Wide Area Networks (WAN) - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

fullgorgedcutNetworking and Communications

Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Wide Area Networks (WAN)
-

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

AAU



Jens H. Sørensen

jhaus@tdc.dk

20 Oktober 2005

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Table of Contents


Objectives


Introduction to WANs


Typical WAN Technologies


SDH Protocol


SDH Equipment


SDH Networks


SDH Network Management


SDH Services (partly 2nd part)


WDM/OTN (2nd part)


Network availability, restoration and automatic protection
(2nd part)


Next/new Generation SDH and relations to IP, ATM, WDM,
Ethernet … (2nd part)


Network Synchronisation (2nd part)





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Objectives

Discussion of



LAN versus WAN, scaleability issues


WAN technologies, overview


Typical WANs, examples, SDH


Relations to networks based on
Ethernet/IP/ATM/DSL …


Upcoming WAN networks

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What is a WAN?


Definition of "WAN" according to Webopedia:


A
computer

network

that spans a relatively large
geographical area.


Typically, a
WAN

consists of two or more
local
-
area networks (LANs)
.


Computers

connected to a wide
-
area
network

are
often connected through public
networks
, such
as the telephone system. They can also be
connected through
leased lines

or satellites.


The largest WAN in existence is the
Internet
.

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Introduction to WANs


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Introduction

to WANs




Example

High Capacity

Links

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7

Introduction

to WANs




Example

Physical and

logical Links

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Introduction to WANs
-

scaleability


Can Ethernet based LANs be connected nationwide
supporting millions of users?



Scaleability issues (Ethernet)


no. of MAC addresses, VLANs, broadcast domains (ARP), STP
convergence, performance of MAC and CSMA/CD under high
load, QoS etc..


Creation of hierarchical networks


Long distance optical systems



Scaleability issues (IP)


routing tables/IP
-
address aggregation, rearrangement of fixed
IP
-
addresses, QoS



Other technologies are currently used…


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Introduction to WANs

802.3 Ethernet: MAC, LLC

TCP, UDP

IP

SDH, PDH, DXC 1/0

radio links, satellite,

fiber, copper, WLAN
….

ATM

MPLS

10/100/1000 BASET,
TX, SX, LX, FX…

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Typical WAN Technologies


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WAN Technologies


WAN capacity levels:


0: 64 kbit/s


1: 2 Mbit/s (PDH)


2: 8 Mbit/s (PDH)


3: 34 Mbit/s/ 45Mbit/s (PDH)


4: 140/155 Mbit/s (PDH/SDH STM
-
1, SONET OC
-
3)


5: 622 Mbit/s (SDH STM
-
4, SONET OC
-
12)


6: 2,5 Gbit/s (SDH STM
-
16, SONET OC
-
48)


…….


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WAN Technologies


DXC 1/0


Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)


Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH, SONET)


ATM, Frame Relay


PSTN, ISDN


Radio Links


Satellite


+


IP


Ethernet


…..

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WAN Technologies



Why not only concentrate on IP/ethernet
networks?


Scaleability issues


SDH, PDH … are essential parts of all incumbent
operators WAN networks including many new service
providers


2M and STM
-
N is widely used as leased lines including
ATM/IP/DSL backbone networks

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SDH Protocol


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SDH Protocol
-

Multiplexing


Multiplexing PDH signals


Plesiochronous multiplexing using bit stuffing


Multiplexing SDH signals


Synchronous Multiplexing using Pointer Processing

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SDH ramme, hastigheder og funktionalitet

