UNIT 2 TEST REVIEW

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Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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UNIT 2 TEST REVIEW

Sociology

Socialization

Media and
American
Culture

Groups in
Society

CATEGORIES

BONUS

QUESTION!

TEST
FORMAT


WHAT IS UNIQUE ABOUT A GIVEN

PERSONALITY?

SOCIALIZATION, Question 1


PERSONALITIES ARE UNIQUE TO EACH PERSON.



NO TWO PEOPLE HAVE THE SAME


PERSONALITIES.



PERSONALITIES CONTINUE TO DEVELOP OVER


YOUR LIFETIME.

ANSWERS


NAME ONE DIFFERENCE AND ONE


SIMILARITY BETWEEN TWINS.

SOCIALIZATION, Question 2

Differences between twins:


Attitudes, values, friends, drinking
habits



Similarities between twins:


Temperaments, voice patterns, nervous
habits


ANSWERS




NAME A TRAIT THAT CAN BE DEFINED

UNDER BOTH NATURE AND NURTURE


SOCIALIZATION, Question 3



Personalities


Athleticism


Competition


ETC.

ANSWERS




PROVIDE A DEFINITION AND ONE
EXAMPLE FOR EACH ONE OF THE
FOLLOWING TYPES OF PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT:


1.
HEREDITY

2.
BIRTH ORDER

3.
PARENTS

4.
CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

SOCIALIZATION, Question 4

ANSWERS

HEREDITY


Provides biological needs


Places limits on what is possible but
does not determine behavior


Aptitudes: capacity to learn a
particular body of knowledge


Inherited aptitudes can be encouraged
or discouraged by parents


BIRTH ORDER


Children with siblings often have a
different view of the world than do
only children


Influences personality development:


First born
-

achievement oriented and
responsible; conservative in thinking


Last born
-

better in social relationships,
affectionate, friendly; risk
-
takers,
intellectual and social rebels



Influenced by characteristics of your
parents; affected by:


Age of parents


Differences between parents


Education


Religion


Economic Status


Cultural heritage


Occupation

PARENTS


Cultures give rise to “model
personalities” that are typical and
valued by members of society;
affected by:


Gender


Subcultural differences


CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT


WHICH PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT CATEGORIES CAN THIS
PICTURE FALL UNDER?

SOCIALIZATION, Question 5

HEREDITY

PARENTS

CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT


WHY????

ANSWER


HOW ARE DANI AND GENIE USED AS CASES FOR
SOCIOLOGISTS TO DETERMINE HOW
PERSONALITIES DEVELOP?



WHAT WERE THE LIMITATIONS ON THESE
STUDIES?

SOCIALIZATION, Question 6


GENIE AND DANI WERE RAISED IN TOTAL ISOLATION,
AFFECTING ANY ABILITY TO DEVELOP PERSONALITY,
INCLUDING LANGUAGE, NORMS, ETC.


DANI WAS ABLE TO LEARN AGAIN


GENIE WAS SEVERELY IMPAIRED FOR LIFE



THE LIMITATIONS WERE THAT IT IS UNCLEAR WHETHER
GENIE WAS BORN WITH A PREVIOUS DISABILITY.

ANSWER

INDICATE WHAT SOCIOLOGIST THE PICTURES BELOW
REPRESENT AND WHY? WHAT IS IT THAT THEY
BELIEVE ABOUT PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT?

