CHAPTER 1 Management Communication in Transition

gazeagraffeManagement

Nov 20, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

71 views



1

《管理沟通(双语)》问题
&
答案


CHAPTER 1 Management Communication in Transition

1. What

do managers do all day?

(1)
Managers spend their time engaged in
planning
,

organizing,

staffing,

directing
,

coordin
atin
g,

reporting,

and contro
ll
ing.

(2)
Managers are in constant actio
n.

(3)
Managers show similar patterns,

they spend most of their time
interacting

with
others, both

inside
and

outside the organization.

(4)
Most management
work is conversational.

2. What

roles
do
managers play?

(1)
Interpersonal Roles. These roles include Fi
gurehead role, Leader role, and Liaison
role.

(2)
Informational Roles. These roles include monitor, disseminator and spokesperson.

(3)
Decision
al

Roles. These roles include entrepreneur, disturbance or crisis handler,
resource allocator and negotiator.

3. Wh
at

are major characteristics of the Manager’s job?

(1)
Time is fragmented.

(2)
Values compete and the various roles are in tension.

(3)
The job is overloaded.

(4)
Efficiency is a core skill.

4. What

varies in a manager’s job?

(1)
The entrepreneur role is gainin
g importance.

(2)
So is the leader role. Managers must be more sophisticated as strategists and
mentors.

(3)
Managers must create a local vision as they help people grow.

5. List

management skills required for the Twenty

First Century

(1)

Technical skills. T
hese are most valuable at the entry level, but less valuable at
more senior levels.



2

(2)

Relating skills. These are valuable across the managerial career span and are more
likely to help you progress and be promoted to higher levels of responsibility.

(3)

C
onceptual skills. These are least valuable at the entry level, but more valuable at
more senior levels in the organization.

6. What

does verbal
interaction (
talk) include?

(1)

One

on

one conversations.

(2)

Telephone conversations.

(3)

Video teleconferencin
g.

(4)

Presentations to small groups.

(5)

Public speaking to larger audiences.

7. Why

the major channels of management communication are talking and
listening

(1)
A series of scientific studies have served to
confirm

what each of us knows that
most managers

spend the largest portion of their day talking and listening.

(2)
E.K.Werner

s thesis at the University of
Maryland, in

fact, found

that No
r
th
American
adults spend more than 78 percent of their communication time either
talking or listening to others who
are talking.

(3)
According to Werner and others who have studied the communication habits of
postmodern business
organizations, managers

are involved in more than just
speeches and presentations from the dais or teleconference.

(4)
Each of these activities m
ay look to some managers like an obligation imposed by
the job.

8. What

role does writing play?

(1)
Witting

is a career sifter.

(2)
Managers do most of their own writing and editing.

(3)
Documents take on lives of their own.

9. Communication

is
invention, how

do you understand?

(1)
Without
question, communication

is a process of invention.

(2)
The fact
is, managers

create meaning through communication.

(3)
Additionally, it

is important to note that managers usually figure things out by


3

talking about them as much
as they talk about the things they have already figured
out.

10
. Why

i
nformation is
socially

constructed?

(1)
Information is created
,

shared,

and interpreted by people.

(2)
Information never speaks for itself.

(3)
Context always drives meaning.

(4)
A messenger

always accompanies message.

11
. What

is the greatest challenge for every manager?

Your greatest
challenge

is to admit to flaws in your skill set and work tirelessly to
improve them.

But first,

you must admit to the flaws.

12
. What

is your task as a profes
sional?

(1)
As a professional
manager, your

first task is to recognize and understand your
strengths and weaknesses as a communicator.

(2)F
oremost among your goals should be to improve existing skills.

(3)
Two other suggestions come to mind for improving you
r professional standing as a
manager.

Acquire

a knowledge base

that will work for
twenty

first century.

(4)You

should read at least one national newspaper each day.

(5)Your final
challenge

is to develop the confidence you will need to succeed as a
manager.


CHAPTER 2
Communications

and Strategy

1. Define

communication

(1)
Communication is the transfer of meaning.

(2)
It must be understood.

(3)
It is a complex, ongoing process.

2.
What are the elements of communication?

(1)
Sender.

(2)
Receiver.

(3)
Message
.



4

(4)
Medium.

(5)
Code.

(6)
Feedback.

(7)
Noise.

(8)

Effect.

3.
What are the

principles

of communication?

(1)
Dynamic. Human communication is constantly undergoing change.

(2)
Continuous. Communication never stops.

(3)
Circular. Communication is rarely e
ver entirely one

way.

(4)
Unrepeatable.

(5)
Irreversible.

(6)
Complex.

4. What

are levels of communication?

(1)

Intrapersonal
.

(2)
Interpersonal
.

(3)
Organizational
.

(4)

Mass

or public.

5.
What are barriers of communication?

(1)
Physiological

barriers. In

sending message to
others, we

must be

sensitive to the
fact that they may not see,

hear,

touch,

smell,

or taste in the same way we do.

(2)
Psychological

barriers.

Such as filtering,

emotions,

information overload,

language,

and national culture.

