Social Motivation and Emotion - Faculty

frizzflowerUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Social Psychology

Social Motivation and Emotion

Social Development

Social Development
Mirrors
Moral
Development

As moral development progresses,
the focus of concern moves from the
self to the wider social world
.


Preconventionial level
-
Morality of
self
-
interest: To avoid punishment or
to gain concrete reward.

Conventional level
-
Morality of law
and social rules: To gain approval or
avoid disapproval.

Postconventional level
-
Morality of
abstract principles: To affirm agreed
-
upon rights and personal ethical
principles.

Emotion


Emotion


A response of the whole organism,
involving...


Physiological arousal


Expressive behaviors


Conscious experience


Complex pattern of changes made in
response to a situation perceived to be
personally significant.


Primary emotion

Secondary emotion

Tertiary emotions

Love

Affection

Adoration, affection, love, fondness, liking,
attraction, caring, tenderness, compassion,
sentimentality

Lust

Arousal, desire, lust, passion, infatuation

Longing

Longing

Joy

Cheerfulness

Amusement, bliss, cheerfulness, gaiety,
glee, jolliness, joviality, joy, delight,
enjoyment, gladness, happiness, jubilation,
elation, satisfaction, ecstasy, euphoria

Zest

Enthusiasm, zeal, zest, excitement, thrill,
exhilaration

Contentment

Contentment, pleasure

Pride

Pride, triumph

Optimism

Eagerness, hope, optimism

Enthrallment

Enthrallment, rapture

Relief

Relief

Surprise

Surprise

Amazement, surprise, astonishment



Primary emotion

Secondary emotion

Tertiary emotions

Anger

Irritation

Aggravation, irritation, agitation,
annoyance, grouchiness, grumpiness

Exasperation

Exasperation, frustration

Rage

Anger, rage, outrage, fury, wrath,
hostility, ferocity, bitterness, hate,
loathing, scorn, spite, vengefulness,
dislike, resentment

Disgust

Disgust, revulsion, contempt

Envy

Envy, jealousy

Torment

Torment

Sadness

Suffering

Agony, suffering, hurt, anguish

Sadness

Depression, despair, hopelessness,
gloom, glumness, sadness,
unhappiness, grief, sorrow, woe,
misery, melancholy

Disappointment

Dismay, disappointment, displeasure

Shame

Guilt, shame, regret, remorse

Neglect

Alienation, isolation, neglect,
loneliness, rejection, homesickness,
defeat, dejection, insecurity,
embarrassment, humiliation, insult

Sympathy

Pity, sympathy

Fear

Horror

Alarm, shock, fear, fright, horror,
terror, panic, hysteria, mortification

Nervousness

Anxiety, nervousness, tenseness,
uneasiness, apprehension, worry,
distress, dread



Emotions are Social


The main evolutionary function of an emotion is
social communication.


Scan an animal’s brain while it’s
communicating and you find activity in those
areas of the brain which map onto the
emotion areas in humans.


When bowlers get a strike, they don’t usually
smile while looking at the pins, they smile when
they turn back to the people they are with.

Emotions are Contagious


Not only do most of our emotions have social
components, but even privately felt emotions soon
spread in social networks.



From personal experience it may seem fairly evident
that emotions are contagious. I remember countless
times where I entered a ‘happy’ environment and felt
my ‘happiness’ increase, but the principle also applies
to ‘unhappy’ situations. This phenomenon has been
described as emotional contagion
-

‘catching’
emotions from people in a social setting.

It’s unclear
how

this works, but theories suggest a behavioral
component and/or

a biological basis
.”


Motivation


Many aspects of motivation
are universal.


People everywhere get
hungry, thirsty, tired, etc.


Understanding of these
aspects of motivation
requires us to consider
shared evolutionary
heritage.


Higher level motivation is
much more culturally
based.

Motivation

Drive
-
Reduction Theory


Drive Reduction Theory
: The idea that a
physiological need creates an aroused tension
state (a drive) that motivates an organism to
satisfy the need (relieve the arousal).

Motivation

Optimum Arousal Theory


Our biological rhythms cycle through times of arousal.


We are motivated to maintain our arousal at an
optimum level.


If we feel under aroused, we will seek stimulation.


If we feel over aroused, we will look for ways to
decrease arousal.

