t af f r el at i ons hi ps.

i nf or mal r el at i ons hi ps i n an or ga ni zat i on,

a nd how f or ma l r e l at i ons hi ps c an be us ed

ef f ect i vel y.

1.2.11 s t at e t he ef f ect s of gr owt h on

Ef f ect s of gr owt h on an

di s cus s bus i ne s s gr owt h beyond c er t ai n

What ar e s ome of t he

t he or ga ni za t i onal s t r uct ur e

or ga ni zat i on.

l i mi t s and i t s ef f ect on or gani zat i onal

ma na ge ment pr obl e ms t hat

a nd or gani zat i onal ef f i ci ency.

ef f i ci e nc y.

ma y ar i s e i f a n or gani zat i on

gr ows t oo l ar ge?

1.2.12 expl ai n t he t er ms

Def i ni t i on of c ent r al i zat i on a nd

di s cus s t he mea ni ng of t he t er ms

St udent s gi ve f i ve

c ent r al i zat i on a nd

dece nt r al i zat i on i n a n

c ent r al i zat i on and dece nt r al i zat i on.

e xa mpl es eac h of

dece nt r al i zat i on i n an

or ga ni zat i on.

c ent r al i zed a nd

or ga ni zat i on.

br ai ns t or m on what wi l l happen i f

dece nt r al i zed or gani zat i ons

pas s por t s c oul d onl y be obt ai ned i n Ac cr a.

a nd s t at e t he di f f er enc es

bet ween t he m.

19


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

ORGANIZING

1.2.13 analyze the advantages and

Advantages and disadvantages of

Guide students to analyze the problems

Compare the advantages

disadvantages of centralized

central ization and decentral ization.

and advantages of centralization and

and disadvantages of a

and decentralized systems.

decentralization.

centralized and

decentralized organi zati on.

UNIT 3

DELEGATION

1.3.1 define delegation.

Defi nition of del egation

Students to brai nstorm to explain the term

Giving formal authori ty and

delegation.

responsibili ty to subordi nates to

complete assignment formally.

1.3.2 Outl ine the principles of

Principles of delegati on

Assist students to discuss the reasons for

Devel op a scenario to test

del egation.

-

As s i gnment of r es pons i bi l i t y

gr ant i ng aut hor i t y when de l e gat i ng t as ks.

t he pr i nci pl e s of del e gat i on.

-

Gr ant i ng of aut hor i t y

-

Es t abl i s hment of ac count a bi l i t y

1.3.3 i dent i f y t he benef i t s of

Benef i t s of del e gat i on

St udent s t o di s cus s t he be nef i t s of

Gi ve f our be nef i t s of

del e gat i on.

-

ma na ger s ge t mor e t i me f or

del e gat i on a f t er a r ol e
-
pl a y.

del e gat i on.

ot her i mpor t ant mat t er s

-

s pe eds up deci s i on
-
ma ki ng

St udent s wr i t e an es s a y on

-

s a ves t i me

why s ome ma na ger s do not

-

i mpr oves s el f
-
c onf i de nce and

l i ke del e gat i ng.

wi l l i ngnes s of s ubor di nat es

1.3.4 e xpl ai n why s ome ma na ger s

Why s ome mana ger s do not

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s t he pr obl e ms of

do not del e gat e.

del e gat e

del e gat i on.

-

“ I ca n do i t mys el f be t t er ” f al l ac y

-

Lac k of conf i de nce i n

s ubor di nat es

-

Abs e nce of cont r ol s ys t em

-

Fea r of s ubor di nat es a s

c ompet i t or s

-

Fea r of a ppe ar i ng l a zy

20


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

The student will be able to:

UNIT 3 (CONT’D)

1.3.5 explain why some subordinates

Why some subordinates do not like

Guide students to brainstorm for the

Students write an essay

DELEGATION

do not accept delegated

accepting delegation

reasons why some subordi nates do not

indicating whether they

responsibili ties.

-

s ubor di nat e s f i nd i t eas i er t o

a cce pt del e gat e d r e s pons i bi l i t i e s.

woul d acc ept del e gat ed

a s k t he bos s t ha n t o deci de

a s s i gnment or not and gi ve

f or t he ms el ves

r e as ons why.

-

f ear of cr i t i c i s m f or mi s t a kes

-

l ac k of neces s ar y i nf or mat i on

a nd r es our c e t o do a good j ob

-

l ac k of s el f
-
conf i denc e

-

l ac k of i ncent i ves

1.3.5 s ugges t wa ys of ma ki ng

Fact or s ma ki ng del e gat i on ef f ect i ve

Thr ough di s c us s i ons, gui de s t ude nt s on

Or gani ze a debat e on t he

„ Del e gat i on

del e gat i on ef f e ct i ve

-

cl ar i f y a s s i gnment

how t o ma ke del e gat i on ef f e ct i ve.

t opi c

is

-

s pe ci f y r ange of di s cr et i on

unneces s ar y i n t he wor k

-

al l ow e mpl oyee t o par t i ci pat e

pl ace . Get t hr ee s pea ker s

-

announce de l e ga t i on

e ach f or bot h pr os and

-

es t a bl i s h f e ed
-
bac k c hannel s

c ons.

21


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 4

The student will be able to:

DIRECTING

1.4.1 explain directing.

Defi nition of di recti ng

Assist students to discuss directing, using

Students write a report on

Involves working with and through

actual examples.

how they would direct their

people to achieve or accomplish

subordinates for class

organizational goals

discussion.

1.4.2 analyze the various elements

Elements of di recti ng

Students to describe the critical elements

in the directing process.

-

mot i va t i on

t o be c ons i der ed i n t he pr oce s s of

-

l eader s hi p

di r ect i ng

-

communi cat i on

-

s uper vi s i on

1.4.3 def i ne mot i vat i on.

Def i ni t i on of mot i vat i on

St udent s t o br ai ns t or m t o come out wi t h

De vel op a mi ni
-
ca s e t o

P

r oces s, by whi c h a per s on s

t he me ani ng of mot i vat i on.

el i ci t s t udent s r es pons es

ef f or t s ar e e ner gi zed, di r ect e d a nd

on t he i mpor t anc e of

s us t ai ned t owa r d at t ai ni ng a goal.

mot i vat i on

1.4.4 i dent i f y t he t wo bas i c f act or s

Bas i c f a ct or s of mot i vat i on

St udent s t o a nal yze t he ba s i c f act or s of

of mot i vat i on.

I nt er nal ( I nt r i ns i c) f act or s ar e t hos e

mot i vat i on.

t hat ar e wi t hi n t he i ndi vi dual.

Ext er nal ( ext r i ns i c ) f a ct or s ar e

Not e: St r es s t hat ext e r nal f act or s l i ke

t hos e t hat a r e f r om out s i de t he

i nc ent i ves, pr omot i on, et c. cons t i t ut e

i ndi vi dual.

mot i vat i onal t e chni ques.

1.4.5 e xpl ai n Ma s l ow s „H

Ma s l ow s

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s Ma s l ow s

i er ar c hy of

Hi er a r c
hy of Ne eds

Nee ds

.

-

phys i ol ogi cal nee ds



A

hi er ar chy of needs.

per s on s nee d f or f ood, dr i nk,

r a w and l abel Mas l ow s

s exual s at i s f a ct i on, and ot her

St udent s d

phys i cal ne eds.

hi er ar chy of needs, gi vi ng e xa mpl es of



-

s ec ur i t y/s af et y nee ds

a

e ach t ype of nee d.

per s on s nee ds f or s ec ur i t y

a nd pr ot ect i on f r om phys i c al

a nd e mot i onal har m.



A per s on s

-

s oci al nee ds

needs f or af f ect i on,

bel ongi ngnes s, a cce pt ance,

a nd f r i e nds hi p.

22


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 4 (CONT’D)



A person s

-

es t ee m needs

needs f or i nt er nal f act or s s uc h

DI RECTI NG

a s s el f
-
r es pect, aut onomy,

a nd ac hi e ve ment, and

e xt er nal f act or s s uc h as

s t at us, r ecogni t i on, and

at t ent i on.



-

s el f
-
a ct ua l i zat i on ne eds

A

per s on s nee d t o become

wha t he or s he i s capabl e of

becomi ng.

1.4.6 des cr i be t he var i ous l ea der s hi p

Lea der s hi p s t yl es

Let s t udent s know t hat ef f ect i ve l ea der s

St udent s s houl d gi ve

s t yl es.

-

aut ocr at i c

ar e s ki l l f ul at hel pi ng t he gr oup( s ) t he y

r e as ons why de mocr at i c

-

de mocr at i c

l ea d t o be s ucc es s f ul a s t he gr oup( s ) goes

l e ader s hi p has pos i t i ve

-

l ai s s e z ( f ai r e)

t hr ough va r i ous s t a ge s of deve l opment.

ef f ect on bus i nes s

oper a t i on a nd pr of i t abi l i t y

I mpor t a nce of good l e ader s hi p

1.4.7 out l i ne t he i mpor t ance of good

-

i mpr oves human r el at i ons i n

St udent s t o r ol e
-
pl a y an of f i c e wher e t he

St udent s c omme nt on

l e ader s hi p i n bus i nes s.

a n or ga ni zat i on.

ge ner al ma na ger i s aut ocr at i c

a s pec t s of t he r ol e
-
pl a y.

-

hel ps l eader s t o i nf l uence

t hei r me mber s i n goal

at t ai nme nt, et c

1.4.8. e xpl ai n s our ces of powe r

Sour ces of power

St udent s t o di f f er e nt i at e t he var i ous

St udent s s houl d di s c us s

„ comma nd l e ade r s hi p a nd

a vai l abl e t o l e ader s.

-

l e gi t i mat e,

s our c es of powe r a vai l a bl e t o l e ader s

-

coer ci ve,

„ de mocr at i c l ea der s hi p and

-

r e war d,

t hen s ugge s t wa ys of

-

Ref er e nt a nd exper t.

i mpr ovi ng l ea der s hi p s t yl es

of Ghanai an bus i ne s s es.

23


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 2

TERM THREE

SECTION 1

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT III

General objectives: The student will:

1. appreciate the importance of communication in business.

2. understand the formal channels of communication in organizations.

3. be aware of the barriers to communication.

4. develop skills in using principles learnt in solving basic problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

COMMUNICATION

1.1.1. define communication.