6.
How to
communicate strategically?

(1)
It

means that your plans for
communication, your

proposed
messages, the

medium
you
select, the

code you
employ, the

context and experience you bring to
situation,
and

the
ethics

you
adopt will

all have a direct effect on the
outcome.

(2)
If

you are communicating
strategically, those

goals will be aligned with and
directly support the goals of the organization you work for.

(3)
You

must ask yourself a few
questions

related to the elements of communication
listed above.



5

7.
List

the steps of successful strategic communication

(1)

Link your message to the strategy and goals of the organization.

(2)
Attract the attention of your intended audience.

(3)
Explain your position in terms they will understand and accept.

(4)
Motivate your
audience to accept and act on your message.

(5)

Inoculate

them against contrary message and positions.

(6)
Manage audience expectations.

8.
Why communicating as a manager is different?

(1)
Levels

of responsibility and
accountability. The

higher your level
of responsibility
in an
organization, the

more you have to think about.

(2)
Organizational

dynamics. Organizations, like

the humans who populate and
animate
them, are

in constant flux.

(3)
Personality

preferences. It

is important to acknowledge that each o
f us has his or
her own preference for
gathering,

organizing, and

disseminating information.

9.
What are the tactics of
communication?

(1)
fact

finding.

(2)
Analysis
.

(3)

Methods
.

(4)
Timing
.

(5)
Media
.

(6)
Cost
.

(7)
The

dozens of assumptions you must make
about your audience,

your reasons for
communicating and so
on.


CHAPTER 3 Communication Ethics

1.
How to u
nderstand the ethical conduct of employers
?

(1)
Arecent

National Business Ethics Survey discovered that employees care about the
ethical

conduct their

employers.

(2)
Through Hudson

Walker
survey, only

a third of employees feel comfortable


6

reporting misconduct.30 percent of employees know of suspect ethical violations
in their organizations in the past two years.

(3)
The

majority of these employees have
seen or know about a violation have not
reported it
.

(4)
If

you behave in unethical
ways, people

will quickly realize that you cannot be
trusted.

2.
Defining business ethics

(1)
Ethics

most often refers to a field of
inquiry, or

discipline, in

which matter
s of
right and
wrong, good

and
evil, virtue

and
vice, are

systematically examined.

(2)
Morality

is most often used to refer not to discipline but to patterns of behavior
that are actually common in everyday life.

(3)

Social

responsibility

refers to part of

ethics, relating

to external
constituencies
.

(4)
These

relationships

define a large and very important part of business
ethics.
Business

ethics is a much larger notion than corporate social
responsibity,

even
though it includes that concept.

3.
What are th
ree levels of inquiry?

(1)
The

individual
. Business ethics concerns the values by which self

interest and
other motives are balanced with concern for
fairness and

the common
good, both

inside and outside of a company.

(2)
The

organization.

Business ethics
concerns the group conscience that every
company has as it pursues its economic objectives.

(3)
The

economy.

Business ethics concerns the pattern of social,

political,

and
economic forces.

4.
List three views of decision making

(1)

Moral

point of view.

It
has two important features.

The first is a willingness to
seek out and act on reasons. Second,

a moral point of view requires the decision
maker to be impartial.

(2)
Economic

point of view.

(3)
Legal

point of view.

5.
How to understand an integrated approa
ch?



7


Many business

ethicists

advocate a decision

making process that integrates
these three viewpoints,

considering the demands of
morality
,

economics,

and the law
together.

Decisions,

they say,

can be made on the basis of morality,

profit,

and legality

together to arrive at workable solutions which will take into account the best interests
of all concerned,

protect the investment of shareholders,

and obey the law.

6.
What

are the two basic types of judgments?

(1)
Two

basic types of
judgments

are normati
ve
judgments

and moral
judgments
.

(2)
Normative
judgments

are claims that state or imply that something is good or bad,

right or wrong ,better or worse,

ought to be or ought not be.

(3)
Moral

judgments
,

then,

are a special subset or category of normative j
udgments.

(4)
Businesspeople

use two types of moral standards to make decisions.

One is moral
norms,

the other is moral principles.

7.
How to distinguish characteristics of moral principles from other standards?

(1)
They have serious consequences to Human
Well

Being.

(2)
Their

validity rests on the adequacy of the reasons which are used to support and
justify them.

(3)
They override self

interest.

(4)
They

are based on impartial considerations.

8.

List

the four resources for decision making

(1)
Proposals. T
hese

are prescriptive
statements
,

suggesting

actions.

Proposals are
often answers to questions.

(2)
Observation
.

These are descriptive statements,

describing situations.
Observations
sometimes look

like assumptions,

since they both appear to describe.

(3)
Value

judgments
.

These are normative statements,

guiding the actions of others.
Value
judgments

can also be asserted as should statements.

(4)
Assumptions. These

are reflective statements,

expressing world views and
attitudes
.

9.
What separate capacities
s
hould decision makers own to make moral
judgments?

(1)
Ethical

sensibility.

This is reflected in your capacity to impose ethical order on a


8

situation

to identify aspects of the situation that have ethical importance.