SOCIALIZATION, Question 7

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

ANSWER

#1= PIAGET

#2= LOCKE

#3=MEAD

#5= FREUD

#4= COOLEY


Locke’s

Tabula Rasa


Born as a clean slate


Personalities are developed through
experience


Anyone can be socialized to become a
member of a given society despite biological
influences


Charles Horton Cooley’s

Looking Glass Self



The self is the product of our interactions with other
people


Process of developing a self
-
identity:


1. Imagine how we present ourselves to
others
-
relatives, friends, strangers


2. Imagine how others evaluate us
-
attractive,
shy, intelligent, strange


3. We develop some sort of feeling about
ourselves
-
such as respect or shame


Cooley’s Looking Glass Self


Individual’s “imagination” of how others view him or her
has an effect


Can develop self identities based on incorrect perceptions



Example: Incorrect reaction to a teacher’s criticism


Student
thinks teacher views him as stupid
-

misconception converted
into negative self
-
identity

1. The teacher criticized me

2. The teacher must think I’m stupid

3. Therefore, I am stupid


George Herbert Mead’s


Stages of the Self


Studied the “Self”


Developed a useful model of how the
“self” emerges




Role
-
Taking


3 distinct stages...


Children imitate the people around them


Example: bang on wood if parent doing
carpentry, throw a ball if older sibling is doing
the same


As they grow older
-
they become more familiar
with using symbols


Gestures, objects, language that form the basis for
communication



1. Preparatory Stage:


2. Play Stage:


Child is able to understand other people’s actions


Child becomes able to pretend that they are other
people (dress up, play school, etc.)


Role taking:


Process of mentally assuming the perspective of
another


3. Game Stage:


Begins around 8 or 9 years old


Child starts to consider several tasks or relationships
simultaneously


Able to understand their social position and the social
position of those around them:


Ex. Aware of other students in a classroom setting


‘Generalized Others’
-

Child’s awareness of attitudes,
viewpoints and expectations of a society


A child will learn courtesy is not to please a parent, but is a
widespread social value endorsed by parents, teachers,
friends and religious leaders


Jean Piaget’s Theory of the Self


There are four stages in the development of
children’s thought processes:


1.
Sensorimotor
-

Young children use their
senses to make discoveries
-
by touch they
discover their hands are part of themselves


2.
Preoperational



Children use words and
symbols to distinguish objects and ideas


3.
Concrete operational



Children engage in
more logical thinking


4.
Formal operational

-

Adolescents are
capable of sophisticated abstract thought and
deal with ideas and values in a logical way


3 parts to the Conscious Self


1. Id:


What you
WANT

to do


Acts on Pleasure Principle: demands instant gratification


Pays no attention to the laws or needs of others


The Id is inborn


infant needs

The id:


a primitive part of the personality that pursues only
pleasure and instant gratification.



Sigmund Freud’s

Theory of the Self


2
. Superego


What you
SHOULD

do


Defines and tells us what society says we should do


Acts on Reality Principle


The superego:


contains our social conscience and through the
experience of guilt and anxiety when we do
something wrong, it guides us towards socially
acceptable behavior.



Sigmund Freud’s

Theory of the Self


3
. Ego


What you
WILL

do


Satisfies the id, but understands we
cannot always get what we want

The ego:


that part of the personality that is aware of
reality and is in contact with the outside
world. It is the part that considers the
consequences of an action and deals with the
demands of the id and superego.


Sigmund Freud’s

Theory of the Self



EXPLAIN
HOW
AND
WHY

MEDIA ACTS AS AN AGENT OF
SOCIALIZATION AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


MEDIA AND AMERICAN CULTURE, Question 1


ANSWER




HOW DOES VISUAL MEDIA CREATE AND


CHANGE

AMERICAN VALUES?

MEDIA AND AMERICAN CULTURE, Question 2


ANSWER




GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE FROM YOUR LIFE THAT
INDICATES ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION.

MEDIA AND AMERICAN CULTURE, Question
3


Anticipatory socialization
-

learning the rights,
obligations, and expectations of a role to
prepare for assuming that role in the future.


ANSWER




HOW HAS HOMOGAMY BECOME REDEFINED IN
TODAY’S SOCIETY?