Defi nition of communication

discuss the defini tion of communication

Passi ng of information and

l aying emphasi s on effective

understanding from one person to

communication.

another

1.1.2 state the importance of

Importance of communication

discuss the importance of communication

Write five importance of

communication.

-

f or gi vi ng i ns t r uct i ons

t o ma na ger s e.g. ens ur i ng cont r ol,

c ommuni cat i on.

-

f or r ecei vi ng f eed
-
bac k

mot i vat i on, e mot i onal e xpr e s s i on a nd

-

f or di s s e mi nat i ng pol i ci es

gi vi ng i nf or mat i on.

1.1.3. expl ai n t he s t eps i n t he

St eps i n c ommuni cat i on pr oc es s

di s cus s t he s t e ps i n t he communi cat i on

Dr a w a di a gr a m t o i l l us t r at e

c ommuni cat i on pr oces s.

-

s ender

pr oce s s t hr ough r ol e
-
pl a y.

t he communi cat i on

-

enc odi ng

pr oce s s.

-

me s s a ge

-

me di um ( c hannel )

-

r ecei ver

-

dec odi ng

-

f eed
-
ba c k

-

noi s e

24


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

COMMUNICATION

1.1.4 distingui sh between formal and

Formal channels of communication

Assist students to discuss formal channels

Students to draw

informal communication.

-

Upwar d

of c ommuni cat i on us i ng or ga ni zat i onal

or ga ni zat i on char t, s howi ng

-

Downwar d

s t r uct ur e.

t he f or mal cha nnel s of

-

hor i zont al

c ommuni cat i on

-

Di a gonal

I nf or mal c ommuni cat i on

As s i s t s t udent s t o di s cus s t he r ol e of

Gr a pe vi ne

i nf or mal communi cat i on i n an or gani zat i on

us i ng e xa mpl es.

1.1.5 i de nt i f y a nd expl ai n f or ms of

For ms of communi c at i on

Di s c us s t he var i ous f or ms of

c ommuni cat i ons.

-

Ve r bal

c ommuni cat i on.

-

Wr i t t en

-

Non
-
ve r bal

1.1.6 i de nt i f y bar r i er s t o

Bar r i er s

t o c ommuni cat i on

Gi ve a s t ude nt a mes s a ge t o hi s or her

Al l ow s t udent s t o comme nt

c ommuni cat i on.

-

Noi s e

hear i ng onl y. Let t hat s t ude nt pas s on t he

on t he exer ci s e j us t

-

Di s t anc e

me s s a ge t o a not her s t udent who i n t ur n

c onduct ed i n cl as s a nd t o

-

Se ma nt i c/Langua ge

pas s e s t he me s s a ge on a nd l et t he

i dent i f y pr obl e ms of

-

Fi l t er i ng

me s s a ge be pas s ed on f r om one s t udent

c ommuni cat i on.

-

I nf or mat i on over l oa d

t o t he ot her, s i l ent l y. Let t he l as t per s on

i nf or m t he cl as s what mes s a ge was gi ven

What ar e s ome of t he

t o hi m or her. Compar e me s s a ge wi t h

pr obl e ms t hat mana ger s

or i gi nal one.

e ncount er when

c ommuni cat i ng wi t h

As s i s t s t udent s t o i dent i f y a nd di s cus s

e mpl oyees?

bar r i er s t o c ommuni cat i on.

1.1.7 expl ai n gui del i ne s t o ef f e ct i ve

Gui del i ne s t o ef f ect i ve

Di s c us s t he f a ct or s t hat cont r i but e t o

c ommuni cat i on

c ommuni cat i on

ef f ect i ve communi cat i on i n an

-

Us e s i mpl i f i e d l angua ge

or ga ni zat i on.

-

Encour a ge f e ed
-
bac k

-

Li s t en at t e nt i vel y

Appl y t he pr i nci pl es l ear nt i n s ol vi ng

-

Re s t r ai n ne gat i ve e mot i ons

pr obl e ms t hr ough c as e s t udy

25


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2

The student will be able to:

CONTROLLING

1.2.1 explain controlling.

Meaning of controlling

Assist students to discuss the meaning of

Involves monitoring, comparing

controlli ng.

and correcting work performance.

1.2.2 outline the reasons for

Reasons for controlling

Discuss the reasons for instituting control

State the effects of weak

control ling.

-

Meet s et s t a ndar d

me a s ur e s i n an or gani zat i on.

c ont r ol s ys t e m i n a n

-

Avoi d per s onal l i mi t at i ons

or ga ni zat i on.

-

Avoi d c onf l i ct i ng goal s

-

Avoi d di f f er e nce s over

me t hods of per f or mance

-

Cope wi t h cha nge

1.2.3 e xpl ai n t he pr oce s s of

St eps i n t he cont r ol pr oces s

Us i ng exa mpl es as s i s t s t udent s t o di s c us s

c ont r ol l i ng.

-

Set t i ng of s t a nda r ds

t he pr oc es s of cont r ol l i ng.

-

Meas ur e me nt of a ct ual

per f or ma nc e

-

Compar i s on of act ual

per f or ma nc e a gai ns t s t andar d

-

Ta ki ng c or r ec t i ve act i on

1.2.4 i dent i f y t ypes of cont r ol.

Types of cont r ol

Di s c us s t ypes of cont r ol .

What ar e s ome of t he

-

Pr e
-
c ont r ol ( f ee d
-
f or war d)

ma na ge ment pr obl e ms t hat

-

Conc ur r e nt c ont r ol

ma y ar i s e i f a n or gani zat i on

-

Fee d
-
bac k/pos t
-
cont r ol

f ai l s t o c ont r ol i t s act i vi t i es?

1.2.5 e xpl ai n t he char act er i s t i c s of

Cha r act e r i s t i cs of ef f ect i ve c ont r ol

As s i s t s t udent s t o di s cus s t he ba s i c

a n e f f ect i ve cont r ol s ys t e m.

s ys t e m

c har a ct er i s t i cs of an ef f e ct i ve cont r ol

-

Fl e xi bi l i t y

s ys t e m.

-

Ac cur a c y

-

Ti mel i nes s

-

Si mpl e t o under s t a nd

1.2.6 i dent i f y cont r ol t ool s

Tool s f or cont r ol

As s i s t s t udent s t o know t he va r i ous t ool s

-

qua l i t y cont r ol

us ed i n c ont r ol l i ng a ct i vi t i es i n an

-

per f or mance appr ai s al

or ga ni zat i on.

s ys t e ms

-

i nvent or y cont r ol

-

br ea k
-
e ve n c har t s

As s i s t s t udent s t o appl y t he pr i nci pl es

-

budget

l ear nt i n s ol vi ng pr obl e ms t hr ough ca s e

-

f i na nci al r at i os

s t udy

26


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 2

TERM THREE

SECTION 2

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

General objectives: The student will:

1. appreciate the need for information for business improvement.

2. recognize the importance of computers in business.

3. acquire practical skills in usi ng computers and computer software.

4. develop the skills acquired in solving basic problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

define „data and

INFORMATION

2.1.1.

Defi nition of data.

discuss the meani ng of information and

Collect examination marks

SEARCH SKILLS

„information .

Defi nition of information.

disti nguish between data and information.

of a class of about fifty

students. Analyse in terms

of gender and performance.

Explain the issues that

come out per your analysis.

2.1.2 describe the i mportance of

The need for, and uses of information

discuss the importance and uses of

Assign students tasks

information.

i nformation.

which will demand the use

of the sources listed under

Content to be submitted

within a set period of time.

2.1.2 identi fy the different types of

Sources of business information

discuss contents and uses of sources

reference books and other

Dictionary, Year Book,

l isted under content.

sources of business

Encyclopaedia, Telephone Directory,

information.

Almanacs, Internet (Search Engines),

discuss types of informati on one can get

Post Office Guide, etc.

from the various sources.

2.1.3 select and use appropriate

Sel ecti on of appropriate sources

Select a number of business topics and

books and other sources for

ask students to indicate which references

different types of

to consult for information on the sel ected

information.

topics.

27


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

COMPUTERS IN

2.2.1 describe the functions of the

Functions of the computer

discuss the various functions of the

BUSINESS

computer.

-

Re cei vi ng

c omput er.

-

St or i ng

-

Pr oces s i ng

a ppl y t he pr i nci pl e s l e ar nt i n s ol vi ng

-

Ret r i e vi ng of dat a/i nf or ma t i on

pr obl e ms t hr ough c as e s t udy.

2.2.2 des cr i be s peci f i c appl i c at i ons

Appl i cat i on of comput er s i n

di s cus s us e s of t he comput er i n t he

Or gani ze a debat e on t he

of t he comput er i n bus i ne s s.

bus i nes s

bus i nes s e nvi r onme nt.

t opi c “ Comput er s ar e mor e

of a l i a bi l i t y t ha n an as s et ”.

-

Ac count i ng r ecor ds

-

Wor d Pr oc es s i ng

NOTE:

Ar r a nge f or s t ude nt s t o pr a ct i ce

-

Gr aphi cs

on comput er s i n t he s chool, r e s our ce

St udent s s houl d pr e s ent a

-

Dat a Pr oces s i ng

c ent r e, or an of f i ce i n t he communi t y.

r e por t af t er t he de bat e.

-

Communi c at i on et c.

2.2.3 des cr i be t he adva nt a ges and

Advant a ge s

di s cus s t he advant a ges of t he comput er.

pr obl e ms of comput er s i n

-

Speed

bus i nes s.

-

Ac cur a c y

-

Ti me s a vi ng, et c.

Pr obl e ms

di s cus s s ome of t he pr obl ems of

-

Cos t

c omput er s i n bus i ne s s and t he

-

Per i odi c har dwar e pr obl ems

pr eca ut i ons t o t a ke i n us i ng c omput er s i n

-

Ef f e ct s of vi r us on i nf or ma t i on

bus i nes s.

s t or e d on t he har d dr i ve a nd on

di s ket t es, pen
-
dr i ve, compact

di s k,

-

Unr el i a bl e el ect r i ci t y s uppl y

28


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 3

TERM ONE

SECTION 1

LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS

General objectives: The student will:

1. understand the principles of contract and agency and how these affect business.

2. appreciate the importance of negotiable instruments in business transactions.

3. develop the skills acquired in solving basic problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

LAW OF CONTRACT

1.1.1 define contract.

Meaning of Contract

Assist students to discuss the meaning of

A legally binding agreement

contract.

between two or more parties.