(2)
Ethical reasoning.

This means that
w
e

determine what kind of ethical problem you
face.

(3)
Ethical

conduct. It

is one thing to know what you should
do, and

quite another to
do it.

(4)
Ethical
leadership. The

capacity for ethical leadership ,according to
Pro
fessor
Paine,

is associated with t
he highest levels of integrity

.

10.
Why many companies fail to apply ethical standards to management
communication?

Increased levels of global
competition
,

financial
pressures, lack

of
communication throughout organizations,

and the absence of moral leade
rship

at the
top levels are but a few of the most prevalent reasons.

11.
Why a company should have statements of ethical principles?

Professor Patrick Murphy offers this response:

First, and

most
important, ethics

statements denote the seriousness with whi
ch
the organization takes its ethical commitments.

Words are empty without some
documentation.

The written statement then serves as a foundation from which ethical
behavior

can be
built
.

Corporate culture is often viewed as being more important than
polici
es in setting the ethical climate for any organization.

However,

written
ethical
priciples

send a strong signal
that ethical matter

to the firm.

(1)
Types

of
ethical

statements
.

They include values
statements, corporate

credos, and

corporate codes of ethic
al.

(2)

Tension

and ethical
values. Many

values, along

with the roles and objectives that
managers must
follow, are

in competition with one
another
.

(3)
How

ethical statements can help.

The presence of an ethical statement will not
automatically ensure eth
ical
behavior
,

and promote a companywide dialogue
about the
v
alue of ethical behavior.

(4)
How

to make ethical statements work..We should write
it,

tailor
it, communicate

it,
promote

it, revise

it, live

it and enforce it.



9

12.
How to understand the

fr潮琠t
慧a

瑥獴s


In
judging

whether its policies or its actions are fundamentally sound,

managers
might simply apply what is come to be known as the front page test.


CHAPTER
4 Speaking

1.
Why speak?

(1)
Often,

we

don

t have a choice .As a manager ,you will f
ind yourself preparing to
speak to an audience you

d rather not meet on a topic you

d rather not talk
about.
Many

streaking

assignments are directive in nature.

(2)
Many

speaking
opportunities

are voluntary in nature.

You give the talk because
you choose t
o do so.

(3)
It

might be another occasion,

explaining to your daughter

s elementary school
class what you do for a living.

2.

How to prepare a successful management speech?

(1)

Develop

a strategy.

(2)
Get

to know your audience.

Such as age,

education
,

pers
onal beliefs,

occupation,

income,

socio

economic status,

ethnic

origin,

sex/gender,

knowledge of the
su
b
ject,

attitude toward the subject.

(3)
Determine

your reason for speaking
.

(4)

Learn

what you can about the occasion

for your talk.

(5)

Know

what makes p
eople listen. We can judge from two aspects,

positive
speaking styles and
negative

speaking styles.

(6)
Understand

the questions listeners bring to any listening situation.

Here are seven
basic questions.

Do you know somethin
g

I

need to know?

Can
I

trust
y
ou? Am

I

comfortable with
you? How

can you affect
me? What’s

my experience with you?

Are you
reasonable

Who do you represent?

(7)

Recognize

common obstacles to successful communication
.

There are five
categories of obstacles.

Stereotypes
, prejudice, feelings, language;
culture.Communication

obstacles can provoke negative reactions.



10

(8)

Support

your ideas wi
th credible evidence.

(9)

Organize

your
thoughts. This

include your
introduction, how

should you
begin,
how

should you structure your
speech, any

advice beyond structure and how
should you conclude.

(
10
)
Keep

your audience
interested. This

include that prov
ide order and
structure, give

them something they can
use, make

it
logical, make

it
reasonable
,

make it clear,

use words they understand,

keep it moving,

answer their questions,

allay their
fears,

respect their needs.

(11)
Select

a delivery
approach
.

You ha
ve four options for delivering a speech.

Memorized speeches,

Manuscripted
speeches
,

Extemporaneous,

Impromptu
speeches
.

(
12
)

Develop

your visual support.

(
13
)

Rehearse

your speech.

There are two questions.

Should you practice?

Should you
use notes?

(
14
)

De
velop

confidence in your massage and in yourself.

(
15
)
Deliver

your message.

This include beforehand,

date,

time,

location,

room layout,

microphone and acoustics ,visual

aids,

stage,

time limits,

lectern,

notes,

lights,

try it out ,as you speak.


CHAPTER
5
Writing

1.
Pease give an introduction to good business writing

(1)
Good

business writing is simple,

clear,

and concise.

(2)

Good

writing, in

business and
elsewhere, is

a pleasure to read.

(3)
No

one
I

know thinks writing is easy.

(4)

No

teacher of writing
can lay much claim to original thinking on this subject.

2.
List the fifteen ways to become a better business writer

(1)

Keep

in mind that your reader doesn

t have much time.

(
2
)

Know

where you are going before you start writing.

(
3
)

Don’t

make any spellin
g or grammatical errors.



11

(
4
)

Be

responsive to the needs of the reader.

(
5
)

Be

clear and specific.