MEDIA AND AMERICAN CULTURE, Question
4

HOMOGAMY
-

the tendency of individuals to marry people who
have social characteristics similar to their own


Cultural Norm:

Monogamy, Heterosexuality, Homogamy



Homosexuality


Polygamy


Across race


Across countries


Across cultures


ANSWER


PROVIDE DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES

(NOT ONES WE’VE DISCUSSED IN CLASS)

FOR:



IN
-
GROUP



OUT
-
GROUP


GROUPS IN SOCIETY, Question
1


In
-
group
: the group that a person belongs to and identifies with


Tend to separate themselves from other groups through the use of
symbols.


Groups will often use badges, clothing, names, or slogans as forms of
identification.


Members view themselves positively and they often view out
-
groups in
negative terms.


Compete with out
-
groups, even to the point of engaging in conflict.



Out
-
group
: Any group that a person does not belong to or
identify with



ANSWER



IDENTIFY AND
EXPLAIN

ONE WEAK

EXAMPLE OF GROUPTHINK AND ONE

SERIOUS EXAMPLE OF GROUPTHINK.

YOU MAY USE EXAMPLES FROM CLASS.

GROUPS IN SOCIETY, Question 2


ANSWER


Examples of Groupthink


From small to large…


The Wave


Fraternities and Sororities


Racism/KKK


Gangs


Cults/Jim Jones


Holocaust/Hitler




THE WAVE

Around the 6th inning something happens...”the
wave.”


H
ow does the wave start, who starts it, and how does a
small group get an entire stadium to stop paying
attention to the game and do "the wave“?


1) The wave is usually started by a single person or a small group of VERY
motivated individuals.


2) The wave is most effectively propagated when the game is slow.


3) The wave begins with a small group and spreads over time.


4) A successful wave with everyone working together is actually pretty fun.



FRATERNITIES AND SORORITIES


Source of identification and belonging


Live
-
in housing


Group dynamics


Similar interests, desires, friends, etc.



What do social interests allow us to do?




HAZING



Sorority at Rutgers University


women sent to hospital


Fraternity at Rider University


student forced to drink alcohol, dies of
alcohol poisoning




RACISM AND THE KKK








Costumes shield identity
-


unanimity





Use fear to control members and non
-
members



GANGS


Gangs are usually defined as a “group of individuals who
share a common identity and, in current usage, engage
in illegal activities. Once an urban problem, street gangs
have now infiltrated U.S. communities large and small.
Gang experts say at least 21,500 gangs


with more than
731,000 members


are active nationwide.”



Initiation


Dangers



Necessity in most ghettos


Protection


Out
-
group: Ostracized



CULTS


Jonestown


One of the most extreme
examples of groupthink I
can imagine.




What is the purpose of
cults?


What do cults provide to
their leader(s)?

Cults

Purpose

to further interests of
leader

Recruitment

uses deception

Commitment

complete personal
sacrifice

Decision
Making

authoritarian

Leader

requires obedient
behavior

Complete control


HITLER AND THE HOLOCAUST


Brainwashing or proper persuasion?



Using stereotypes as justification




Promoting unity, purifying the Aryan
race, national pride and purpose, self
-
worth, etc.



Self
-
justification:
describes
how, when a
person encounters
a
situation in which a
person's behavior is inconsistent with
their beliefs, that person tends to justify
the behavior and deny any negative
feedback associated with the behavior
.


Aryan vs. Jew:
Sub
-
human (In
-
group,
Out
-
group)

TEST FORMAT

MATCHING

SHORT/LONG ANSWERS

IDENTIFICATIONS

DEFINE TWO
SOCIAL
FUNCTIONS OF
DEVIANCE


BONUS QUESTION


ANSWER


Clarifying Norms
-


defines boundaries of acceptable behavior



Unifying the Group
-


“us against them” reinforces a sense of community and a belief in shared
values



Diffusing Tension
-


allow people to relieve tension without disrupting the whole of societal
safety.



Promoting Social Change
-


helps to prompt change; i.e. civil rights



Providing Jobs
-


Judges, lawyers, police officers, prison personnel, parole officers, etc.