Note:

Invite a resource person, e.g.

l awyer or an experienced

businessman/woman, to talk to the class

on some legal aspects of business.

1.1.2 distinguish between a contract

Differences between a contract and

Students to discuss differences between a

and a promise.

a promise

contract and a promise.

Promise: is an agreement which is

not enforceabl e.

Contract: is an agreement which is

enforceabl e.

1.1.3 explain the elements and

Elements and general principles of

Assist students to discuss each of the

Teacher to develop a mini
-

general principles of contract.

contract

elements of a contract, pointi ng out their

case to test students

-

Of f er and ac cept anc e,

r el e vance and s i gni f i cance t o bus i nes s

under s t a ndi ng of t he

-

i nt e nt i on t o c ont r act,

c ont r act s.

ge ner al pr i nci pl e s of

-

capaci t y,

c ont r act.

-

f or mal i t i es,

-

i l l e ga l i t y, a nd

-

cons i de r at i on.

29


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

LAW OF CONTRACT

1.1.4 classify contracts.

Classification of contract

discuss how contracts are classified.

Explain circumstances

-

Si mpl e,

under whi ch a cont r act

-

Speci al t y, and

c oul d be voi d or voi dabl e.

-

Cont r a ct of r ecor ds.

1.1.5 s t at e a nd expl ai n t he wa ys by

Voi d and voi dabl e c ont r act s

di s cus s how an appar ent l y val i d cont r act

St udent s i nves t i gat e t he

whi ch a c ont r act ma y be

-

Mi s r e pr es e nt at i on

ma y be vi t i at e d or we a ke ned.

r e me di e s f or br ea ch of

vi t i at e d or wea ke ned

-

Mi s t a ke

c ont r act.

-

Dur es s

-

Undue i nf l uence et c.

1.1.6 s t at e t he wa ys by whi c h a

Wa ys of di s char gi ng a cont r act

di s cus s t he wa ys by whi ch a cont r a ct ma y

St udent s a ns wer ques t i ons

c ont r act ma y be di s char ge d

-

Per f or ma nce

be di s c har ged.

on var i ous t er ms us i ng

-

Agr ee me nt

s i mpl e cas es.

-

Fr us t r at i on

-

Br e ach

-

La ps e of t i me

1.1.7 expl ai n s ome t er ms r el e va nt t o

Ter ms r el e vant t o c ont a ct

di s cus s t he var i ous l e gal t er ms l i s t ed i n

St udent s gi ve s a mpl es of

c ont r act

-

Unenf or ce abl e

t he cont ent wi t h s t udent s

a genc y r el at i ons hi ps i n t hei r

-

Uni l at e r al

c ommuni t y.

-

Bi l a t er al a gr ee me nt

-

Condi t i on

-

War r a nt y

30


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

PRINCIPLES OF

1.2.1 descri be how an agency is

Creation of Agency

discuss differences between a pri ncipal

Teacher develops a case

AGENCY

formed and how it functions

-

Agr ee me nt

a nd an a gent, and how a genc y i s f or med.

s t udy t o t e s t t he r i ght s and

-

Ne ces s i t y

dut i es of a n a ge nt a nd a

-

Rat i f i cat i on

pr i nci pal.

-

Appoi nt me nt et c.

Pr i nci pal and a ge nt r el at i ons hi p

1.2.2 out l i ne t he dut i es of a n a ge nt

Dut i es of a n a gent

di s cus s t he dut i es expect ed of a n a ge nt t o

a nd a Pr i nci pal

Dut i es of a pr i nci pal

hi s pr i nci pal and vi ce ver s a.

1.2.3 des cr i be t he r i ght s of a

Ri ght s of pr i nci pal and a gent

di s cus s wa ys by whi ch a ge nt s ma y be

pr i nci pal and a n a ge nt

-

I nde mni t y

c ompe ns at ed f or t hei r s er vi c es.

-

Re muner at i on

-

Li e n

-

Di s mi s s al et c.

1.2.4 s t at e how a n a ge nc y ma y be

Ter mi nat i on of a genc y

di s cus s wa ys by whi ch an age nc y ma y be

t er mi nat e d

By a gr ee me nt, r enunci at i on,

t er mi nat e d.

r e voc at i on, pe r f or ma nce, et c.

31


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3

The student will be able
to:

NEGOTIABLE

1.3.1 explain the meaning of

Meaning of negotiable instrument

Through discussions, guide students to

INSTRUMENTS

negotiable instrument.

A written document which

come out with the meaning of negotiable

represents money and gives any

i nstruments.

holder who has come by it honestl y

the right to enforce any payment

due.

1.3.2 explain the characteristics of

Characteristics of a negotiable

Show students samples of cheque, and let

Teacher to collect samples

negotiable instruments.

instrument

them note its features.

of cheques and assist

-

I t mus t be f r eel y t r ans f er a bl e,

s t ude nt s t o f i l l t he m.

l i ke cas h, by del i ver y.

-

I t mus t be capabl e of bei ng

s eal e d upon by t he per s on

hol di ng i t f or t he t i me bei ng.

1.3.3 s t at e a nd des cr i be t he t ypes of

Types of ne got i a bl e i ns t r ume nt s

As s i s t s t udent s t o i dent i f y t he t ype s of

Obt ai n s a mpl es of che ques

ne got i abl e i ns t r ume nt s.

-

Cheques

ne got i abl e i ns t r ume nt s i n bus i ne s s

a nd f i l l i n cl as s.

-

Bi l l s of e xchange

t r a ns a ct i ons.

-

Pr omi s s or y not es

1.3.4 des cr i be t he cl a s s i f i c at i on a nd

Cl as s i f i cat i on of c heques

As s i s t s t udent s t o di s cus s cl a s s i f i c at i on

t ypes of c heques.

-

Open and

a nd t ypes of cheques and how t he y ar e

-

Cr os s e d

us ed. St r es s on cons e que nc e of i s s ui ng

dud cheques. E.g. pa yme nt of a f i ne.

Types

-

Be ar er

-

Or der

-

Cer t i f i ed

-

Tr a vel er s

-

St al e et c.

1.3.5 s t at e t he a dvant a ges a nd

Advant a ge s a nd di s advant age s of

St udent s t o di s cus s t he advant a ge s a nd

di s adva nt a ges of che que s.

c heques.

di s adva nt a ges of che que s.

1.3.6 des cr i be wa ys by whi ch

Wa ys of a voi di ng cheque f r a ud

Gui de s t udent s t o out l i ne t he i mpor t ance

c heque f r aud ma y be

-

Pa y by cr os s e d che que s

of cr os s ed cheques.

pr e ve nt e d.

-

Keep unus ed cheques under

l oc k

-

St op mi s s i ng c heques

32


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 3

TERM TWO

SECTION 1

FINANCE AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

General objectives: The student will:

1. be aware of the relationship between mo
ney, banking, inflation and deflation.

2. recognize the role of the stock exchange and insurance in business.

3. develop skills in solving basic business problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

MONEY

1.1.1. state the meaning of money.

Defi nition of money

Students to brainstorm to come out with

Before the lesson, students

Any commodity which is generally

the definition of money.

should enquire from

accepted as a means of payment

parents and other adults,

and settlement of debts

forms of monies used in the

past for discussion in cl ass.

1.1.2. state the characteristics of

Characteristics of money

Through role play, assist students to

money.

-

por t abi l i t y

i de nt i f y t he c har a ct er i s t i cs of mone y.

-

di vi s i bi l i t y

-

acce pt a bi l i t y

-

dur abi l i t y

-

s t abi l i t y of val ue

-

cogni s i bi l i t y

-

homoge nei t y

1.1.3 expl ai n t he f unct i ons of mone y.

Funct i ons of mone y

St udent s t o br ai ns t or m t o br i ng out t he

Wr i t e f i ve us e s of mone y i n

-

Medi um of e xchange

f unct i ons of mone y.

a moder n ec onomy.

-

St or e of val ue

-

Uni t of a ccount

-

St a ndar d of def er r ed pa yme nt

1.1.4 expl ai n i nf l at i on.

Me ani ng of i nf l at i on

Us e c hanges i n pr i ce s of s ome

A cons i s t e nt and per s i s t ent r i s e i n

c ommodi t i es over a per i od of t i me t o

ge ner al pr i ce l e vel.

a s s i s t s t udent s t o de f i ne i nf l at i on

33


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

The student will be able to:

ONT’D

UNIT 1 (C

)

1.1.5 identify the primary causes of

Primary causes of inflation

Students to brainstorm on possible

State four causes of

MONEY

inflati on.

-

De f i ci t f i na nci ng

c aus e s of i nf l at i on i n Gha na.

i nf l at i on i n Ghana.

-

Low pr oduct i vi t y

Gui de s t udent s t o di f f er e nt i at e bet wee n

-

Hi gh pr i c es of i mpor t s

pr i mar y and s e condar y caus es of i nf l at i on.



E.g. Pr i ma r y caus e

l ow pr oduct i vi t y

Sec ondar y ca us es



l ow l e vel of

t e chnol ogy, l a c k of f i nanc e, poor we at he r.

UNI T 2

1.2.1 des cr i be t ypes of ba nks.

Types of ba nks

Gui de s t udent s t o e xpl ai n t he va r i ous

BANKI NG

-

Ce nt r al ba nk

t ypes of banks i n Ghana. E.g.

-

Comme r ci al bank

Comme r ci al ba nks ar e l i mi t e d l i abi l i t y

-

Mer c hant ba nks

c ompa ni es t hat a cce pt depos i t s f r om a nd

-

Uni ver s al ba nks

gr ant l oans t o c us t omer s.

-

De vel opme nt banks

-

Rur al ba nks

1.2.2 des cr i be t he f unct i ons of t he

Funct i ons of var i ous t ypes of banks

St udent s t o br ai ns t or m t o come out wi t h

St udent s vi s i t a l ocal ba nk

va r i ous t ypes of ba nks.

t he f unc t i ons of c omme r ci al ba nks and

a nd wr i t e es s a y on t he

ot her t ypes of ba nks, exc ept Cent r al

s er vi c es pr ovi ded by t he

3.1.1

Bank.

bank t o i t s c us t ome r s.

1.2.3 des cr i be t he t ype s of ac count s

Types of acc ount s

oper a t ed i n ba nks.

Sa vi ngs, cur r ent, f i xed depos i t a nd

As s i s t s t udent s t o de s cr i be t he t ype s of

c al l a ccount s

a ccount s.

