Challenges of Urbanization Chapter 7 Section 2 pgs 262-266

frizzflowerUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 19 days ago)

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Urban Opportunities



Rapid urbanization:
growth of cities


Immigrants Settle in Cities


Most immigrants became
city dwellers
because cities were the cheapest and most
convenient places to live as well as plentiful
jobs for
unskilled labor
.


Clustering in neighborhoods with those of the
same ethnic background
(Ghettos)


Growth revitalized cities, but created serious
problems that had an impact on the poor.



Migration From Country to City



Farming
technology

made many
advancements (good news/bad news)


Forced many rural people including
African
-
Americans

out of farming & into the city to
take whatever job was available


Urban Cultural Opportunities


New forms of entertainment were a lure to the
city Example:
sports, theater


Job competition between African Americans
and white immigrants resulted in racial
tension.


Urban Problems


Housing


Working class families could either:


Buy a house on the outskirts and deal with
Transportation

issues or…Rent a room in a
boardinghouse

and share kitchen, and dining
-
room facilities with other families


Row houses
: attached single
-
family dwellings
that shared side walls with other similar
houses


Growth of
Tenements
: Multi
-
family urban
dwellings that were overcrowded and
unsanitary.

Other Problems


Transportation


Before
industrialization

going to work was a walk,
or a horse ride


Cable cars
are developed and utilized


1888, 1
st

practical
electric streetcar
line began
operating in Richmond, Virginia


Why not keep using horses?


Sanitation


Horse manure pile dup on the streets, sewage
flowed through
open gutters
, and factories spewed
foul smoke into the air


Trash collection
was inconsistent and people
dumped their garbage in the streets


Sewer lines
were not widely used until 1900.


Even more Problems


Threat of Fire


Water supply
was a problem, and candles or lanterns
were used for light


Most buildings made of wood, and built close to one
another

-
The Great Chicago Fire
(Oct. 8, 1871)

-
The San Francisco Earthquake
(April 18, 1906)


Newer buildings would be built of
brick, steel, and
concrete



Invention of the automatic
fire sprinkler

in 1874


Crime


Pickpockets and thieves flourished in urban crowds,
and
con men
took advantage of non
-
English speaking
immigrants


New York organized the 1
st

full
-
time, paid
police force

in
1844


Gangs

controlled areas with high crime rates.



Settlement House Movement


Social Gospel Movement


An early reform program to combat
urban
poverty
and poor living conditions


Preached
salvation

through service to the
poor


Reformers established
Settlement
houses
that provided assistance to the people in the
area, especially new immigrants.


One of the biggest activists was
Jane
Addams