Common Motives


Hunger


Thirst


Sex


Safety needs


Self
-
esteem and self
-
enhancement


Achievement motivation


Control


Motivations to Stick out of Fit in


Schadenfreude


Need for Status and Prestige


5 Core Social Motives


Belonging:

People are motivated to affiliate and
bond with each other.


Understanding:

to belong , people are motivated to
create an accurate
-
enough shared social
understanding.


Controlling:

People are motivated to feel
competitive and effective in their dealings with the
animate and inanimate environment.


Enhancing Self:

Hoping that other will see you as
socially worthy fits the core social motive of
enhancing self.


Trusting:

Viewing the world as benevolent enables
people to participate in many group activities without
undue suspicion or vigilance.

Tying 5 Core Social Motives to Social
Development


Belongingness.

In the absence of bonding and affiliating with
other people, one would not be able to acquire the
feelings of
trust

necessary to operate smoothly in society.


Understanding
: When people create accurate
-
enough shared
social understanding they are not hounded by

feelings of
doubt and shame
in relation to social relationships and society
functioning.


Controlling
: By feeling competitive and effective in dealing with
one's animate and inanimate environment one can generate
positive

feelings of initiative

in relation to social functioning
and void any guilt over ineffectiveness.


Enhancing Self
: If others see one as socially worthy, then this
gives rise to
feelings of industry.


Trusting:

One needs a trusting environment to be able to
brood over subtle questions like those of
personal identity
.

Other Social Motives

Schadenfreude


A
New York Times

article in 2002 cited a
number of scientific studies of Schadenfreude,
which it defined as "delighting in others'
misfortune." Many such studies are based on
social comparison theory
, the idea that when
people around us have bad luck, we look better
to ourselves. Other researchers have found that
people with low self
-
esteem are more likely to
feel Schadenfreude than are people who have
high self
-
esteem.

Other Social Motives

Schadenfreude


A 2006 experiment suggests that men, but not
women, enjoy seeing bad people suffer. The study
was designed to measure empathy, by watching which
brain centers are stimulated when subjects inside an
fMRI observe someone having a painful experience.
Researchers expected that the brain's empathy center
would show more stimulation when those seen as
good got an electric shock than they would if the
shock was given to someone the subject had reason
to consider bad. This was indeed the case, but for
male subjects the brain's pleasure centers also lit up
when someone else got a shock that the male thought
was well
-
deserved.

Other Social Motives

Schadenfreude


Brain
-
scanning studies show that
Schadenfreude is correlated with envy. Strong
feelings of envy activated physical pain nodes
in the brain's dorsal anterior cingulate cortex;
the brain's reward centers (e.g. the ventral
striatum) were activated by news that the
people envied had suffered misfortune. The
magnitude of the brain's Schadenfreude
response could even be predicted from the
strength of the previous envy response.


Altruism
: the deliberate pursuit of the interests
or

welfare

of others or the public interest.


Could be an evolutionary mechanism to ensure the
survival of our group since the members of our group
share our genetics.


Could be a mechanism which ensures the rise of
cooperation, a situation that is evolutionarily beneficial
to everyone involved.


Altruistic Punishment
: People will pay some of their own
money or resources to punish those people who do not
contribute their share.

Other Social Motives

Altruism and Altruistic Punishment

Other Social Motives

Face and Honor


Attending to your weaknesses is important if you
are trying to maintain “face.”


Face

is the amount of social value others give
you if you live up to the standards associated
with your position.


Face is more easily lost than it is gained. It is
lost whenever one fails to live up to other’s
expectations for your role, and it is gained only
when you are promoted to a higher role.

Other Social Motives

Keeping Up With the Joneses


"
Keeping up with the Joneses
" is a catchphrase
in many parts of the English
-
speaking world
referring to the comparison to one's neighbor as
a benchmark for social caste or the
accumulation of material goods. To fail to "keep
up with the Joneses" is perceived as
demonstrating socio
-
economic or cultural
inferiority.

Keeping Up With the Joneses Leads to
Conspicuous Consumption


Conspicuous consumption

is a term used to
describe the lavish spending on goods and
services acquired mainly for the purpose of
displaying income or wealth. In the mind of a
conspicuous consumer, such display serves as
a means of attaining or maintaining social
status.

We Look Better When Others Fail