(
6
)

Try

to use the present tense.

(
7
)

Make

your writing vigorous and direct.

(
8
)

Use

sentences and paragraphs.

(
9
)

U
se

personal pronouns.

(
10
)

Avoid

cliches a
nd jargon.

(
11
)

Separate

facts from opinions.

(
12
)

Use

numbers with restraint.

(
13
)

Write

the way you talk.

(
14
)

Never

be content with your first effort.

(
15
)

Make

it perfect.

3.
What should an overview paragraph

of memo tell?

(
1
)

Purpose.

Why

is

you writi
ng the memo?

(
2
)

Main

idea. What

do you want to tell the reader?

Or,

what do you want the reader
to do?

(
3
)

Opinion.What

is your point of view on the subject?

(
4
)

In

addition, the

overview should begin to establish the tone of the document for
your reader.

4.
List the six communication strategies

(1)
Information

strategies, which

include that to confirm agreement,

to provide facts,

to provide a point of view.

(
2
)

Action

strategies,

which include that to request assistance,

to give direction,

to
seek agreeme
nt.

5.
Which six basic qualities should we keep in mind as you draft an overview
paragraph?

(1)
Clear and simple.

(
2
)

Brief.

(
3
)
Deals with the what

not with the how.

(
4
)

Includes and identifies the writer

s opinion.



12

(
5
)

Reflects the needs of the reader.

(
6
)

Thorough and comple
t
e.

6.
List several sample of overviews

(1)
This
recommends [
this year

s] Avis national television commercial pool policy of
four:30 commercial
replaced every 26 weeks for Avis


candid testimonial
advertising.

Two commercial groups wil
l be rotated between network and spot at
13

week intervals.

The agency agrees.

(
2
)

This provides a summary of Crest

s shipment/share performance through
January
[
of next year].

7.
How to write the persuasive memo?

(
1
)

Consider your objective
against

the re
ade
r’
s attitudes,

perceptions,

and knowledge
of the subject.

(
2
)
Outline on paper.

(
3
)

Include a plan o action.

(
4
)

Don

t lose your argument in the Situation Analysis.

(
5
)

Use the direct appro
a
ch.

(
6
)

Always lead from strength.

(
7
)

Use precedent to make yo
ur proposal appear less speculative.

(
8
)

Gear your argument to the reader

s decision criteria.

8.
Draft the outline for a proposal

(
1
)

Flow of the outline.
This includes

situation analysis, recommendation,
and
rationale
.

(
2
)
Seven

step outlining procedure
. Review your strategy, assemble the
information, identify and separate need to know information, identify and separate
the recommended course of action, develop your rationale, rank your arguments
from most powerful to least important, test your argument
against the reader

s
decision criteria.

9.
Why standard formats are
important?

(
1
)

Having

a
format in mind for the memo or report as report as you move forward
with any project can eliminate one of the common stumbling blocks to sound


13

thinking and good com
munication.

(
2
)
A stand
ard format helps you organize information and concepts quickly.

(
3
)

A standard format helps readers too.

(
4
)

A document can be organized or put together in a variety of ways.

10.
What aspects
does the information memo format

include?


The information memo format can be used for a wide variety of documents that
seek to inform and provide points of view. These include the following
aspects
:

(
1
)
Business reviews

(
2
)

R
esearch summaries

(
3
)

C
ompetitive appraisals

(
4
)

Test market summar
ies

(
5
)

Field trip reports

(
6
)

Progress reports

11.
List some
thoughts

on preparing memos that evaluate
the competitive activity

(
1
)

Thinking about the competition is much like dealing with an iceberg.

(2)

Work backwards and construct a hypothetical statem
ent of strategy based on
what

s happening in the marketplace.

(
3
)
Competitive

appraisal
s are often triggered by changes.

(
4
)

What does this mean to us?

(5)
Be objective.

12.
What should
meet
ing and conference report briefly on and focus on?

(
1
)

Report shou
ld briefly on two aspects

what was discussed or presented
,

what was
decided

and how.

(
2
)

Report should focus on three aspects, what action is required, who is responsible,
what the timing will be.

13.
How to understand project lists?

(
1
)

Separate each pro
ject by category,
and then

list projects in order of priority or
importance.

(
2
)

If your project list is long, consider adding a cover page to highlight key projects
that require management attention.



14

(
3
)

Projects should never just disappear.

14.

How

to ma
ke your memos inviting and attractive?

(
1
)

Grab

attention up front.

(2)

Vary sentence and paragraph length

but keep them short.

(
3
)

Use headings.

(
4
)

Use bullets and numbers to identify groupings.

(
5
)

Use parallel structure for lists.

(
6
)

Underline or use
boldface type to focus on topic
sentence, key

words, and phrases.

(
7
)

Leave adequate margins.

(
8
)

Don

t settle for sloppy or illegible duplication.

15.
What questions should we ask ourselves when editing our memos?

(
1
)

Is it clear?

(
2
)

Is it complete?

(
3
)

Is it persuasive?

(
4
)

Is it concise?

(
5
)

Is it inviting to read?

(
6
)

Is it perfect?

