SWE202 Fundamental of Operating System

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Nov 27, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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SWE202 Fundamental of Operating System


Lecture 1: Introduction

Asst.Prof.Dr.Surasak

Mungsing

Faculty of Information Technology

Sripatum University

Topic


Basic Knowledge of computers


Importance of Operating Systems


Evolution of Operating Systems


Responsibility of Operating Systems

Evolution of Computers


History of computing


The first generation


The second generation


The third generation


The fourth generation


The fifth generation




What is a Computer


Automated electronic device


Computing machine


Able to solve simple or complex problems
based on mathematics

History of computation


Abacus


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfWoR3IJh2A


Chinese abucus

$26

online


step
-
by
-
step how to perform addition,
subtraction, division, multiplication, square
roots and cube roots on a Chinese abacus

The first generation of computer

vacuum tube

ENIAC

(Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Calculator) built by the University of Pennsylvania in
1943
-
45

More Info at:

http://www1.fccj.org/jdebo/new_page_3.htm


The second generation computer

transistors

Punched card

Magnetic tape

The second generation computer


Transistor era


low cost, low power consumption, low heat
produced


Transistor
-
based computer


Processing speed in milliseconds

per
instruction


Store data in punched cards and magnetic
tapes


Use assembly language


The third generation of computer


IC
-
Integrated Circuit era


An IC can contain 100,000 circuit in this period


1 KB RAM, Intel 4004 (4
-
bit) and Intel 8008 (8
-
bit) used in small electronic devices such as
normal calculators, watches, scales, etc.


Processing power in microseconds per
instructions


High
-
level programming languages


RDBMS


The fourth generation of computer


LSI (Large
-
scale integration) and

VLSI (very
large
-
scale integration)


Personal Computer or

PC era


Processing capability: nanoseconds per
instruction


Pointing device (e.g. mouse click) introduced




The fifth generation of computer


Ultra large
-
scale integration


Notebook, PDA, smart phone


OS
หลากหลาย เช


MS Windows,
MacOS, Linux, etc

Operating Systems

Importance of Operating Systems


1.
It moderates the relationship between the computer
and its peripherals

2.
It helps in the management of files,
-

copying,
deleting, moving of files from one storage location to
the other.

3.
It encourages the memory for its efficient usage and
thus adding the speed of the computer.


Importance of Operating Systems

(cont.)


4. It manages the activities of the processor in terms of
job execution according to the priority of arrival , of
jobs


5. It informs the user of any hardware or software error


6. It makes communication between the computer and
the user or the operator possible

Evolution of Operating Systems


The zeroth generation


The first generation


The second generation


The third generation


The fourth generation

The
zeroth

generation of OS


1940
-
1949


switches controlled directly by users


Controlled by machine language (0 or 1 or
binary)


no concept of software (no computer
program) only use hardware control

The first generation of OS


1950
-
1959



batch processing


batch job controlled computer operations and
then handled control to OS after job
completion


Responsibility of OS was to set up computer to
be ready for the next batch job

The second generation of OS


beginning of 1960’s


multiprogramming


multiprocessing


multitasking


single CPU


OS
-
user interface development


time
-
sharing (both interactive mode and
batch mode)

The third generation of OS


late 1960’s


beginning of 1970


general
-
purpose operating systems


the end of monolithic programming


operating system layer


device driver to directly control hardware


The fourth generation of OS


After 1970’s


Personal computer (PC) invention


on
-
line data demand via personal computers and
computer network


size of OS was reduced to core OS that was necessary
to only computer


Break into independent subsystems, e.g. file systems,
memory management, process management, I/O
system, etc. and utilities programs such as database
system and virtual machine



Variety of OS


new architectures require more specific OS


connectivity applications (LAN, WAN,
distributed processing, parallel distributed
processing, real
-
time operating systems) need
modular program as plug
-
and
-
play


Responsibility of Operating Systems


Program execution


Input/Output

processing


File systems management


Communication


Error detection


Resource allocation


User accounting


Security system



Program execution


Program load scheduling


Program execution from beginning to end


Normal termination and abnormal
termination


Protecting ripple effects to other program
loading into memory or other resource such
as files, hardware, network etc.


Input/Output

processing


Provide facility for receiving and sending data
from and to external system


Communicate with Input/Output devices
through drivers


Protecting and ensuring correctness and
integrity of data at all time of program
execution

File systems management


Permanent store of data


File creating, storing, updating, and deleting
are normally accomplished by user software


Users don’t know where in physical memory
their files stored

Communication


Data communication help enhance utilization
of computers


Data communication between computers
handled by network operating system

Error detection


OS detects errors during program execution at
all time to maintain data integrity


Erros may be caused by program, computer
architecture physical limitations, power supply
system, attackers


Examples of errors


trying to write data in
write
-
protect section of memory, divide by
zero, overflow in control register etc.


Resource allocation


OS responsible for fair resource allocation to
support execution of user programs, utility
programs, or OS program according to design
policy of OS designer


Also avoid and prevent problems in competing
for limited resources of user program and OS
program, e.g. deadlocks and trashing


User accounting


Audit trail


System Administration policy


Accessing right to computer and computer
networks


Attack behavior under authorized users


Security system


Security is important, especially, in multiuser
system


Access rights or privileges for using resources,
utility programs, and communication through
computer network must be controlled


Examples of computer and data security:
firewall installation, data encryption, etc.


Q&A

Questions


Describe characteristics of the following OS


Batch


Time
-
sharing


Real
-
time


Distributed


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