Potential prejudice against mobile learning games in Croatian University students

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Nov 12, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Potential prejudice against mobile learning
games in Croatian University students



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2

mGBL project


Contract no
:


027607


Project acronym
:


mGBL



Project full title
:



mobile Game
-
Based Learning


Area
:




Informational society technologies
(
IST
)


URL
:




www.mg
-
bl.com



Duration
:



October

2005
-

September

2008


(
3 years
)



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3

mGBL

project partners


evolaris Privatstiftung
www.evolaris.net



SAB
-

Schul und Ausbildungsberatung
www.ausbildungsberatung.at



ARC Seibersdorf

research Gmbh

www.researchstudio.at



Ultralab


Anglia Polytechnic University higher education corporation
ww3.ultralab.net



University of Rijeka
-

Faculty of Maritime Studies

www.pfri.hr



University of Rijeka
-

Faculty of Arts and Sciences

www.ffri.hr



DEEI
-

Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica, Elettronica e Informatica, University of

Trieste
www.units.it



ASTER
-

Societa consortile per azioni

www.aster.it



Univerza v Mariboru
ecom.fov.uni
-
mb.si



AZM
-
LU


Andragoski zavod Maribor ljudska univerza

www.azm
-
lu.si



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4

Overall goal
:


To improve efficiency and effectiveness of learning in young adults
aged 18
-

24 through the development of innovative learning models
based on mobile games.




Specific goals:


To
design, develop and trial a prototype game platform that can be
used to efficiently develop games for m
-
learning, whereby the focus is
on the support of decision making in critical situations, not only in a
cognitive but also in an emotional way



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5

Expected outcomes



tools for teachers


Software
which supports the choice of mobile games suitable for
:


Different learning aims and conditions


Different kinds of students



Platform and templates for teachers
:


Possibility of own materials implementation

(
lectures
,
exercises,
plan
s,

…)


Distribution of games to students via mobile technologies


User evaluation


Multiple user gaming


Examples from e
-
health,
e
-
business and
e
-
career guidance areas



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6

Research background


social constructivist theoretical framework



development of
e
-
health and e
-
commerce content for the user trials
and test
ing

in the transnational environment (end
-
user evaluation,
expert evaluations and laboratory usability tests)


integration of

existing tools
,

technologies
and
experiences with user
requirements and new pedagogic/didactic approaches for the
development and adoption of new innovative services



wide target group diversified by involving young people from
different societal fields, from different regions and countries.



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7

Mobile phones


Availability


Power


Applications


Usability


Pure enjoyment



Mobile game
-
based learning is an emerging field.





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8

R
esearch findings

so far


mobile games offer considerable potential for supporting social

-
constructivist
learning


the pedagogical role of fun in learning


strategic use of games can contribute
to
a ‘flow’ experience that is a
characteristic of successful learning processes


despite some important psychological and cultural relationships to games, the
academic community has a history of bias present from the beginning

regarding the value of games as an instructional tool or strategy in the learning
process (Rieber, 1996).





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9

This paper...



reports findings that are coming to light from our initial user
trial and the following research showing that Croatian students,
although not statistically very different from any other partner
country
students
, may not readily embrace the concept of
mobile learning games.





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10

U
ser

trials

framework

D 6.4 Final user trial

D 6.3 Second user trials

D 6.2 First user trials

D 6.1 Detailed user trials plan

Month 34

Month 24

Month 12

Month 8



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11

Initial review questionnaire results

Statistical analysis of quantitative data gathered prior to the
first user trials


no significant difference between Croatian respondents and the respondents
from other countries regarding the use of technology in learning
.


slight difference between Croatian and Austrian respondents; Croatian
students want more technology in learning than Austrian students.


significant difference between Croatian respondents
and the respondents from
other countries regarding the
daily time spent using the computer; Croatian
students spend less time using the computer than respondents from other
countries.


they do prefer delivery of the lectures via technology. The result of “desire for
average of 35% of technology lessons” shows that students are aware of
technology and future trends.