16.

How to write good business letters?

(
1
)

Answer promptly.

(
2
)

Show that you are genuinely interested.

(
3
)

Don’t be too short, brief, or curt.

4. If it

s bad news, say yo
u are sorry.

5. If it

s good news, say you are glad.

6. Give everyone the benefit of the doubt.

7. Never send off an angry letter.

8. Watch out for cranks.

9. Appreciate humor.

10.
be

careful with form letters.

17.

What common sense should you know when yo
u are required to explain
something?



15

(
1
)

Nothing is self

explanatory.

(
2
)

Translate technical terms.

(
3
)

Go step

by

step.

(
4
)

Don’t say too little.

(
5
)

Don

t say too much.

(
6
)

Illustrate.

(
7
)

Answer expected questions.

(
8
)

Warn against common mistakes.

18.

What four basic guidelines should we consider when you are required to
apologize?

1. Take the complaint seriously.

2. Explain what happened and why.

3. Don

t shift the blame.

4. Don

t just write

do something.

19.
What

are most common problems when you mak
e your writing efficient?

(2)
Big words.

(
2
)

___

wise.

(
3
)

Doublings.

(
4
)

Noun modifiers.

(
5
)

It is.

(
6
)

Legalese.

(
7
)

Missing hyphens.

(
8
)

Smothered verbs.

(
9
)

Specialized terms.

(
1
0)

That and which.

(
1
1)

The____ion of.

(
12
)

Wordy expressions.

20.

Speak w
hen you
write,

how to use
appropriate

ideas to guide?

(
1
)

Write with personal pronouns.

(
2
)

Use
contractions (
occasionally).



16

(
3
)

Reach out to your reader occasionally by asking questions.

(
4
)

Prefer short, spoken transitions over long, bookish ones.

(
5
)

A
preposition is a word you can end a sentence with.

(
6
)

Keep
sentence

short, about 20 words on average.

21.
How to make passive verbs active?

(
1
)
Use as few passives as possible. They

re not grammatically wrong, but they are
really overworked in most busine
ss writing. To write actively, remember this
simple rule: Put the doer before the verb.

(
2
)

Write actively whenever you can. If you decide to cast a sentence in the passive
voice, do so only after considering what the active version would look like.

22.
H
ow to better organize your letters?

(
1
)

Use headings and subheadings.

(
2
)

Keep paragraphs short.

(
3
)

Don

t clutter up the first paragraph.

23.

How to encourage and develop good writers?

(
1
)

Show your people you want clear, concise writing by example.

(
2
)

K
now what you want before giving assignments.

(
3
)

When projects are difficult or
complex, break

up the assignment into manageable
parts.

(
4
)

Read and review before discussing a memo.

(
5
)

Try to see the big picture first.

(
6
)

Be certain writers to parrot you
r style and expressions.


CHAPTER
6

Listening and feedback

1.
Why listen?

(
1
)

Poor listening can cause disasters.

(
2
)
Listening is the central skill in the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal
relationships. No matter what type of relationship

pro
fessional, personal,
neighborly, romantic

listening is the skill that forms the bond and keeps the


17

relationship moving forward.

2. Why you should improve your listening?

(1) Listening
demonstrates

acceptance.

(2)
Listening

promotes
problem

solving abilitie
s.

(3) Listening increases the speaker

s receptiveness to the thoughts and ideas of others.

(4) Listening helps you overcome self

consciousness and sel
f

centeredness.

(5) Listening can help you to prevent head

on emotional collisions.

3. How to
understand

the role of ineffective listening habits?

(1)
Ineffective

listening habit is not that we can

t listen or don

t listen .It

s far more
likely that we

ve learned to listen haphazardly and in ways that are
simply
counterproductive.

(2) The first step in becomi
ng a more effective listener, both in the workplace and in
our
personal

lives, is to identify the poor listening habits we

ve developed over a
life

time and replace them with effective ,productive habits.

4. List some poor listening habits

(1) Being preocc
upied with talking, not listening.

(2) Calling the subject uninteresting.

(3) Letting bias or prejudice distort the message you hear.

(4) Oversimplifying answers or explanations.

(5) Yielding to external distractions.

(6) Yielding to internal distractions.

(
7
) Avoiding
difficult

or demanding material.

(
8
)
Rationalizing

poor listening.

(
9
)
Criticizing

the
speaker

s delivery.

(10) Jumping to conclusions.

(11) Getting over

stimulated.

(12) Assigning the wrong meaning to words.

(13) Listening only for the facts
.

(14)Trying to make an outline of everything we hear.

(15) Faking attention to the speaker.



18

(16) Letting emotion

laden words throw us off the track.

(17)
Resisting the temptation to interrupt.

(18) Wasting the
differential

between the rate at which we spe
ak and the rate at which
we think.

5. How to develop good listening habits?

(1) Stop talking.

(2) One conversation at a time.

(3) Empathize with the person speaking.

(4) Ask questions.

(5) Don

t interrupt.

(6) Show interest.

(7) Give your undivided attenti
on.

(8) Evaluate facts and
evidence
.