1.2.4 i dent i f y var i ous banki ng

Banki ng doc ument s

doc ument s a nd t hei r us es.

-

Pa yi ng
-
in
-
slips

Show copies of banking documents and

-

Wi t hdr a wal f or ms

gui de s t udent s t o di s cus s t hei r us es.

-

Cheques, et c.

1.2.5 s t at e t he mai n f unct i ons of t he

Funct i ons of t he Cent r al Bank

c ent r al bank

-

I s s ui ng and r ede mpt i on of

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s t he f unct i ons of

c ur r e nc y

t he Ce nt r al Bank.

-

Ba nke r t o t he gover nme nt

-

Ba nke r t o t he ot he r banks

-

Le nder of l a s t r e s or t

-

Cont r ol of mone y s uppl y

1.2.6 expl ai n how t he Ce nt r al Bank

Tool s of monet ar y cont r ol

St udent s t o br ai ns t or m t o br i ng out t he

Wr i t e f our f unct i ons of t he

c ont r ol s mone y i n ci r c ul at i on

-

Open mar ket oper at i on

me a ns by whi c h t he Cent r al Bank i s abl e

Cent r al Ba nk.

-

Ba nk r at e

t o c ont r ol mone y i n ci r cul at i on.

-

Ca s h r at i o

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s t he monet ar y

-

Mor al s uas i on

c ont r ol t ool s of t he cent r al bank.

34


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3

The student will be able to:

INSURANCE AND

1.3.1 define ri sk management.

Defi nition of risk management

Guide students to define risk

State and explain five types

RISK MANAGEMENT

Invol ves action taken by

management.

of business risks.

management of a busi ness to avoid

or mini mize losses

1.3.2 explain business risk and

Meaning of business risk

Guide students to i dentify various types of

the possibi lity that a firm s

various types of risk.

This is

business risks.

performance will be lower than

expected because of its exposure

to speci fic conditions.

1.3.3 identify the tasks involved in

Tasks in risk management

Assist students to discuss the tasks

Identify a business in your

risk management.

-

I de nt i f y expos ur e t o r i s k

i nvol ved i n r i s k mana ge me nt.

l ocal i t y a nd gi ve an

-

Ri s k as s e s s ment

a s s es s ment of i t s r i s ks.

-

Ri s k pol i c y

-

Ri s k r e vi e w

1.3.4. s t at e t he mea ni ng of

Me ani ng of i ns ur ance

Thr ough r ol e pl a y gui de s t udent s t o def i ne

i ns ur ance.

I t i s t he s har i ng of t he l os s of t he

i ns ur ance.

f e w a mong t he many.

1.3.5 out l i ne t he pr i nci pl es of

Pr i nci pl es of i ns ur anc e

Us e ca s e s t udy t o gui de s t udent s t o

i ns ur ance.

-

Pool i ng of r i s ks

i de nt i f y t he pr i nci pl es of i ns ur ance and

-

Ut mos t good f ai t h

s how t hei r r el e va nce i n bus i nes s

-

I nde mni t y

-

I ns ur abl e i nt er e s t

Not e: St udent s t o vi s i t an i ns ur ance

c ompa ny or i nvi t e a r es our c e per s on f r om

a n i ns ur anc e c ompa ny t o t hr ow mor e l i ght

on t he oper at i ons of i ns ur a nc e

c ompa ni es.

1.3.6 gi ve r eas ons why i ns ur a nce i s

I mpor t a nce of i ns ur a nce

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s t he i mpor t ance

Gi ve f i ve r eas ons why

i mpor t a nt t o bus i nes s.

-

Compe ns at e s bus i nes s f or

of i ns ur anc e i n bus i nes s.

e ver y bus i nes s s houl d t a ke

l os s e s

i ns ur ance

.

-

Pr ot ect s or ga ni zat i onal as s et s

-

Enabl e s e nt r e pr eneur s t o i nves t

i n r i s ky ve nt ur es, et c.

1.3.7 di f f er e nt i at e bet wee n t he

Types of I ns ur ance

As s i s t s t udent s t o di s t i ngui s h bet wee n t he

va r i ous t ypes of i ns ur ance.

Li f e, Fi r e, Acci dent, Ma r i ne

va r i ous t ypes of i ns ur ance.

35


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

INSURANCE AND

1.3.8 describe types of insurance

Insurance pol icies

Assist students to discuss the types of

Students to state with

RISK MANAGEMENT

pol icies that are necessary for

-

Pr oper t y,

i ns ur ance pol i ci es a bus i nes s f i r m s houl d

r e as ons, t he t ype s of

a bus i nes s f i r m.

-

Mot or Vehi cl e

t a ke t o pr ot ect i t s i nt er es t s.

i ns ur ance pol i ci es a

-

Cons equent i a l Los s

bus i nes s s houl d ha ve.

-

Bur gl ar y

-

Fi del i t y Guar ant e e

Empl oyer s Li abi l i t y

-

-

Goods
-
in
-
transit etc.

UNIT 4

STOCK EXCHANGE

1.4.1 state the meaning of stock

Meaning of stock exchange

Assist students to discuss the meani ng of

exchange.

Capital market where secondary

stock exchange

securities are bought and sol d

Invite a resource person to brief students

on the history and operations of stock

exchange in Ghana.

1.4.2 explain the functions of the

Functions of the stock exchange

Guide students to discuss the functi ons of

stock exchange.

-

Pr ovi des ma r ket f or r ai s i ng

t he s t oc k e xc hange.

l ong
-
t er m capi t al

-

Pr ovi des quot at i on f or s har e

pr i ces

-

Pr ot ect s t he i nt er e s t of i nve s t or s

-

Re gul at es t he act i vi t i e s of l i s t ed

c ompa ni es and br oker a ge f i r ms.

1.4.2 des cr i be t he t ype s of s ecur i t i es

Types of s ec ur i t i e s

Thr ough di s c us s i on as s i s t s t ude nt s t o

St udent s a nal yze t he

t r a de d on t he s t oc k excha nge.

-

Shar es

i de nt i f y and expl ai n t ypes of s ecur i t i es

i mpor t a nce of t he s t oc k

-

Bonds

t r a de d on t he s t oc k excha nge mar ket.

e xchange i n i ndus t r i al

e xpa ns i on.

1.4.3 des cr i be t he pr oc edur e of

Tr adi ng pr oce dur e s on t he s t oc k

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s t r a di ng

t r a ns a ct i ons on t he s t oc k

e xchange f l oor.

a ct i vi t i es on t he s t oc k exc ha nge a nd t he

e xchange

s peci al i s t s i nvol ved.

36


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 3

TERM THREE

SECTION 1

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE ECONOMY

General objectives: The student will:

1. recognize the sources of government revenue.

2. appreciate the need for the payment of taxes.

3. be aware of how government spends revenue generated.

4. develop skills in using the principles learnt in solving basic problems through case study (scen
ario).

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

GOVERNMENT

1.1.1 explain the rol e of government

Role of government

discuss the responsibilities of government

Look for newspaper reports

REVENUE

in an economy

Provision of;

i n modern society.

on recent government

-

heal t h f aci l i t i es

i ni t i at i ve t o s uppor t pr i vat e

-

educat i on

s ect or bus i nes s es f or cl as s

-

f i na nce and economi c pl a nni ng

di s cus s i on.

-

def e ns e ( l a w and or de r )

-

s oci al wel f ar e

1.1.2 des cr i be t he s our c es of

Sour ces of r e venue

i de nt i f y s our c es of gover nme nt r e ve nue.

gove r nme nt r e ve nue.

Taxes ( di r e ct a nd i ndi r ect ),

bor r owi ng, r oyal t i es, l e vi es, et c.

1.1.3 des cr i be t ype s of gover nment

Types of gover nment r e venue

di s cus s t ypes of gover nme nt r e venue.

St udent s t o vi s i t t he Di s t r i ct

r e venue.

Capi t al a nd r ec ur r e nt ,

As s e mbl y or I nt er nal

Rec ei pt s ( def i ni t i ons a nd

Re venue Of f i ce, t o f i nd out

e xa mpl es )

mor e a bout s our ces of

gove r nme nt r e ve nue a nd

1.1.4 des cr i be t ype s of gover nment

Di r ec t a nd I ndi r ect t a xes

di s cus s di r e ct a nd i ndi r ect t a xes.

e xpe ndi t ur e.

t a xes.

( I ncl udi ng VAT) e.g. c us t oms

A r epor t s houl d be

dut i es, exci s e dut i e s, cor por at e t ax,

s ubmi t t e d f or cl as s

et c.

di s cus s i on.

37


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

GOVERNMENT

REVENUE

1.1.5 state the purpose of taxation.

Purpose of taxation

Using newspaper reports, guide students

-

t o r ai s e r e venue

t o s t at e t he pur pos es of t axat i on.

-

t o r edi s t r i but e i ncome et c.

Pr obl e ms of t ax col l ect i on

1.1.6 i dent i f y t he pr obl e ms of t ax

-

t ax e vas i on

As s i s t s t udent s t o i dent i f y a nd di s cus s t he

c ol l ect i on.

-

t ax a voi da nce

pr obl e ms i n t ax col l ect i on.

-

i de nt i f i cat i on of t a x pa yer s

-

l ac k of r e cor ds

1.1.7 des cr i be t ype s of gover nment

Types of gover nment expendi t ur e

As s i s t s t udent s t o i dent i f y a nd di s cus s

St udent s wr i t e an es s a y on

e xpe ndi t ur e.

-

Ca pi t al e.g. r oads

t ypes of gove r nme nt e xpendi t ur e.

t he i mpor t a nce of t a xes and

-

Re cur r ent expendi t ur e .e.g.

nat i onal de vel opment.

wa ges and s al ar i e s

1.1.8 e xpl ai n how gover nment

I t e ms of gover nme nt expendi t ur e

Us i ng r ece nt s t at i s t i cs, gui de s t ude nt s t o

s pends r e venue gener at e d.

-

def e ns e

i de nt i f y how gove r nme nt expe ndi t ur e i s

-

admi ni s t r at i on

cl as s i f i ed.

-

s oci al a me ni t i e s

-

economi c i nf r as t r uct ur e et c.

38


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 3

SECTION 2

INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

General objectives: The student will:

1. recognize the importance of trade.

2. identify problems facing developing economies in International trade.

