Objectives and Outcomes of Service Learningx - CSU, Chico

frontdotardUrban and Civil

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Designing a course that includes a service or civic learning component should begin with
learning goals, specify learning objectives, identify learning activities, and determine the
methods by which students‘ success in achieving the goals and objectives
will be assessed:



A learning
goal
is general and provides direction for students and the instructor. It is a desired
outcome stated in value
-
terms that aren‘t readily quantified.

A learning
objective
is an outcome that will be achieved; that is measurab
le; and that follows
deductively from a learning goal.

A learning
strategy
is a

means to an end


a method for achieving one or more learning
objectives. These may come in the form of classroom strategies for assignments and must
contribute to the achieve
ment of learning objectives.

A learning
assessment method
is a means for measuring the achievement of one or more
learning objectives. There are two general types: (1) formative assessment, which emphasizes
feedback to students about the quality of their
learning, and (2) summative assessment, which
evaluates the quality of student learning. Use of learning assessment methods provides
feedback to the instructor on the alignment between goals, objectives, strategies, and
assessment methods.



Student Learn
ing Outcomes: Six Levels of Learning

Student learning outcomes for a course may range over several

levels


of learning, from the
absorption of facts to the ability to think critically, solve problems, or generate genuinely novel
thoughts. Each statement
of a student learning outcome should include a
verb
that represents
the level of learning that‘s expected.



Here are some examples of using verbs to write an SLO:



To measure
comprehension.
Example: “Discuss the basic tenets of deconstructionism.


To measure
application.
Example: “Calculate the deflection of a beam under uniform loading.


To measure
analysis.
Example: “In the president‘s State of the Union Address, which
statements are based on facts and which are based on statements of value?



To
measure
synthesis.
Example: “How would you restructure the school day to reflect
children's developmental needs?


To measure
evaluation.
Example: “Should Bach's Mass in B Minor be regarded as a classic?
Why or why not?”



Using Bloom’s classification of co
gnitive skills to compose SLOs



Bloom‘s classification of cognitive skills appears below. Each skill is defined and associated with
various behavioral indicators. Use this information to stimulate your thinking about course SLOs
and the learning activiti
es for achieving those outcomes.

Knowledge.
Definition: Beliefs that are “true”(well
-
justified, warranted, well
-
supported, etc.) in
the estimation of persons prepared and experienced adequately to determine whether such
terms apply). Knowledge can be reta
ined and reported without being understood adequately to
apply it, critique it, or use it creatively. Indicators: The ability to define, describe, identify, label,
list, match, memorize, point to, recall, select, state, etc.

Comprehension.
Definition: The “deeper” (more complete, more sophisticated, more nuanced,
etc.) understanding of a true belief that enables one to apply it, critique it, or use it creatively.
Indicators: The ability to interpret, analyze, apply, critique, refine, enhance
, annotate, convert,
expand/ extend, generalize, give examples of, infer, paraphrase, predict, reassess, summarize,
translate, etc.

Application.
Definition: The use of a concept to comprehend a possible (hypothesized,
predicted, purported, suspected) inst
antiation (i.e., a particular instance, occurrence, or
manifestation) of the general phenomenon or entity named/described by the concept.
Indicators: The ability to apply, adapt, gather, sort, subsume, construct, demonstrate, discover,
illustrate, use, man
ipulate, relate, show, solve, model, etc.

Analysis.
Definition: The “deconstruction,” “reverse engineering,” “subdividing,” or “breaking
down” of a thing into its constituent components in order to comprehend the features
(connections, structure, function
s, purposes, operations, processes, relationships, organizing
principles, etc.) of the whole. Indicators: The ability to identify, distinguish, compare, contrast,
diagram, differentiate, dissect, model, select, separate, sort, subdivide, etc.

Synthesis.
D
efinition: The construction, creation, invention, conceptualization, or description of
a new (different, changed, altered, extended, reconceived, invented, discovered, etc.) entity or
phenomenon by assembling, relating, or connecting other entities or phen
omena in such a way
that the latter can be viewed, understood, described, explained, etc. as parts, features, or
components of a new whole. Indicators: The ability to blend, build, combine, create, compile,
compose, design, formulate, generate, hypothesize
, plan, predict, invent, imagine, produce,
reorder, revise, reimagine, reconceive, change, alter, extend, etc.

Evaluation.
Definition: Judging, asses
-
sing, determining, assigning, gauging, appraising, etc.

with reference to criteria, conditions, indicator
s, requirements, etc.

the value, worth, utility,
usability, suit
-
ability, importance, excellence, significance, etc. of an entity or phenomenon
(including ideas, concepts, constructs, models, theories, hypotheses, procedures, methods,
etc.) for a specified

purpose, goal, objective, situation, condition, circumstance, eventuality,
possibility, etc. Indicators: The ability to judge, adjudicate, assess, gauge, estimate, choose,
conclude, criticize, defend, grade, prioritize, recommend, referee, reject, select,

support, etc.