(9) React to
ideas,

not to the speakers.

(10) Wishing doesn

t
make it so.

(11) Listen for what is not said.

(12) Listen to how
something is said.

(13) Share the responsibility for
communication
.

6. Do you know the five
essential skills of active listening?
P
lease list them.

(1) Paraphrase others as they speak.

(2) Reflect feelings.

(3) Reflect meaning.

(4) Reflect conclusions.

(5) Follow through.

7. How to make a system for improving your listening habits?

(1) Review you
r listening inventory.

(2) Recognize your undesirable listening habits.

(3) Refuse to tolerate
undesirable

habits.

(4) Replace
undesirable

habits with effective ones.

8. Feedback is very
important,

what you do to give a good feedback?



19

G
ood feedback doesn

t

just happen. It

s the product of
careful, deliberate

communication strategies, coupled with good interpersonal communication skills. You
can
significantly

increase the probability of communication success if you understand
the role of feedback in both per
sonal and
professional

communication.

9. Give some suggestions of guidelines for
constructive

feedback.

(1) Acknowledge the need for feedback

(2) Give both positive and
negative

feedback

(3) Understand the context.

(4) Provide definitions.

(5) Use a common

language.

(6) Don

t assume.

(7) Focus on behavior rather than people.

(8) Know when to give feedback

(9) Know how to give feedback

10. What should you know when to give feedback?

You shouldn

t attempt to give feedback to anther person when

(1)

You don

t know
much about the circumstance of the
behavior
.

(2)

You don


care about the person or will not be around long enough to follow up on
the aftermath of your feedback. Hit

and

run feedback is not fair.

(3)

The feedback, positive or negative, is about something the perso
n has no power to
change.

(4)

The other person seems low in self

esteem.

(5)

You are low in self

esteem.

(6)

Your purpose is not really improvement, but to put someone on the spot or
demonstrate hpw smart or how much more responsible

you are.

(7)

The
time,

place, or circu
mstances are inappropriate.

11. Give some suggestions which should make it easier for you to provide
feedback that works to anther person.

(1) Be descriptive.

(2) Be objective.



20

(3) Don

t use
labels
.

(4) Don

t
exaggerate
.

(5) Don

t be judgmental.

(6) Speak
for yourself.

(7) Talk first about
yourself,

not about the other person.

(8) Phrase the issue as a
statement
, not as a question.

(9) Encourage people to change.

(10) Restrict your feedback to things you know for certain.

(11)
Build

trust.

(12) Help people
hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback.

12. When to react to feedback received?

(1) Breathe.

(2) Listen carefully.

(3) Ask questions for clarity.

(4) Acknowledge the feedback.

(5) Acknowledge valid points.

(6) Don

t be defensive.

(7
) Try to understand the other person

s objectives.

(8) Take time out to sort out what you heard.


CHAPTER
7

Communicating Nonverbally

1.
When talk about nonverbal communication, what shall we have to
considerate?

(1)How to read and understand the wordless
messages?

(2)How to separate the effects of verbal and nonverbal behavior?

(3)How to behave and communicate in certain ways, and to interpret the meanings of
those behaviors, as we grow up in our culture?

2.
What’re the basic categories of nonverbal langua
ge?

(1)Sign language



21

(2)Action language

(3)Object language

3.
What’re the three steps of nonverbal process?

(1)Cue

(2)Expectation

(3)Inference

4.
when can you read nonverbal cues correctly, and when will you mislead it?

(1)Correct

People can usually read s
omeone else’s feeling from the facial expression.

(2) Mislead



While people are right about their reading of character some of the time,
especially for more obvious traits like gregariousness, the problem is that they are
overly confident and assume th
at they are equally adept at reading more subtle aspects
of character when they are actually misjudging.

5.
What’re the functions of nonverbal communication


(1)Accenting

(2)Complementing

(3)Contradicting

(4)Regulating

(5)Repeating

(6)Substituting

6.
What’re the principles of nonverbal communication?

(1)Nonverbal communication occurs in a context;

(2)Nonverbal b
ehaviors are usually packaged;

(3)Nonverbal behavior always communicates;

(4)Nonverbal behavior is governed by rules;

(5)Nonverbal behavior is highly believable;

(6)Nonverbal behavior is met communicational.

7.
What’re the dimensions of the nonverbal code?

(1)The communication environment



22

(2)Body movement

(3)Eye contact

(4)A communicator’s physical appearance

(5)Artifacts

(6)Touch

(7)Paralanguage

(8)Space

(9)Categories of personal space

(10)Time

(11)Color

(12)Smell

(13)Taste

(14)Sound

(15)Silence

(16)The e
ffects of nonverbal communication


CHAPTER
8

Communicating in intercultural and

International

contexts

1. What’re intercultural challenges at home?

(1)Ethnicity

(2)Population growth

(3)Immigration

(4)Age

(5)Families

(6)Women in the workforce

2. What’re cu
ltural challenges abroad?

(1)A new world order

(2)Customs and culture abroad

3.
What does success depends on when do business abroad?



23

The success or failure of your company abroad will depend on how effectively
your employees can exercise their skills in a

new location. That ability will depend on
both their job
-
related expertise and each individual’s sensitivity and responsiveness to
a new culture environment.

