Motivation and Emotions

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Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 19 days ago)

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Motivation and Emotions

Motivation

Introduction To Motivation and
Emotions




What drives you to want to learn about psychology?


Why did you
come to class today? Why did you choose Century College over
another school?


Why did you choose your best friend?


Where you
would live?


Are your drives different from other people or do we
all share the same goals in life?





This series of lectures will define motivation
-
emotion
-
stress, some
of their many aspects, and discuss the various theories related to
motivation, emotion, and stress.


You will learn the different views
on motivation, from those deemed instinctual, internal, and those
viewed as external.


You will also be presented with the theories of
emotion, an abstract concept which has yet to have an agreed upon
definition. And finally, you will be presented with different ways of
understanding stress and its consequences.



Motivation



Ever wonder why some people seem to be very successful,
highly motivated individuals?


Where does the energy, the
drive, or the direction come from?


Motivation is an area of
psychology that has gotten a great deal of attention,
especially in the recent years.




The reason is because we all want to be successful, we all
want direction and drive, and we all want to be seen as
motivated.


But first, let’s define motivation and some its elements. The
words motivation and emotion both have as their root the
Latin word

emovere

which roughly translate to


move “out of” or “away from
MOTION.


Motivation


What is motivation? And what are some of
the aspects of motivation?


A
motive
is
anything
that initiates behavior.


Motives may be conscious or unconscious.


Motivation gives direction to behavior.


Desire, a major component of motivation (i.e.
moving us) is experienced as
Tension

until
Aim/Goal is achieved.

Motivation


Motives are divided into two classes:


Primary Drives
: originating in internal, organic
processes (e.g. the drive to breath and eat).


Learned Drives
: originating in external social
forces (e.g. family, religion, status)


Motivation


There are three main characteristics of


all

motivated behavior.

1. . Arousal (it is the energizing of behavior, it
leads to action) e.g. an itch

2. . Direction (it gives direction to our
movements) e.g. scratching the itch

3 .. Desire (gives hope for satisfaction) e.g. relief
from itch


Motivation


Another component of motivation is level of
incentive
.


Incentives are objects/conditions in our
environment that stimulate behavior.


Levels of incentive run from extremely low
(liver and onions) to extremely high (ice cream
sundae).

Theories of Motivation


There are five distinct theories of motivation I
want you to be familiar with.


Some include basic
biological forces, while others seem to transcend
concrete explanation.



Instinct Theory


Drive Reduction Theory



Arousal Theory


Psychoanalytic Theory


Humanistic Theory


Instinct theory


Derived from our biological make
-
up.


We've all seen spider's webs
and perhaps even witnessed a spider in the tedious job of creating
its home and trap.


We've all seen birds in their nests, feeding their
young or painstakingly placing the twigs in place to form their new
home.


How do spiders know how to spin webs?


How do birds now
how to build nests?



The answer is
biology
.


All creatures are born with specific innate
knowledge about how to survive.


Animals are born with the
capacity and often times the knowledge of how to survive by
spinning webs, building nests, avoiding danger, and
reproducing.


These innate tendencies are preprogrammed at birth,
they are in our genes, and even if the spider never saw a web
before, never witnessed its creation, it would still know how to
create one.


Instinct theory


People have the same types of innate tendencies.


Babies
are born with a unique ability that allows them to survive;
(i.e. reflexes) they are born with the ability to cry.


Without
this, how would others know when to feed the baby, know
when he needed changing, or when he/she wanted
attention and affection?


Crying allows a human infant to
survive.


We are also born with particular reflexes which
promote survival.


The most important of these include
sucking, swallowing, coughing, blinking.


Newborns can
perform physical movements to avoid pain; they will turn
their head if touched on their cheek and search for a nipple
(rooting reflex); and they will grasp an object that touches
the palm of their hands.

Drive Reduction Theory



According to Clark Hull humans have internal
internal

biological needs which motivate us to
perform a certain way.


These needs, or drives,
are defined by Hull as internal states of arousal or
tension which must be reduced.


A prime
example would be the internal feelings of hunger
or thirst, which motivates us to eat.


According to
this theory, we are driven to
reduce

these drives
so that we may maintain a sense of internal
calmness (
i.e

equilibrium).


Arousal Theory



Similar
to Hull's Drive Reduction Theory, Arousal
theory states that we are driven to maintain a
certain level of arousal in order to feel
comfortable.


