Carl Tienabeso Mr. Dame Science Project February 14, 2012 ...

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Carl Tienabeso

Mr. Dame

Science Project

February 14, 2012

Thermal Energy & Absolute Zero


Over the past week in school, we have been steadily studying the works of thermal
energy and the different sorts of forms it takes on. We have learned that thermal energy can
also be known as heat and it is the sample of matter that results in the system’s

temperature.
In the research I have done today, I began
surveying

the website
www.pbs.org/nova/zero

and I
have found a lot more information regarding the subject of thermal energy

and temperature
.

It
taught

me

the correct way to measure in Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit but most importantly it
taught me the importance of absolute zero. Absolute zero is
explained as the temperature in
which thermal energy reaches its exact minimum meaning it has absolutely no
a
ctivity going on
.
There were plenty of categories for me to choose from

on this website

but I

chose cryogenics
first
.


In cryogenics it

begins to

d
eal

with
tremendously

low temperatures. The
temperature

cryogenics handles is hundreds of degrees below
-
100

degrees Fahrenheit and in order to reach
those temperatures you have to be able to
liquefy

gases
.
C
ryogenics teaches t
hat the gases stay
the same at room

temperature but once you add liquid to gases such as helium, hydrogen,
nitrogen, and oxygen, it creat
es
a very cold liquid substance

that help
our world today. For
example, liquid helium keeps the superconductor
s in the MRI room very cold so it scans well
.
Liquid oxygen is to help give the patients in hospitals oxygen
to survive off of when they
can’t

bre
athe

and liqui
d nitrogen helps to flash freeze the foods.

This is how the study of cryogenics
works.

The next link I visited

was astronomy.
In astronomy we learn that some of the
instruments scientist and astronomers use only work under certain circumstanc
es such as the
Hubble space telescope. This device can only work in very cold temperatures because if the
temperature is to warm the magnification won’t work very well. These telescopes detect
infrared radiation heat and this heat is produced into microsco
pic light that can only be seen
through the
micro
scope. It has to be kept at very low temperatures ranging just a little above
absolute zero to function well. To get it to this temperature it states that

liquid helium is the
best source in cooling it.

The
last link I examined was how the animals survive in these kinds of temperatures.
Reportedly, the coldest temperature ever recorded was
-
129 degrees Fahrenheit in Vostok,
Antarctica. Cold enough to freeze boiling water; the temperatures were endangering the

animals. There blood vessels would freeze into ice and expand until they pop or the iced up
veins would clog the path ways for blood to circulate. Animals are made differently when it
comes to beating the cold. Some animals have extra layers on their body

to keep the heat
insulated inside while other animals allow themselves to freeze but without the ice getting into
their system.

They produce an extra amount of glucose so the blood doesn’t freeze and this
process keeps them alive until the summer. There a
re many ways for animals to survive the
most vigorous weathers only because that is just how they are made.

In the Ice trade game, I made about a three thousand dollar profit because I started to
realize the system to follow in order to make a lot of money
. If you travel longer places you
have to put more insulation in order for the ice to stay solid but if you put tons of insulation for
only a short ride you’ll be wasting money. That is

how Sir Fredrick Tudor most likely

made his
fortune and is now
remembe
red

today as “The Ice King
”.