3. develop skill in using principles learnt i n solving basic problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

INTERNATIONAL

2.1.1 define trade.

Meaning of trade

discuss the meaning of trade,

TRADE

Exchange of goods and servi ces

differentiating between domestic trade

between buyers and sellers.

and international trade.

2.1.2 describe documents used in

Documents used i n domestic trade

discuss the types of documents used in

Explain four importance of

trade.

-

Let t er of enqui r y

bot h domes t i c a nd i nt er nat i onal t r a de.

doc ument s us ed i n t r a de.

-

Quot at i on

Obt ai n s ome of t hes e docume nt s and

-

Or der

s how t he m t o s t udent s i n cl a s s.

-

I nvoi ce

-

Re cei pt

-

De bi t and cr edi t not es

Doc ument s us e d i n i nt e r nat i onal

t r a de

-

Bi l l of l a di ng

-

Cons ul ar i nvoi ce

-

Cer t i f i cat e of i ns ur anc e

-

Shi ppi ng not e

2.1.3 gi ve r eas ons why i nt er nat i onal

Rea s ons f or i nt er nat i onal t r a de

br ai ns t or m t o come out wi t h r e as ons i n

St udent s wr i t e s hor t es s a y

t r a de i s i mpor t ant.

-

Di f f er ences i n r es our ce

s uppor t of i nt e r nat i ona l t r a de.

on t he i mpor t anc e of

e ndowme nt

i nt er nat i onal t r ade.

-

Ec onomi es of s cal e

-

As s es s t o goods not

pr oduce d

-

i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons hi ps

2.1.4 out l i ne t he bas es of

Bas es f or i nt er nat i onal t r a de

e xpl ai n abs ol ut e c os t advant a ge and

i nt er nat i onal t r ade.

-

Abs ol ut e cos t a dva nt a ge

c ompar at i ve c os t advant a ge us i ng var i ous

-

Compar a t i ve cos t advant a ge.

i l l us t r at i ons.

39


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

INTERNATIONAL

2.1.5 interpret some terms of trade.

Terms of trade

discuss the meaning of the selected terms

Organize a debate on why

TRADE

CIF, FOB, Ex
-
Works, Franco

of trade under Content.

there should be no

restrictions to international

2.1.6 differentiate between balance of

Bal ance of trade

discuss the differences between balance

trade.

trade and balance of payment.

Bal ance of payment

of trade and balance of payment.

discuss restrictions in i nternational trade

2.1.7 analyze the various restrictions

Restrictions in international trade

and the reasons for each restricti on.

in internati onal trade and the

e.g.

reasons for each restricti on.

-

t ar i f f s,

-

quot as,

-

e mbar goe s, et c.

2.1.8 de s cr i be t he me as ur es a

Me as ur es t o cor r ect bal a nce of

di s cus s me as ur es f or c or r ect i ng adver s e

c ount r y ma y adopt t o cor r ect an

pa yme nt

bal ance of pa yme nt.

a dver s e bal anc e of pa yme nt.

-

i mpor t r es t r i ct i ons ( quot a,

t ar i f, e mb
a r go, et c.)

-

ma s s pr oduct i on

UNI T 2

-

expor t pr omot i on et c.

DEVELOPI NG

ECONOMI ES AND

2.2.1 des cr i be t he char act er i s t i c s of a

Cha r act e r i s t i cs of a de vel opi ng

I de nt i f y a nd di s c us s t he c har act er i s t i cs of

Re vi e w ne ws pa per s a nd

I NTERNATI ONAL

de vel opi ng ec onomy i n r el at i on

e conomy

a de vel opi ng economy.

wr i t e a r epor t on t he r ol e of

TRADE

to international trade.

-

Low per ca pi t a i ncome

t he Wor l d Bank i n

-

Ec onomy bas ed es s e nt i al l y

i nt er nat i onal t r ade.

on nat ur al r es our c es

-

Low mai nt ai ni ng bas e

-

I mpor t depe nde nc y

2.2.2 a nal yze t he ef f e ct s of t he

Ef f ect s of c har act er i s t i cs of a

di s cus s how t he c har act er i s t i c s of a

c har a ct er i s t i cs of a de vel opi ng

de vel opi ng ec onomy on t he

de vel opi ng ec onomy a ppl y i n t he c as e of

e conomy on t he e conomy of

e conomy of Gha na.

Gha na.

Gha na.

2.2.3 e xpl ai n t he r ol e of s ome

Rol e of I ns t i t ut i ons

di s cus s t he r ol e of I MF, Wor l d Ba nk and

Es s a y

i ns t i t ut i ons i n i nt er nat i onal t r a de.

-

I nt er nat i onal Monet ar y Fund

UNCTAD i n i nt er nat i onal t r a de, us i ng

Sugges t 5 cr i t i cal ar ea s t o

( I MF)

me di a r epor t s.

c ons i der ( wi t h r ea s ons ) i n

-

I nt er nat i onal Bank f or

a ny pl a n t o i mpr ove

Gha na s par t i ci pat i on i n

Rec onci l i at i on and

De vel opment/Wor l d Bank

i nt er nat i onal t r ade.

-

Uni t ed Nat i ons Conf er enc e on

Tr ade a nd De vel opme nt

( UNCTAD)

40


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2

(CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

DEVELOPING

2.2.4 suggest ways by which Ghana

Suggestions

Discuss ways of i mproving upon the

ECONOMIES AND

can improve i ts economy

-

Re duc i ng depe nde nce on

e conomy of Gha na.

I NTERNATI ONAL

i mpor t. Enha nci ng women s

TRADE

participation in economic

development by their

empowerment.

41


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 4

TERM ONE

SECTION 1

GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

General objectives: The student will:

1. appreciate the effects of globalization on business operations.

2. recognize the importance of economic integration.

3. understand the roles of various economic groupings.

4. develop skills in using the principles learnt in solving basic problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

GLOBALIZATION

1.1.1 define globalization.

Meaning of global ization

Assist students to discuss the causes of

Invol ves the growing

globalization.

interdependence among countries

as reflected by i ncreasi ng cross
-

boarder flow of goods,

servi ces, capital and know
-
how.

1.1.2 explain the causes of

Causes of globali zati on

Using newspaper reports, guide students

Students write an essay on

globalization.

-

Tr a de l i ber al i zat i on

t o di s cus s t he ca us es of gl obal i zat i on.

gl obal i zat i on.

-

Ra pi d t ec hnol ogi cal

Advance ment

-

I ncr eas i ng i mpor t anc e of mul t i
-

nat i onal s

1.1.3 out l i ne t he advant a ges and

Advant a ge s of gl obal i zat i on

Gui de s t udent s t o di s c us s t he adva nt a ges

St udent s vi s i t t he I nt e r net

di s adva nt a ges of gl obal i zat i on.

-

Lowe r i ng of t r a de bar r i er s

a nd di s advant a ges of gl obal i zat i on.

c af é and s ear c h f or

-

Lowe r i ng of i nves t me nt bar r i er s

i nf or mat i on on t he

-

Gr eat er ef f i ci enc y

a dva nt a ges and

-

Lowe r pr i ces of goods and

di s adva nt a ges of

s er vi c es

gl obal i zat i on f or di s cus s i on

i n cl as s.

42


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

ONT’D

UNIT 1 (C

)

The student will be able to:

GLOBALIZATION

Disadvantages of globalizati on

-

Fal l i ng t r a de bar r i er s of t e n

des t r oy j obs.

-

Re qui r es huge capi t al

-

I ncr eas e i n c ompet i t i on

-

Hi gh une mpl oyme nt

UNI T 2

ECONOMI C

I NTEGRATI ON

1.2.1 def i ne e conomi c i nt e gr at i on.

Def i ni t i on of ec onomi c i nt e gr at i on

As s i s t s t udent s t o di s cus s t he mea ni ng of

t he comi ng t oget her of count r i e s

e conomi c i nt e gr at i on.

wi t h c ommon de vel opme nt al

a genda, e s pe ci al l y t o pr omot e

t r a de by e ns ur i ng t he f r ee

move me nt of goods and per s ons

1.2.2 des cr i be t he oper at i ons of t he

Rol e s of Ec onomi c Uni ons

I nvi t e r es our ce per s ons t o t al k t o s t ude nt s

St udent s wr i t e an es s a y on

Economi c Uni ons.

-

Ec onomi c Communi t y of Wes t

on economi c i nt e gr a t i on a nd t he r ol es of

t he r ol e of ECOWAS.

Af r i c an St at es, ( ECOWAS)

Economi c Communi t i es and Common

-

Af r i can Uni on, ( AU)

Mar ket s.

-

Eur opean Uni on, ( EU)

-

Af r i can Eur opea n Paci f i c

Count r i e s ( AEPC)

43


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 4

TERM ONE

SECTION 2

FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF MANAGEMENT I

General objectives: The student will:

1. acquire knowledge of the principles of human resource management and labour relations.

2. be aware of production management systems.

3. develop skill in using principles learnt for solvi ng basi c problems through case study.(scenario).

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

ELEMENTS OF

1.1.1 explain human resource

Defi nition of human resource

discuss the meaning of human resource

HUMAN RESOURCE

management.

management

and human resource management.

MANAGEMENT

All the activi ties that managers

engage in to attract and retain

employees and to ensure that they

perform at a high level and

contri bute to the accomplishment of

organizati onal goals.

1.1.2 describe the functions of

Functions of human resource

discuss the functi ons of the human

Students to interview

human resource management.

management

resource department headed by the

human resource managers

-

huma n r es our ce pl anni ng

human r e s our ce mana ger

on t hei r r ol es and pr es e nt a

-

r ecr ui t ment and s el e ct i on

r e por t.

-

or i e nt at i on and pl ace me nt

Not e:

I nvi t e a r es our c e per s on i n

-

t r ai ni ng and de vel opment

bus i nes s t o t al k t o s t udent s on f unct i ons

-

per f or mance ma na ge me nt

of human r e s our ce mana geme nt.

-

compens at i on a nd be nef i t

-

car e er de vel opme nt

1.1.3 des cr i be t he s t eps i nvol ved i n

St eps i n t he r ecr ui t ment pr oc es s

di s cus s t he s e que nce of s t e ps t o f ol l ow i n

Or gani ze a debat e on t he

r e cr ui t ment of s t af f.

