Ch.1 WANs and Routers

fullgorgedcutNetworking and Communications

Oct 24, 2013 (4 years and 16 days ago)

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Ch.1


WANs and Routers

CCNA 2 version 3.0

Rick Graziani

Cabrillo College

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

2

Overview

Students completing this module should be able to:


Identify organizations responsible for WAN standards


Explain the difference between a WAN and LAN and the type of
addresses each uses


Describe the role of a router in a WAN


Identify internal components of the router and describe their functions


Describe the physical characteristics of the router


Identify common ports on a router


Properly connect Ethernet, serial WAN, and console ports

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

3

Introduction to WANs

These are the major characteristics of WANs:


They connect devices that are separated by wide geographical areas.


They use the services of carriers such as the Regional Bell Operating
Companies (RBOCs), Sprint, MCI, VPM Internet Services, Inc., and
Altantes.net.


They use serial connections of various types to access bandwidth over
large geographic areas.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

4

Introduction to WANs


Routers

offer many services, including internetworking and WAN interface
ports.


Switches

in the WAN provide connectivity for voice, data, and video
communication.


Modems

include interface voice
-
grade services, channel service units/digital
service units (CSU/DSUs) that interface T1/E1 services, and Terminal
Adapters/Network Termination 1 (TA/NT1s) that interface Integrated Services
Digital Network (ISDN) services.


Communication servers

concentrate dial
-
in and dial
-
out user communication.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

5

Introduction to WANs

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

6

Introduction to routers in a WAN

Routers connect and allow communication
between two networks and determine the best
path for data to travel through the connected
networks.


RAM


Stores routing tables


Holds ARP cache


Holds fast
-
switching cache


Performs packet buffering (shared RAM)


Maintains packet
-
hold queues


Provides temporary memory for the configuration file
of the router while the router is powered on


Loses content when router is powered down or
restarted

NVRAM


Provides storage for the startup configuration file


Retains content when router is powered down or
restarted

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

7

Introduction to routers in a WAN

Flash memory


Holds the operating system image (IOS)


Allows software to be updated without removing
and replacing chips on the processor


Retains content when router is powered down or
restarted


Can store multiple versions of IOS software


Is a type of electronically erasable,
programmable ROM (EEPROM)

Read
-
only memory (ROM) has the following
characteristics and functions:


Maintains instructions for power
-
on self test
(POST) diagnostics


Stores bootstrap program and basic operating
system software


Requires replacing pluggable chips on the
motherboard for software upgrades

Interfaces


Connect router to network for
frame entry and exit


Can be on the motherboard
or on a separate module

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

8

Router LANs and WANs


Smaller broadcast domains


Connecting Layer 3 networks


Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

9

Router LANs and WANs


Routers are the backbone devices of large intranets and of the Internet.


They operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model, making decisions based on
network addresses.


The two main functions of a router are the selection of best path for
and the switching of frames to the proper interface.


Routers accomplish this by building routing tables and exchanging
network information with other routers.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

10

Router role in a WAN


The WAN physical layer describes the interface between the data
terminal equipment (DTE) and the data circuit
-
terminating equipment
(DCE).


Generally, the DCE is the service provider and the DTE is the attached
device. In this model, the services offered to the DTE are made
available through a modem or a CSU/DSU.


Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

11

Router role in a WAN


The primary WAN roles of a router are therefore not routing, but
providing connections to and between the various WAN physical and
data
-
link standards.


For example, a router may have an ISDN interface using PPP
encapsulation and a serial interface terminating a T1 line using Frame
Relay encapsulation.

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

12

Academy approach to hands
-
on labs


In the academy lab, devices that make up the WAN cloud
are simulated by the connection between the back
-
to
-
back
DTE
-
DCE cables.


One of the routers will provide the clock rate (later).

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

13

Router internal components


CPU



RAM



Flash



NVRAM



Buses


ROM



Interfaces



Power Supply


Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

14

Router physical characteristics

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

15

Router external connections

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

16

Management port connections

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

17

Management port connections

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

18

Connecting console interfaces

When connected using the console interface, the computer is acting
as a “dumb terminal”.

<Router Output>

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

19

Connecting console interfaces

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

20

Connecting console interfaces

<Router Output>

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

21

Connecting LAN interfaces

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

22

Connecting WAN interfaces

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

23

Connecting WAN interfaces

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

24

Connecting WAN interfaces

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu

25

Summary

An understanding of the following key points should have
been achieved:


WAN and LAN concepts


Role of a router in WANs and LANs


WAN protocols


Configuring encapsulation


The identification and description of the internal
components of a router


The physical characteristics of a router


The common ports on a router



How to connect router console, LAN, and WAN ports