Arousal refers to a state of
emotional, intellectual, and physical activity.


It is
different from the above theory, however,
because it doesn't rely on only a reduction of
tension, but a balanced amount.


It also does
better to explain why people climb mountains, go
to school, or watch sad movies.


Psychoanalytic Theory



Remember Sigmund Freud and theory of personality.


As part of this theory, he believed that
humans have only two basic drives:



Eros: Life



Thanatos
: Death




According to Psychoanalytic theory



everything we do,



every thought we have,



every emotion we experience


has one of two goals:



to help us survive



to prevent our destruction.




This is similar to instinct theory, however, Freud believed that the vast majority of our knowledge
about these drives is buried in the unconscious part of the mind.



Psychoanalytic theory argues that we go to school because it will help assure our survival in terms
of improved finances, more money for healthcare, or even an improved ability to find a spouse.


We
move to better school districts to improve our children's ability to survive and continue our family
tree.


We demand safety in our cars, toys, and in our homes.


We want criminal locked away, and
we want to be protected against poisons, terrorists, and anything else that could lead to our
destruction.




According to this theory, everything we do, everything we are can be traced back to the two basic
drives.


Humanistic Theory




Humanistic theory is the most well known theory of motivation.





According to this theory: humans are
driven

to
achieve

their
maximum potential
and will always do so unless obstacles are placed in their way.





These obstacles include hunger, thirst, financial problems, safety issues, or
anything else that takes our focus away from maximum psychological growth.




The best way to describe this theory is to utilize the famous pyramid developed by
Abraham Maslow (1970) called the
Hierarchy of Needs
.





Maslow believed humans have specific needs that must be met and if lower level
needs go unmet, we cannot possibly strive for higher level needs.


The Hierarchy of
Needs shows that at the lower level, we must focus on basic issues such as food,
sleep, and safety.


Without food, without sleep, how could we possible focus on
the higher level needs such as respect, education, and recognition?

Malow’s

Hierarchy of Needs

Emotions


Defining
Emotions



The
word emotion comes from the Latin
emovere
, which means to be
'out
of'
or
'away
from'
motion.


Emotions
are a complex set of
behaviors
produced in response to internal or external
event(s), or
elicitor(s
).

Emotions


There
are three aspects of the emotional system:


1
.
Physiological (including faster heart rate, sugar being
released
into
the blood, muscles tensing, and so on)
This is the processes
that
occur in the brain and
nervous system.


2
.
Behavioral (including facial expression, changes in
voice tone,
movements
of our bodies) This is the
observable expressive patterns of emotion, particularly
those on the face.


3
.

Subjective (what the person privately feels inside)
This is the

experience
or conscious feeling of an
emotion.


Emotions


Subjective/Objective
Aspects of Emotion


It is the experiential affect (the inner
subjective field) that provides the ongoing
motivational state that modifies, controls, and
directs behavior moment by moment.


But
cognition and perception also play an
important role in initiating
emotion.
These
factors effect how one subjectively
experiences the emotion.


Measuring

Emotions

Measures of emotions
includes
three components.


Physiological measures include heart rate or EEG
patterns.


Measurement of facial expressions and
vocalizations includes detection of changes in
facial muscles and loudness, duration, and sound
patterns of the child's voice.


Self
-
report measures may be used to assess the
child's interpretations of his or her own feelings
of emotion.

Measuring

Emotions


These methods
may lead
to some problems.


Different
emotions may lead to similar
physiological responses, the same overt facial
expression may indicate different
types
of
emotions, and self
-
reports of child's feelings
may be biased or difficult to interpret.


The Functions of Emotions



Emotional behavior has a broad influence in
many domains of development.


Emotions
appear to organize and regulate
people's
behavior and are closely linked to
cognition.


Cognitive
activity is often reflected
in
emotional
expressions;
such as mastery
of a task,
a person
is
likely to express
joy or elation.


Persons
in positive emotional states perform
better and learn faster than
those
in
a negative
emotional state.

The Functions of Emotions



Of primary importance is the role emotions
play in initiating, maintaining, or terminating
social interactions between the
person
and
others.


Moods
, more enduring emotional states, may
indicate aspects of the
individual's
personality
such as shyness, dependency, or aggression.