-

Adver t i s e

r e cr ui t i ng ne w s t af f. Expl ai n each of t he

me r i t s a nd de me r i t s of

-

Scr een appl i c at i ons

s t eps l i s t ed i n t he c ont ent.

i nt er nal a nd ext er nal

-

Pr e par e s hor t
-
l i s t

r e cr ui t me nt.

-

I nt er vi e w candi da t es

44


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

ELEMENTS OF

1.1.3 describe the steps i nvolved in

Steps in the recruitment process

discuss the sequence of steps to follow in

Organize a debate on the

HUMAN RESOURCE

recrui tment of staff.

-

Adver t i s e

r e cr ui t i ng ne w s t af f. Expl ai n each of t he

me r i t s a nd de me r i t s of

MANAGEMENT

-

Scr een appl i c at i ons

s t eps l i s t ed i n t he c ont ent.

i nt er nal a nd ext er nal

-

Pr e par e s hor t
-
l i s t

r e cr ui t me nt.

-

I nt er vi e w candi da t es

-

Chec k r ef er e nces

-

Sel ect candi da t es f r om r es ul t s

of i nt er vi ew, r ef er enc es

-

Medi c al exa mi nat i on

1.1.4 i dent i f y s our ces of

Sour ces of r e cr ui t me nt

r e cr ui t me nt.

-

Empl oye e r ef er r al

Us i ng var i ous s our ces i ncl udi ng

St udent s di s t i ngui s h

-

Empl oyme nt a ge nci e s

news pa per r e por t s, gui de s t ude nt s t o

bet ween i nt er nal s our ces

-

Col l e ges/uni ve r s i t i e s

i de nt i f y va r i ous s our ces of r e cr ui t me nt.

a nd ext er nal s our c es of

-

Compa ny we bs i t es

r e cr ui t me nt.

-

I nt er net

-

Ne ws pa per/TV adver t s

1.1.5 des cr i be t ypes of t r ai ni ng.

Types of t r ai ni ng

As s i s t s t udent s t o di s cus s t he va r i ous

-

On
-
the
-
job

types of training in busi ness.

-

Appr e nt i ce s hi p

-

Of f
-
t he
-
j ob

-

Spons or e d c our s es

1.1.6 des cr i be t he act i vi t i es i nvol ved

J ob anal ys i s

As s i s t s t udent s t o go t hr ough t he a ct i ons

St udent s i n gr oups t o

i n j ob anal ys i s.

-

J ob des cr i pt i on

i nvol ved i n t he pr epar at i on of j ob a nal ys i s.

r e vi e w ne ws paper a dver t s

-

J ob s peci f i cat i on

on vac ant pos i t i ons i n

Not e:

St r es s on per s onal qual i t i es of

or ga ni zat i ons t o i dent i f y j ob

woul d
-
be e mpl oyee s f or ef f i ci ent

des cr i pt i ons and j ob

per f or ma nc e

s peci f i cat i ons.

1.1.7 out l i ne t he i mpor t a nce of

I mpor t a nce of pe r f or ma nce

St udent s t o br ai ns t or m on t he i mpor t a nce

Or gani ze a debat e i n cl as s

on t he t opi c” Shoul d

per f or ma nc e a ppr ai s al.

a ppr a i s al

of per f or ma nc e a ppr ai s al at t he wor k

-

Hel ps t o i de nt i f y s t r engt hs a nd

pl ace.

wor ker s be a ppr ai s e d at t he

wea kne s s es of e mpl oyees

wor k pl ac e?



-

Us ed t o i de nt i f y t r ai ni ng needs

-

Hel ps t o pl a n f or ma na geme nt

s ucce s s i on

-

Ser ves as ba s i s f or pr omot i on.

45


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

LABOUR RELATIONS

1.2.1 define labour relations

Definition of labour relations

define labour relati ons
-

that they are

“Trade Unions are a waste

of national resources”. Do

Consists of the steps that

organizati ons that represent workers and

managers take to develop and

seek to protect their interests through

you agree or disagree with

maintain good working

collective bargaining.

this statement? Give

relationships with the labour

reasons for your answer.

unions that may represent their

Students to submit their

employees interests.

work in class for discussi on.

1.2.2 define trade unions and

Defi nition of trade unions

Invite a resource person, preferably, the

describe their functions

Associati ons of workers which aim

l eader of the local labour union to talk to

at safeguarding the general

students about the functi ons of trade

interests of their members.

unions.

Functions of trade unions

Note:

Check on the website of Ghana

-

Ne got i at e f or I mpr ove d r at es of

Tr ades Uni on Congr e s s

f or i t s f unct i ons.

pa y

-

Ne got i at e f or good condi t i ons of

di s cus s t he f unct i ons of t r ade uni ons.

s er vi c e

-

Set t l i ng i ndus t r i al di s put e s

1.2.3 e xpl ai n col l e ct i ve ba r gai ni ng

Col l ect i ve bar gai ni ng a gr eeme nt

di s cus s t he i mpor t ance and me a ni ng of

St udent s r e vi e w caus es of

a nd i t s i mpor t anc e.

r ol e s

c ol l ect i ve bar gai ni ng i n an or ga ni zat i on.

s t r i ke act i ons by e mpl oyee s

-

Wa ge s a nd s al ar y det er mi nat i on

a nd s ubmi t a r e por t f or

-

Hour s of wor k

cl as s di s cus s i on.

-

J ob r i ght s and s ec ur i t y, et c.

1.2.4 des cr i be t he r i ght s of bot h

Ri ght s i n I ndus t r i al conf l i ct s

di s cus s t he r i ght s of bot h t r a de uni ons and

St udent s r e vi e w ne ws

ma na ge ment and t r ade uni ons

Ri ght s of t r ade uni ons e.g. s t r i kes,

ma na ge ment i n deal i ng wi t h i ndus t r i al

paper r e por t s/medi a r e por t s

i n i ndus t r i al conf l i ct s.

boycot t s, et c.

c onf l i ct s/l a bour di s put es.

on vi ol at i on of r i ght s of

e mpl oyees and pr e par e a

1.2.5 expl ai n t he r ol e t hat

Rol e of gover nme nt i n l abour

di s cus s t he var i ous wa ys t he gover nment

r e por t f or cl as s di s cus s i on.

gove r nme nt pl a ys i n l a bour

di s put e s

i nt er ve nes i n l abour r el at i ons.

r el at i ons

e.g. l a ws, t r i par t i t e commi t t e es,

l a bour c ommi s s i on,

1.2.6 des cr i be f act or s nee de d t o

Fact or s af f ec t i ng ef f i ci e nc y of

St udent s t o br ai ns t or m t o come out wi t h

ma i nt ai n a n e f f i ci e nt l abour

l a bour

f a ct or s t hat cont r i but e t o ef f i ci enc y of

f or ce i n bus i nes s.

-

Tr ai ni ng,

l abour.

-

Us e of moder n t echnol ogy,

-

Good wor ki ng c ondi t i ons

46


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

FUNDAMENTALS OF

1.3.1 explain the

term „

production

Defi nition of production

discuss the meani ng of production.

PRODUCTION

Transformation of raw materials

MANAGEMENT

and other inputs into goods and

servi ces.

1.3.2 explain production

Defi nition of producti on

discuss the meaning of production

Students in groups, to

management

management

management.

analyze the effect of the

Organi zation and control of the

absence of one of the

production process

factors of production on

business operation.

1.3.3 explain the importance of

Importance of production

brainstorm to come out with the

production management

management

i mportance of producti on management.

-

Sa ve cos t

-

Avoi d pl ant s hut downs

-

Ens ur e r e gul a r s uppl i es t o

c us t ome r s

-

Ens ur e r e pl ac e ment of wor n
-
out

par t s

1.3.3 i dent i f y t he mai n f or ms of

For ms of pr oduct i on

di s cus s t he var i ous f or ms of pr oduct i on

St at e and expl ai n t he

pr oduct i on

-

ext r a ct i ve

a nd s how how t hes e ar e gr oupe d i nt o

f a ct or s of pr oduct i on.

-

cons t r uct i ve

pr i mar y, s e condar y a nd t er t i ar y

-

ma nuf act ur i ng

occupat i ons.

-

comme r c i al

-

per s onal s er vi c es

1.3.4 me nt i on t he f i ve f act or s of

Fact or s of pr oduct i on:

di s cus s t he mea ni ng and a nal yze t he r ol e

pr oduct i on

Capi t al , l and, l a bour, ent r epr ene ur

a nd i mpor t ance of f act or s of pr oduct i on.

a nd knowl edge

1.3.5 e xpl ai n t he mea ni ng and r ol e

Capi t al



mone y, ma chi ner y a nd

i de nt i f y and di s c us s t he f i ve maj or

of t he f i ve bus i ne s s r es our ce s

ot her as s et s.

r e s our ces f or bus i nes s.

Nat ur al Re s our ces



l a nd, wat er,

e

xpl ai n or ga ni zat i ons need t o s har e a nd

mi ner al s a nd ot her r aw mat er i al s.

ma na ge knowl e dge a s a val uabl e

r e s our ce i n or der t o s ur vi ve.

Labour
-

s ki l l e d and uns ki l l e d

human power/l a bour

Ent r e pr e neur s hi p



t he per s on who

or ga ni zes c api t al, l and a nd l a bour

f or bus i nes s pr oduct i on.

47


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

FUNDAMENTALS OF

1.3.6 define specialization and

Knowledge



organized body of

discuss the relationship between

PRODUCTION

exchange.

information that forms the basis of

special ization and exchange in trade.

MANAGEMENT

insights or judgment.

Specialization and exchange.

1.3.7 identi fy the advantages and

Advantages and disadvantages of

discuss the advantages and

the disadvantages of

special ization.

disadvantages of specialization.

speci ali zati on.

1.3.8 explain the types of production

Types of production

discuss the various types of producti on

processes.

-

J ob,

pr oce s s e s.

-

Bat ch,

-

Fl ow.

1.3.9 des cr i be t he s t eps i n

St eps i n pr oduct i on pl a nni ng and

di s cus s det a i l s of pr oduct i on pl anni ng

St udent s t o f i nd out t he r ol e

pr oduct i on pl a nni ng and

c ont r ol

t ool s.

pl a ye d by

c ont r ol .

-

Rout i ng

a) Gha na St a ndar ds Boar d

-

Loadi ng

b) Food a nd Dr ugs Boar d

-

Sc hedul i ng

-

Di s pat c hi ng

1.3.10 a nal yze t he i mpor t a nce of

i ) I nve nt or y cont r ol



pur pos e

di s cus s t he i mpor t ance of qual i t y and

pr oduct i on c ont r ol.

i i ) Qual i t y Cont r ol

i nvent or y cont r ol s.