4.
What’s culture?

Culture is everything that people have, think, and do as members of their soci
ety.

5.
What’re some principles of culture?

(1)Culture is learned;

(2)Culture is universal to human society;

(3)Culture is constantly undergoing change;

(4)Some cultures change more quickly than others;

(5)Culture is not value
-
neutral;

(6)Not all cultures
are equally complex;

(7)Virtually all cultures permit the development of subculture;

(8)Culture can influence biology and biology can influence culture.

6.
What’re the functions of culture?

Cultures develop economics systems, marriage and family systems, e
ducational
systems, and supernatural belief systems. These systems are more complex and
intricate in some cultures than in others, but for the most part, people collectively
establish rules for economic value and trade, systems for assigning responsibility
, for
establishing and raising families, for educating children, and for a belief in god or an
afterlife.

7.
Set an example of ethnocentrism in culture.

We’re born in our country, live with its rules and assumptions day in and day out.
We quickly come to b
elieve that the way we live is simply “the way things should be”.
As a result, we see our behavior as correct and others’ as wrong.

8.
What’re the cross
-
culture communication skills?

One set of skills essential to success in a global economy, then, is the
ability to
communicate across cultures. According to a number of authors on this subject, the
skill set you need involves several personal capacities.



24

(1)

The capability to accept the relativity of your own knowledge and perceptions;

(2)

The capacity to be nonjudg
mental;

(3)

A tolerance for ambiguity;

(4)

The capability to communicate for other people’s ways, their country, and their
values without adopting or internalizing them.


CHAPTER
9

Managing Conflict

1.
What’s conflict?

We can define conflict as a process that begi
ns when someone perceives that
someone else has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affects, something that
the first person cares about.

2.
How do you think conflict in organization?

(1)The traditional view

This perspective assumed that all con
flict was bad.

(2)The human relations view

This viewpoint assumed conflict was a natural occurrence in all groups and
organizations.

(3)The interactionist view

The interactionist approach actually encourages conflict on the grounds that a
harmonious, peace
ful, tranquil and cooperative group may become static, apathetic,
and unresponsive to a need for change and innovation.

3.
What’re the sources of conflict in organization?

(1)Limited resources;

(2)Values, goals, and priorities;

(3)Poorly defined responsibi
lities;

(4)Change;

(5)Human drives for success

4.
What’re the ways to sense day
-
to
-
day conflict in the workplace?

(1)Visualize



25

(2)Give feedback

(3)Get feedback

(4)Define expectations

(5)Review performance regularly

5.
What’re the benefits of dealing with c
onflict?

(1)Stronger relationships

(2)Increased self
-
respect

(3)Personal growth and development

(4)Improved efficiency and effectiveness

(5)Creative thinking

(6)Synergy and teamwork

6.
How many styles of conflict management and what’re they?

There are five

styles of conflict. They’re competing, collaborating, avoiding,
accommodating, and compromising.

7.
What should you do in conflict?

(1)Listen, listen, and then listen some more;

(2)Separate the people from the problem;

(3)Focus on interests, not position;

(4)Recognize and accept the feeling of the individuals involved;

(5)Keep your own emotions in neutral;

(6)Track the conflict to its source;

(7)Communicate continually and frankly;

(8)Get people together on the small stuff first;

(9)Devise option for mutua
l gain;

(10)Define success in terms of gains rather than losses;

(11)Follow up to ensure success;

(12)Know when to cut your losses.

8.
What

should you
do if you

have

the problem?

(1)Acknowledge your anger;

(2)Don’t look for slights;



26

(3)Know what’s provokin
g you;

(4)Don’t become infected by coworker’s gripes;

(5)Check your own anger signals;

(6)Take a breather;

(7)Write a letter;

(8)Confide in a friend.


CHAPTER 1
0

Business Meetings That Work

1.
What’s the motivation for meeting?

To achieve goals.

2.
What ar
e the six legitimate reasons for having a meeting?

(1)To promote;

(2)To educate;

(3)To recreate;

(4)To initiate;

(5)To network;

(6)To reward.

3.
What’s a business meeting?

A business meeting is a gathering in which a purposeful exchange or transaction
occu
rs among two or more people with a common interest, purpose, or problem.

4.
When shall I call a meeting?

(1)People gather together to move group actions forward;

(2)People want to meet for social reasons;

(3)Talk about goals;

(4)Build morale;

(5)Listen to
reports;

(6)Research a consensus;

(7)Train people;

(8)Discover or solve problem;



27

(9)Explain plans and programs;

(10)Gather opinions;

(11) Tell people what they’re supposed to do and how they’re to do it;

(12)Keep things moving.

5.
When should I not call a
meeting?

(1)A key person in not available;

(2)Participants don’t have time to prepare;

(3)Personality conflicts or the plans of higher management might make the meeting a
waste of time.

6.
What should I consider as I plan for a meeting?

(1)The objective

(2
) The agenda

(3)The participants.