Theories of Emotional Development


Early
Perspectives on Emotional
Development:



Charles Darwin



William
.
James



Walter
Cannon

Psychodynamic
Approaches on Emotions:



Sigmund
Freud



Carl Jung


Humanistic
Approach

Contemporary Perspectives on Emotions

:



Robert
Plutchik




Silvan

Tomkins



Michael Lewis and Linda
Michalson



Carroll Izard and David
Ekman



Charles Darwin


Darwin's theory included several key elements:


humans are
genetically programmed
with a set
of
basic emotions
;


emotional expression
, in terms of facial and
postural indicators,
is universal
, not culture
specific;


mechanisms of
emotional expression evolved
because of the selection pressures in the species,
thus
having adaptive value for survival
.

William James


William James focused on visceral and other bodily
changes associated with emotion; our experience of
these changes as they occur is the emotion.


For James, the body was the core of experience and
the origin of reality. The body reacts to a stimulus

and
the body's reaction causes, the emotional experience.


In the words of James, "The
body changes
follow

directly the
perception of the exciting fact
… we feel
sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid
because we tremble, and not that we cry, strike, or
tremble because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the
case may be."

Walter Cannon


Walter Cannon proposed and tested central
-
neural
theories. He examined brain structures involved in
emotion (e.g., the
amygdala
, the hippocampus) as well
as autonomic, cardiovascular, and
neuroendocrine

changes connected with emotional experiences. We
now know that the entire brain is involved in emotional
experience and expression.


From the work of Cannon we know that for example
the emotion anger activates the sympathetic nervous
system as well as the adrenal medulla and cortex.


Cannon’s idea was that the body reacts to the emotion.

Sigmund Freud


Remember Sigmund Freud believed humans have two basic drives:




Eros: Live Life and Experience Pleasure






Thanatos
: Avoid Death




According to Psychoanalytic theory




everything we do,

every thought we have, every emotion we experience


has one of two goals:




to help us survive ,

to prevent our destruction.





According to Freud, emotions are drive
-
related primitive forces that can make us do things we don't
even want

to do.


In this biologically grounded view, we cannot really be held responsible because powerful passions
overtake us.


The human psyche is a "caldron of pressures demanding their release".


The metaphor of man as “machine” is prominent in Freud's explanations of human behavior.


The machine is endowed with a fixed amount of energy; if energy is spent performing one function,
it is unavailable for others.


The language of hydraulics is evident in terms such as
cathexis

(filling) and catharsis (flow, release).

Carl Jung


Jung pointed out how easily

consciousness succumbs to unconscious
influences.


Under the influence of strong emotion, Jung thought the ego and the
unconscious may "change places."


Jung defined emotions as "
instinctive, involuntary reactions
which
upset

the
rational order of consciousness
by their elemental outbursts.


Affects are not 'made' or willfully produced; they simply happen".


In another explanation, Jung termed it the “intrusion of an unconscious
personality".


By this, he meant that the person had been seized by a complex

(the
nucleus of a complex being an archetype, such as the demon or the
trickster).


In
popular parlance, we still hear echoes of notion in statements such as "I
don't know what got into me," or "I was not myself," or "The devil made
me do it.”

Humanistic Approaches


Feelings are considered a valued aspect of human experience; they
are not to be expelled or discharged but used as "orienting
information."


For example, within the Gestalt school, emotion is regarded as "the
organism's direct, evaluative, immediate experience of the
organism/environment field, furnishing the basis of awareness of
what is important to the organism and organizing action."


Thus, increasing awareness of emotion is a important objective.
Becoming aware of anger might alert persons to violations of their
rights, to situations in which too much of the self is being given to
another (i.e., when being used), or to circumstances in which
significant others are doing too much for them (i.e., stifling them).


Outcomes

of the increased awareness are
Growth
-
promoting

motivation to
change

and subsequent
constructive actions
.

Primary (Reflex) vs. Social (Learned)
Emotions


Reflex Emotions
are a
basic set of emotions

that all people
experience. These emotions are innate and directly related
to adaptive behavior that is designed to enhance our
survival in just the same way as the “
fight or flight

response is designed to help us survive.


Learned Emotions
are created from the basic emotions.
They are acquired through the socialization process. That is
we learn these emotions in interaction with others. They
are permutations and variations of the basic emotions. For
example, anxiety is a blend of fear and at least two other
unpleasant fundamental emotions. Which two (sadness,
anger, or possibly guilt) will depend upon individuals
personalities and the particular situation in which they find
themselves.