-

Pur pos e

-

St e ps

48


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 4

TERM TWO

SECTION 1

FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF MANAGEMENT II

General objectives: The student will:

1. appreciate the importance of marketing in business.

2. recognize the various sources of funding for a business.

3. develop skills in using princi ples learnt in solving problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

“Marketing is not relevant in

PRINCIPLES OF

1.1.1 define marketi ng.

Defi nition of marketing

Assist students to explain the meaning of

MARKETING

Process of planning and executing

marketing.

the business worl d”.

the conception, prici ng, promotion

Discuss in class.

and distributi on of ideas, goods and

servi ces to create exchanges that

satisfy i ndi vidual and organizational

objectives.

1.1.2 identify marketing activities.

Marketing acti vities

Use a case study (scenario) to guide

Students state the steps

-

Sel l i ng

s t ude nt s t o know t he act i vi t i e s i nvol ve d i n

t he y woul d t a ke t o mar ket a

-

Tr a ns por t i ng

ma r ket i ng.

new pr oduct or ma ke i t

-

St or i ng

a vai l a bl e t o t he ge ner al

-

Fi nanci ng.

publ i c t o s at i s f y t hei r nee ds.

Di s c us s t hes e s t e ps i n

1.1.3 def i ne mar ket s e gment at i on.

Def i ni t i on of mar ket s e gment at i on

St udent s t o br ai ns t or m t o come out wi t h

cl as s.

The pr oce s s of s ub
-
di vi di ng a

def i ni t i on of mar ket s e gment at i on.

ma r ket i nt o di s t i nc t s ubs et of

c us t ome r s t hat be ha ve i n t he s a me

wa y or ha ve s i mi l a r needs.

49


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT

1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Guide students to:

PRINCIPLES OF

1.1.4 explain the bases of market

Bases of market segmentation

explain the bases of market segmentation.

MARKETING

segmentati on.

-

De mogr aphi c

-

Ge ogr aphi c

-

Ps ychogr aphi c

di s cus s det a i l s of t he c ompone nt s of t he

1.1.5 def i ne a nd expl ai n t he

Mar ket i ng mi x

ma r ket i ng mi x

ma r ket i ng mi x.

Pr oduct, pr i ce, pr omot i on and pl ac e

( t he 4Ps )

Not e:

Exhaus t i ve t r eat me nt of t he 4ps i s

r e qui r ed.

1.1.6 expl ai n t he s t eps i n ne w

St eps i n ne w pr oduct de vel opment

i de nt i f y and expl ai n t he s t e ps i n ne w

De vel op cas e s t udy t o t es t

pr oduct de vel opment.

-

I dea gener at i on

pr oduct de vel opme nt.

s t ude nt s under s t andi ng of

-

Pr oduct s cr ee ni ng

t he s t eps i n new pr oduct

-

Conce pt t es t i ng

de vel opme nt.

-

Bus i nes s ana l ys i s

-

Pr oduct de vel opme nt

-

Tes t mar ket i ng

-

Comme r ci al i zat i on

1.1.7 des cr i be t he s t a ges i n pr oduct

St a ges i n pr oduct l i f e c ycl e

dr a w t he pr oduct l i f e c ycl e a nd expl ai n t he

l i f e c ycl e.

-

I nt r oduct i on

s t a ge s i n i t.

-

Gr owt h

-

Mat ur i t y

-

De cl i ne

1.1.8 expl ai n t he f unct i ons of

Funct i ons of pac ka gi ng

di s cus s t he f unct i ons of pac ka gi ng.

St udent s i n gr oups,

pac ka gi ng.

-

Pr ot ect i on

i ). i dent i f y t he f unct i ons of

-

Re
-
usage

packaging and

-

Communi c at i on

i i ) l i s t br a nds of was hi ng

-

Ne w pr oduct pl anni ng

s oap a nd s ubmi t r e por t

f or di s c us s i on i n cl as s.

1.1.9 e xpl ai n t he us e of br a ndi ng i n

Us e s of br andi ng

br ai ns t or m and c ome out wi t h t he us es

bus i ne s s

-

Pr oduct i dent i f i cat i on

a nd i mpor t ance of br a ndi ng.

-

Bui l di ng cus t omer l oyal t y

-

Fi xi ng pr i ces

-

Ne w pr oduct pl anni ng

50


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

PRINCIPLES OF

1.1.9 explain price.

Meaning of Price

brainstorm to define pri ce.

Students to interview l ocal

MARKETING

The value of a good or service

manufacturers and retailers

about how they determine

1.1.10 explain factors affecting pricing

Factors affecting pricing decisions

discuss the factors that influence pricing

prices for their goods and

decisions.

-

Cus t ome r de mand

deci s i ons.

s er vi c es. St udent s wr i t e

-

Cos t

.

r e por t s f or cl as s di s cus s i on.

-

Gover nment pol i c y

-

Compet i t i on, et c

1.1.11 l i s t a nd expl ai n pr i ci ng

Pr i ci ng obj ect i ves

di s cus s t he pr i ci ng obj ect i ve s i n

obj ect i ves.

-

Sal es
-
bas e d

bus i nes s es.

-

Pr of i t
-
ba s ed

-

St at us
-
quo
-
bas ed

1.1.12 e xpl ai n pr omot i on a nd i t s

Me ani ng of pr omot i on

wr i t e up a n adver t f or a chos en pr oduct.

i mpor t a nce.

Any c ommuni cat i on us e d t o i nf or m,

per s uade a nd or r e mi nd peopl e

a bout a n or gani zat i on s pr oduct s or

s er vi ces.

I mpor t a nce

br ai ns t or m and c ome out wi t h t he

-

Es t abl i s hes an i ma ge f or a

i mpor t anc e of pr omot i on i n t he bus i nes s

bus i nes s

wor l d.

-

Cr e at es a war enes s f or a new

St udent s wr i t e an es s a y on

pr oduct

a dva nt a ges and

-

Expl ai ns wher e pr oduct s can

di s adva nt a ges of

be pur c has ed

a dver t i s i ng.

-

Ans wer s cons umer que s t i ons

1.1.13 i dent i f y and e xpl ai n t ypes of

Types of pr omot i on

s ugges t var i ous wa ys of s el l i ng and s al es

pr omot i on.

-

Adver t i s i ng

pr omot i on,

-

Publ i c r el at i ons

s t at e t he advant a ge s and di s advant a ges

-

Per s onal s el l i ng

of e ach met hod of s al es pr omot i on.

-

Sal es pr omot i on

1.1.14 e xpl ai n t he channel s of

Cha nnel s of di s t r i but i on E.g.

e xpl ai n t he var i ous c hannel s of

di s t r i but i on.

E.g. manuf act ur er whol es a l er

di s t r i but i on

r et ai l er cons umer

51


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 (CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

PRINCIPLES OF

1.1.15 explain the factors producers

Factors affecting choice of channel

outline factors that a producer must

MARKETING

consider in sel ecting a

-

Per i s ha bi l i t y of pr oduct

c ons i der i n de ci di ng whi ch c hannel ( s ) t o

c hannel of di s t r i but i on.

-

Number of us er s

s el ect f or di s t r i but i ng hi s or her pr oduct ( s )

-

Di s t anc e bet wee n pr oducer

a nd cons ume r

1.1.16 e xpl ai n t he f unct i ons of

Funct i ons of whol e s al er s a nd

l i s t t he f unct i ons of whol es al er s and

St udent s i n gr oups vi s i t a

whol es a l er s and r et ai l er s.

r et ai l er s

r et ai l er s i n t he di s t r i but i on of goods and

l ocal s t or e t o i nt er vi e w

s er vi ces.

whol es a l er or r et ai l er on hi s

or her f unct i ons and ma ke a

UNI T 2

pr es e nt at i on i n cl as s f or

di s cus s i on

BUSI NESS FI NANCE

1.2.1 des cr i be t he var i ous s our ces

Shor t
-
t er m s our ce s of f i nanc e

des cr i be t he s our c es and met hods of

of s hor t and l ong t er m f i nanc e.

-

Ba nk l oa n

r ai s i ng s hor t
-
t er m ca pi t al and l ong
-
t er m

-

Tr a de cr e di t

c api t al.

-

Oper at i ng l ea s e

-

Hi r e pur c has e

-

Ba nk over dr af t

Long
-
t er m s our c es of f i nanc e

a nal yze t he ef f e ct s of bor r owi ng s hor t
-

St udent s wr i t e an es s a y t o

-

De be nt ur e s

t er m ca pi t al f or l ong
-
t er m pr oj ect s.

s how how t he y woul d get

-

Shar es

Not e: Teac her s houl d e mphas i ze t he

f i nanci al as s i s t ance i f t he y

-

Lea s e

s our c es of f i na nce a vai l abl e t o s mal l

want t o s et up t hei r own

-

Hi r e pur c has e

bus i nes s.

bus i nes s af t er s chool.

-

Ba nk l oa n

Shoul d be s ubmi t t e d i n

-

Mor t ga ge a nd

cl as s f or di s cus s i on.

-

Ret ai ne d ear ni ngs

1.2.2 des cr i be gover nme nt l e ndi ng

Gover nme nt l e ndi ng pr ogr a mme s

di s cus s a vai l a bl e Ghana gover nment

pr ogr a mme s.

e.g. BUSAC Fund, NBSSI Cr e di t

pr ogr a mme s f or l endi ng t o bus i nes s es,

Sche me, Mi cr o Fi na nce a nd Smal l

s howi ng t he r es pons i bl e mi ni s t r i es f or t he

Loa ns Ce nt r e ( MASLOC)

pr ogr a mme.

I nvi t e a r es our c e per s on, e.g. f r om t he

DBUSAC, t o ma ke pr es ent at i on on

gove r nme nt s uppor t or cr edi t s che me s

1.2.3 des cr i be vent ur e capi t al

Vent ur e ca pi t al f undi ng

I nvi t e r es our ce per s ons t o ma ke a

St udent s wr i t e an es s a y on

f undi ng

Equi t y f i na nci ng pr ovi ded by

pr es e nt at i on on vent ur e capi t al f undi ng.

i mpor t a nce of ve nt ur e

ve nt ur e capi t al f i r ms t o s mal l

c api t al f und.

bus i nes s es. E.g. Ghana Ve nt ur e

Capi t al Fund, et c.