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

SDH på 5 min

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SDH Protocol
-

Multiplexing


Multiplexing PDH signals


Plesiochronous multiplexing using bit stuffing


Multiplexing SDH signals


Synchronous Multiplexing using Pointer Processing

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SDH Protocol


AU
-
4 Pointer

Adjustment


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SDH Protocol
-

Multiplexing


Multiplexing PDH signals


Plesiochronous multiplexing using bit stuffing


Multiplexing SDH signals


Synchronous Multiplexing using Pointer Processing


Multiplexing Structure


Adaptation of PDH and other signals

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SDH protocol
-

Multiplexing Structure


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SDH mapping scheme

Initial mapping

More Multiplexing

Contiguous Concatenation

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C
-
4
-
64c

C
-
4
-
256c

C
-
4
-
16c

C
-
4
-
4c

AU
-
4
-
4c

VC
-
4
-
4c

AU
-
4
-
16c

VC
-
4
-
16c

AU
-
4
-
64c

VC
-
4
-
64c

AU
-
4
-
256c

VC
-
4
-
256c


x 1


x 1


x 1


x 1

AUG
-
64

AUG
-
256

AUG
-
16

AUG
-
4

STM
-
256

STM
-
64

STM
-
16

STM
-
4


x 1


x 1


x 1


x 1


x 4


x 4


x 4


x 4

C
-
4

C
-
3

C
-
2

C
-
12

C
-
11

VC
-
11

VC
-
12

VC
-
2

VC
-
3

TUG
-
2

TU
-
2

STM
-
0

AUG
-
1

VC
-
3

TUG
-
3

VC
-
4

AU
-
3

TU
-
11

TU
-
3

AU
-
4

STM
-
1


x 1


x 1


x 1


x 1


x 1


x4


x 3


x 3


x 7

x 7


pointer processing


multiplexing


aligning


mapping


x 3

TU
-
12

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SDH Equipment


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SDH Equipment

DXC

4/1

Interfaces: 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M,
STM
-
1, (STM
-
4/16)

XC matrix scaleable up to
32/128/256 STM
-
1 equivalent, non
-
blocking


ADM 4/1

Aggregate

Tributary

Aggr. Interfaces: STM
-
1/4/(16)

Trib. interfaces: 2M, 34M, 45M, 140M,
STM
-
1/(4)

ADM 4/4

Aggregate

Tributary

Aggr. Interfaces: STM
-
4/16/64

Trib. interfaces: STM
-
1/4/16

No access to lower order signals

SDH på 5 min

Regenerator function

REG

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ADM 4/1 STM
-
4 example

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ADM 4/4

STM
-
64 example

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SDH Networks


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SDH Networks

Hierarchical example

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Network Structures
-

Pros and Cons

Structure

Pros

Cons

Chain


Fiber effective

Simple nodes

Low start cost

Low connectivity

No redundancy

P2P upgrade costly

Ring

Fiber effective

Simple nodes

Redundancy

Low connectivity

P2P upgrade very
costly

Mesh

High connectivity

Redundancy

Cost efficient P2P
upgrade

Fiber consuming

Complex nodes


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SDH Networks
-

example , Routing in a hierarchical Network













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SDH Networks add on

SDH netstruktur

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International Network
structure

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SDH networks
-

fiber infrastructure

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SDH networks

-

WDM

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SDH networks

-

STM
-
64

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SDH networks

-

STM
-
16




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SDH networks
-

VC
-
4

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SDH Network node example

SDH netstruktur

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SDH network

Optical cards and application codes


STM16:


S16.1 (short haul, 1300 nm, 10 km)


L16.1 (long haul, 1300 nm, 20 km)


L16.2 (long haul, 1550 nm, 80 km)


V16.2 (very long haul, 1550 nm, 120 km)


U16.2 (ultra long haul, 1550 nm, 160 km)


L16.2 colered interface til WDM rel 1.0


L16.2 colered interface til WDM rel. 3.0

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Standards

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Concatenation, Protocols etc.



Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)


Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)


Equipment


Equipment


Equipment Management Function

G.707 (10/2000)

corr 1, corr 2
*
, add 1
*

G.7042/Y.1305 (11/2001)
*


G.7041/Y.1303 (11/2001)*

G.783 (02/2001)
*

G.709 (02/2001)

G.798 (11/2001)


ITU
-
T

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SDH Network Management


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En netteknologi f.eks. SDH

Network Manager

SDH Network Management

Network & Service Management View

Network Manager

Network

Elements

Element

Manager

SM funktion #1

Technical

administrative

systems (inventory)




planning



modelling



registration

Element Level Management

Network Level Management

Service Level Management

Subnetwork


Manager

Bussines Level Management

Network

Elements

Element

Manager

Subnetwork


Manager

SM funktion #2

Costumer administrative systems

Customer acces/ applikationer

Funktions:



Provisionering



Performance



Assurance



Alarmmanager

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SDH Network Management

Element Manager


Matrix: 48 ports
4/4 non
-
blocking,
dubleret

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SDH Network Management

DCN, Data Communications Network is needed

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Sub
-
Network

Level:


NEs Level:

NE GUI

Double click

SDH Network Management

Network Manager


Point and click management

6 levels
subnetwork
nesting

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Fault Management /Service Management

Filter via tree view

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SDH Services


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SDH Services


Leased line Services (fixed dedicated bandwidth):


2 Mbit/s, n x 2 Mbit/s


VC
-
12, n x VC
-
12


34 Mbit/s, 45 M Mbit/s


VC
-
3, n x VC
-
3


140 Mbit/s


VC
-
4


VC
-
4
-
4c, VC
-
4
-
16c


Grey fibres / WDM channels



add
-
on services


Alternative routing, Specific routing, automatic protection,
various Service Level Agreements (SLAs)