Different Theorists on The Basic Emotions


Theorist



Basic Emotions


Basis for Inclusion


Plutchik

Acceptance, anger, anticipation, disgust,

Relation to adaptive


joy
,
fear
, sadness, surprise


biological processes


Arnold



Anger, aversion, courage, dejection,
desire
,

Relation to action



despair,
fear
, hate, hope,
love
, sadness

tendencies


Ekman


Anger, disgust,
fear
,

joy
, sadness, surprise

Universal facial expressions


Frijda


Desire
,
happiness
,

interest
, surprise,


Forms of action readiness

wonder, sorrow


Gray


Rage and
terror
, anxiety,

joy



Hardwired


Izard


Anger, contempt, disgust, distress,
fear
, guilt,

Hardwired

interest
,
joy
,
shame
, surprise


James


Fear
, grief,
love
, rage



Bodily involvement


McDougall

Anger, disgust,
elation
,
fear
, subjection,

Relation to instincts




tender
-
emotion
, wonder


Mowrer

Pain,
pleasure



Unlearned emotional states


Panksepp

Expectancy,
fear
, rage, panic


Hardwired


Tomkins

Anger,
interest
, contempt, disgust,


Density of neural firing




distress,
fear
,
joy
,
shame
, surprise


Watson


Fear
,
love
, rage



Hardwired

Robert
Plutchik

on Emotions


Building on Darwin's notion of the adaptive role of emotions,
Plutchik

defined the origin and function

of each of the eight emotions he terms
"primary."


For example, the origin of fear is a threatening stimulus; anger results
from meeting an obstacle termed "enemy." The function of fear is
protection of oneself, while the function of anger is destruction of one's
enemy.


Plutchik

views anger and fear as opposites, as the former implies attack
and the latter flight; both emotions lead to behaviors with survival value.


Thus, in
Plutchik's

theory (described by its originator as a "general psycho
-

evolutionary theory of emotion"), emotion is conceptualized as a signaling
system and a homeostatic process.


Plutchik

views the emotions as adaptive devices which have played a role
in individual survival at all evolutionary levels.


The basic prototypic dimensions of adaptive behavior and the emotions
related to them are:

Robert
Plutchik

on Emotions




Prototypic Adaptive Pattern



Primary Emotion


1. Incorporation



ingestion of food





and water



Acceptance


2. Rejection



riddance reaction,





excretion, vomiting


Disgust


3. Destruction



removal of barrier





to satisfaction



Anger



4. Protection



primarily the response





to pain or threats of pain







or harm



Fear


5. Reproduction



responses associated





with sexual behavior


Joy


6. Deprivation



loss of pleasurable object





which has been contacted





or incorporated


Sorrow



7. Orientation



response to contact with





new or strange object


Startle


8. Exploration



more or less random





activities in exploring





environment



Expectation or
Curiousity


Robert
Plutchik

on Emotions


Robert
Plutchik

on The Nature of
Emotions

Robert
Plutchik

on The Nature of
Emotions

Silvan

Tomkins on Emotions


Another theorist within the Darwinian tradition,
Silvan

Tomkins, views the skin

of the face as more essential than
its musculature in providing feedback for emotions. Among
Tomkins's propositions are the following:



(1)
affects are muscular and glandular responses triggered
by innate mechanisms; affect is primarily facial behavior,
bodily behavior and inner visceral behavior.


(2)

when individuals become aware of their facial or
visceral responses, they are aware of their affects;


(3)

individuals learn to generate from memory images of
these responses;


(4)

amplifies not only its activator (e.g., more neural firing)
but also the response both to the activator and to itself.

Michael Lewis and Linda
Michalson

on Emotions


A cognitive
-
socialization explanation of
emotions, put forth by Lewis and
Michalson
,
emphasizes the importance of parents and
others in providing child with information
regarding appropriate emotional reactions for
a given situation. This position views the
emotional development as a product of
experiential history. Out of this perspective
developed the concept of
Social Referencing.

Carroll Izard and Paul
Ekman


on Emotions


Ekman

and Izard represent contemporary views
that support a more biological view of the origin
of emotions.


In cross
-
cultural research,
Ekman

found that
universal facial expressions exist for some basic
emotions. People from many cultures express
various emotions in the same way and recognize
emotional expressions similarly.


Izard
found that young infants make the same
facial expressions that adults do in response to
external stimuli.