52


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
-

YEAR 4

TERM THREE

SECTION 1

ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESS

General objectives: The student will:

1. recognize the role of entrepreneurs and small business in the economy of Ghana.

2. acquire skills in establishing and growing small business in Ghana.

3. develop skills in using the principles learnt in solving problems through case study.

UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

The student will be able to:

ENTREPRENEURSHIP

2.1.1 explain



entrepreneurship

.

Definition of entrepreneurship

Assist students to discuss the meaning of

Students write whether they

Act of using personal initiative, and

entrepreneurship.

are prepared to be

engage in calculated risk
-
taking, to

entrepreneurs. How will

create new business ventures by

Note: Stress that entrepreneurs are

they deal with rej ection and

raising resources (land, labour,

popular for their innovation, seeking new

failure?

capital and knowledge) apply

opportunities and job creation.

innovative new ideas, to develop

products/services to solve

problems/challenges, or satisfy the

needs of a clearly defined market."

Characteristics of an entrepreneur

2.1.2 outline the characteristics of

-

See ki ng oppor t uni t i e s

As s i s t s t udent s t o di s cus s eac h of t he

a n e nt r e pr e neur .

-

Ta ki ng r i s ks and per s onal

c har a ct er i s t i cs of ent r epr e neur s.

i ni t i at i ves

-

Ha r dwor ki ng

-

See ki ng i nf or ma t i on

-

Bei ng i ndependent mi nde d,

-

Pos s es s i ng hi gh l e vel s el f
-

c onf i dence.

2.1.3 i dent i f y t he r ol es of

Rol e s of ent r e pr e neur s i n s oci et y

Put s t udent s i n gr oups t o br ai ns t or m on

St udent s s houl d pr e s ent

e nt r e pr eneur s.

-

I nve nt and pr oduc e new

t he r ol es of t he e nt r e pr eneur i n t he

gr oup r epor t on t he r ol es of

t hi ngs

s oci et y.

e nt r e pr eneur s i n t he

-

Combi ne i deas a nd ot her

s oci et y.

r e s our ces t o pr oduce

-

Ta ke r i s ks.

53


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

(CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

ENTREPRENEURSHIP

2.1.4 explain reasons for business

Reasons for business successes

Assist students to identify businesses that

“Entrepreneurs are not

successes and failures.

and failures

have been successful and others that

needed in our business

have failed and give reasons why.

world”. Discuss this in

class.

2.1.5 describe how entrepreneurs

Converting problems into

discuss the steps in converting problems

Identify a problem/need in

convert problems into

opportunities

into opportuniti es.

your area and describe

opportunities.

-

Oppor t uni t y s ee ki ng

wha t you woul d do t o

-

Goal s et t i ng

s at i s f y t hat nee d.

-

Cr e at i vi t y

-

I nnovat i ve nes s, and

-

Ri s k t a ki ng

2.1.6 i de nt i f y wa ys of e nt er i ng i nt o

Wa ys of ent er i ng bus i nes s

di s cus s t he l i s t e d wa ys of ent er i ng

Vi s i t a number of

bus i nes s.

-

Set t i ng up a new bus i nes s

bus i nes s.

e nt r e pr eneur i n your l oc al i t y

-

Buyi ng an exi s t i ng bus i ne s s

a nd f i nd out why and how

Not e:

An exa mpl e of s et t i ng up a s an

-

Set t i ng up a s a n a ge nc y of a bi g

t he y ent er ed i nt o t hei r

c ompa ny

a genc y of a bi g company i s t he ca s e of

bus i nes s.

l i c ens ed coc oa buyi ng a ge nt s.

2.1.7 pr e par e a bus i nes s pl a n.

Cont ent s of bus i nes s pl an

di s cus s t he s t e ps i n t he de vel opment of a

-

Na me a nd addr es s of bus i nes s

bus i nes s pl an.

-

Anal ys i s of i ndus t r y

-

De s cr i pt i on of bus i ne s s

Not e:

St r es s t hat a bus i nes s pl an i s a

-

Pr oduct i on a ct i vi t i es

doc ument t hat i ndi ca t es what one i nt e nds

-

Mar ket i ng a ct i vi t i e s

doi ng, when and how t he y i nt e nd doi ng i t.

-

Fi nanci al pl an

2.1.7 des cr i be s our ces of f i nance

Sour ces of f i nanc e f or bus i ne s s es

di s cus s t he s our ce s of f i na nc e ope n t o

St udent s pr epa r e t hei r own

ope n t o var i ous bus i ne s s

-

Cont r i but i ons or pe r s onal

bus i nes s es i n Ghana.

bus i nes s pl ans f or cl as s

owner s hi ps.

s a vi ngs

di s cus s i on.

-

Loans a nd over dr a f t s

-

Tr a de cr e di t s

Why i s s mal l bus i nes s ver y

-

Hi r e pur c has e

c ommon i n Gha na?

-

Pl ough bac k pr of i t s

-

Mi cr o f i nanc e i ns t i t ut i ons

-

NGO f i nanci ng

-

Speci al gover nment l oans

-

Bus i nes s De vel opme nt Ser vi ce s

Pr ovi der s

54


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1

(CONT’D)

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

2.1.8 define record keeping.

Meaning of Record Keeping

discuss the meaning of record keeping

Students collect samples of

ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Writing of the account of

the records listed from

equipment/tools and business

businesses in the locality

for exercises in class.

Transactions to serve as evidence

and for future direction.

2.1.9. outline the importance of record

Importance of record keeping

discuss the importance of record keeping

keeping.

-

Shows how much has bee n

i n bus i nes s.

r e cei ved and s pe nt

-

Re move s gues s wor k

-

Shows i f bus i nes s i s doi ng wel l

or not

-

Hel ps ent r epr ene ur moni t or

c as h f l ows

2.1.10 i dent i f y t ypes of r ec or ds t o be

Types of Re cor ds

di s cus s t he t ypes of r ec or ds a nd i de nt i f y

ke pt by e nt r e pr eneur s a nd

-

I nve nt or y

whe n t he y ar e us e d.

bus i nes s peopl e

-

Tr a ns a ct i ons

-

Ta x

-

Ac count i ng

-

Ca s h/Cr e di t s al es

2.1.11 e xpl a i n t i me ma na ge ment

Me ani ng of t i me ma na ge ment

di s cus s t he mea ni ng of t i me ma na ge me nt

St udent s t o keep c opi e s of



The act of us i ng t i me, whi ch i s a

t he i t e ms 1

3 l i s t ed under

s car ce r e s our ce, j udi ci ous l y t o

c ont e nt

a chi e ve t he maxi mum wi t hi n t he

s hor t es t t i me a vai l a bl e.

2.1.12 out l i ne t he i mpor t a nce of t i me

I mpor t a nce of t i me mana geme nt

di s cus s t he i mpor t ance of t i me

ma na ge ment.

-

Re duc es s t r es s

ma na ge ment .

-

Hel ps t o ac hi e ve t a r get s

-

Hel ps t o meet de adl i nes

-

I ncr eas e s c us t omer s at i s f a ct i on.

2.1.13 a ppl y t he t echni que s of t i me

Tec hni ques of t i me mana geme nt

di s cus s t he t ec hni que s l i s t ed under

ma na ge ment

-

Us e t i me pl anner s

c ont e nt.

-

Us e t i me l ogs



-

Us e di ar i e s

Rol e pl a y i t e ms 4

6 i n cl a s s.

-

Del e gat e dut i e s

-

Set obj ect i ves

-

Es t abl i s h dea dl i ne s

55


UNIT

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING AND LEARNING

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2

The student will be able to:

Assist students to:

SMALL BUSINESS

2.2.1 defi ne small business.

Meaning of small business

discuss the meani ng of small business.

Students go out to interview

Organization that is independently

Note: stress that small business has

small business owners

owned, operated, and financed.

fewer than 100 employees.

using prepared schedule.

2.2.2 state types of small

Types and formation process of

give exampl es of small busi nesses and

Students differentiate

businesses and describe how

smal l business

describe how they are formed.

between entrepreneurial

they are formed.

Registration procedures;

ventures and small

tax system, etc.

businesses.

2.2.3 describe the importance of

Importance of small business

discuss the importance of small business

small business in Ghana.

i n the economy of Ghana.

2.2.4 identi fy and describe some of

Personality factors in business

role
-
play to bring out some of the

the personality factors needed

Hard work, persistence, motivati on,

personality factors needed for business

for business success.

team
-
work, constant evaluation of

success.

progress, and direction.

2.2.5 describe ways for sustaining

Ways to sustain a successful

discuss ways for sustaining the growth of

Students write essay on

an established business.

business

an established business.

how to sustain an

-

Ke epi ng of pr oper ac count s

e s t abl i s he d bus i nes s.

-

Eval uat i ng per f or ma nce

-

Cons t ant s t oc k
-
t a ki ng

-

See ki ng f ur t her advi ce f or

de vel opme nt

-

Adopt i ng c ur r ent bus i nes s

s t r at e gi es/pr act i ces

2.2.6 des cr i be t he pr obl e ms of s mal l

Pr obl e ms of s mal l bus i ne s s

i de nt i f y and expl ai n pr obl e ms of s mal l

St udent s de vel op and

bus i nes s i n Gha na.

-

I mpr oper book ke epi ng

bus i nes s t hr ough t he us e of c as e s t udy.

a dmi ni s t er an i nt er vi e w

-

Lac k of ma na ger i al s ki l l s, et c.

s che dul e on s ma l l bus i nes s

ma na ge ment and conduct

i nt er vi ews t o f i nd out

St at e s ef f or t i n pr omot i ng bus i nes s

2.2.7 expl ai n t he r ol e of gove r nme nt

Di s c us s ef f or t s made by t he s t at e t o

pr obl e ms of s mal l bus i ne s s

i n pr omot i ng s mal l bus i nes s.

Rol e of Nat i onal Boar d f or Sma l l
-

pr omot e bus i nes s es i n Ghana.

i n t hei r l ocal i t y and

s

ubmi t

Scal e I ndus t r i es ( NBSSI ).

r e por t t o cl a s s f or

Not e:

I nvi t e r es our ce per s ons t o t al k on

di s cus s i on.

t he r ol e of NBSSI and EMPRETEC i n

pr omot i ng s mal l bus i nes s i n Ghana.

56



57