7.
What’re the two important considerations about agenda?

(1)Prioritize your agenda items;

(2) Assign realistic amounts of time to each agenda item.

8.
What kind of participants should you invite?

(1)The people who will ha
ve to carry out or implement what’s been decided;

(2)The people who have valuable information or good ideas;

(3)The people who can approve the results;

(4)The people who can act as an advocate on behalf of the group’s ideas at a higher
level;

(5)The people

who represent divergent views or traditionally excluded viewpoint;

(6)The people who are indispensable to the success of the decision.

9.
How do I prepare for a successful meeting?

(1)Arrange for a meeting time, date, and place;

(2)Coordinate details at t
he meeting sites;

(3)Announce the agenda;

(4)Assign roles.

10.
What form or meeting style will work best?



28

(1)The staff conference

This military
-
style meeting often works well if you clearly outrank everyone else
in the room.

(2)The “congressional” system

T
his system is useful if you have particularly argumentative members or if the
issues to be discussed are especially contentious.

(3)The “house of commons” system

If you’re clearly the ranking person present, but want to make the meeting as
democratic as po
ssible, appoint another member to chair the meeting.

11.
In order to keep a meeting on track, what things you should do?

(1)Topic drift;

(2)Breaking time agreements;

(3)Subgroup focus;

12.
What should I listen for ?

(1)Consider all of your knowledge, ideas
, and opinions as functions of your unique
perspective. Consider each other person’s knowledge, ideas, and opinions as
functions of their perspective.

(2)Pay attention to your own point of view, especially as it relate to others;

(3)Remember that consideri
ng an issue from many different viewpoint is what makes
a team smart. Value the opportunity to meet with people who see things differently
than you do.

(4)Practice what collaboration consultant Christopher Avery calls “playback listening”.
Pay careful atte
ntion to what others say so that you can playback their words to
them exactly.

(5)Hear others with the intention of integrating your point of view with ai many others
as you can.

(6)Try not to think in terms of right and wrong, but rather in terms of what
works and
doesn’t work.

13.
What should I do to maximize participation and collaboration?

(1)Choose a round or square table, with the leader seated as a member of the group;



29

(2)For longer meetings, set up chair in a U
-
shape;

(3)For large groups, arrange ba
nquet
-
style seating to accommodate five to eight
people, using as many round tables as necessary.

14.
What should I write down?

The names and titles of those present, the agenda items discussed, the participant
comments, and the ideas generated should find

their way onto paper. If the group
leader is to follow up on decisions, new ideas, or opportunities discussed during the
meeting, a simplified, streamlined method of recording and sharing the minutes of
each meeting must be a priority.

15.
How can I make
my meetings more productive?

(1)Embrace new technology to improve meetings;

(2)Gather team for freewheeling brainstorming sessions after 5:00 P.M., when the
workday normally concludes.

16.
Can business meeting ever improve?

Yes, good meetings aren’t just a
bout work, they are about fun
-
keeping people
charged up. It’s “coliberation”
-
people freeing each other up to think more creatively.


Chapter 1
1

Dealing With The News Media

1.
Why interviews are important?

(1)They are a chance to research a large audience;

(2)They represent an opportunity to tell your story;

(3)They are an opportunity to inform;

(4)They offer an opportunity to address public concerns;

(5)They give you an opportunity to set the record straight;

(6)They offer an opportunity to apologize;

(7)Th
ey are an opportunity to reinforce credibility.

2.
Give some considerations for whether or not to respond to a reporter’s request
for an interview or for whether to call a press conference to attract attention to
your message?



30

(1)There are few blanket rule
s and one of the most important rules is never talk to
strangers.

(2)Ask your public affairs or corporate communication office for help.

(3)Get some background before committing;

(4)Gut feelings are important.

3.
How do you look at the news media?

(1)It’s
a business;

(2)Markets and sophistication;

(3)They do make mistakes;

(4)Demanding a retraction;

(5)Facts versus opinions;

(6)Few reporters are decision makers;

(7)Get to know local management.

4.
What should you prepare to meet with a reporter or to be int
erviewed by a
journalist?

(1)Develop a strategy;

(2)Research the reporter;

(3)Refine and practice your message;

(4)Confirm the details and ground rules;

(5)Review the news of the day;

(6)Remember, you are the expert.

5.
When the moment of the interview arr
ives, what should you do to make it
happen?

(1)A prepared pocket card may help;

(2)Arrive early, check out the setting;

(3)Appearance and makeup are important;

(4)Get your points in early;

(5)Take the mother
-
in
-
law test;

(6)Be yourself.

6.
What should you
keep in mind to stay in control of an interview?



31

(1)The importance of stay in control;

(2)You don’t have to accept a reporter’s premise;

(3)Tell the truth;

(4)Avoid arguments;

(5)You are always on the record;

(6)Use examples, illustrations, brief anecdotes
;

(7)If you can’t speak to the questions, speak to the issue;

(8)Stay likeable.

7.
What are following steps after the interview?

(1)Review the article or tape;

(2)Inform the chain of command;

(3)Provide feedback;

(4)Leave a record for your successor.