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12

Initial review questionnaire results (2)


respondents from High schools in Croatia and Great Britain are on the opposite
sides of learning habits; Croatian students and high school pupils are a little
conservative due to education policies in Croatia. 78% of Croatian students
and 90% of Croatian High school respondents like to learn alone, and only
10% like to learn in a group.


All respondents, including Croatian students, are somehow skeptic
about using mobile phones in learning process, and 44% do not know
if mobile phone games can be used for education purposes.


As this is a fairly new idea, 34% of the students think that it is not
possible to use mGBL for education purposes, while 20% think that it
is possible.



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13

First user trial


conducted online


sample of 342 respondents

from 5

countries: Austria, Croatia, Great Britain,
Italy and Slovenia

_______________________________________________________________


in Croatia research was conducted from 26th October to 27th October 2006.


63 respondents, 37 male and 25 female.


s
tudents from the University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies.


2

professors answered the questionnaires.



All respondents th
ought

that mGBL is interesting as an


idea and a

concept.



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14

First user trial
-
results

The qualitative analysis of the first two games:


games were described as an
interesting way to reach young people
,
although they don't have the

traditional game scenario.


overal they were
entertaining
, but with some faults in the game design.


games were evaluated as very dynamic, interesting and also educational.


they could be used as
an addition

to teaching process in order to make the
subject more interesting.


possibility of
competition

with other players exists.


different types of tasks

could be assigned.


the games present a "normal" situation in the classroom, while the
mobile
device is just a support
.








After first user trials all students are convinced that there is a

potential usage of mobile phones in education.





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15

First user trial
-
results (2)

Objections:


comments primarily directed to interface, and to playability of the
games.


games were described as difficult to understand and not user friendly.


there is no effectiveness, affect, and there was a lack of help feature.


the interaction was very limited.








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Some of the comments included the following:


It is very unusual: mobile
-
games in education?


Very linear, seems a waste on a digital device. It could be easily replicated with
paper and a stopwatch. The graphic style whilst cute, was completely irrelevant
to the game context
-

why should I take health advice from a fat cat
businessman smoking a cigar??!


This game checks just knowledge. The learning process must develop skills.


Unsuited to a mobile, dull game play, irrelevant scenarios. I find this game hard
to recommend.


It could be more interesting with more options. The third game seemed a much
more adventurous concept that would be fun.


It certainly seemed more appealing, although the activities would need more
support. Also I fear that it is not really a 'game', more an activity. Be careful that
the phones do not distinguish among students regarding their or their families'
economic status....





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17

Group discussions results


subsequent lively discussions that were initiated by students and
professors.


only one structured group discussion within the first user trials with
students on 27th of October 2006. It was held at the Faculty of
Maritime studies, University of Rijeka, with 27 students participating
in the project.


o
ther discussions were prompted by mGBL presentations at the
University of Rijeka where the project and the concept of mobile
game
-
based learning were presented (Mitchell, 2007)





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18

Group discussions results (2)


M
any
appeared

to be strongly prejudiced against the deployment of
such games within learning programs, considering them at best a
waste of time.


Many students remained unconvinced, arguing strongly on the following
lines:


older professors will never use mobile game
-
based learning


use of mobile technologies will only add to the alienation already
perceived as a result of increasing e
-
learning


learning games are more suitable for school

children


students already know how to investigate sources and build
arguments


how is playing games different?


Why does everything have to be fun?




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19

Second user trials


conducted in
4

countries, during August, September and October
2007



qualitative methodology



evaluation of
3 mGBL games
regarding
:


-

f
un and
p
layability

-

c
ontent, in terms of:

1.
s
tyle and
d
esign

2.
r
elevance to topic

3.
s
uitability to level

4.
s
upporting users in developing decision
-
making skills




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“Ahead of the game”



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“On the Edge”



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“Get real!”



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A
nalysis of the

mGBL
Focus Group in Croatia



one mixed focus group was assembled to test the game and the
mGBL platform in Croatia.


i
t consisted of

6 participants; teachers and students in the area of
maritime distress (2 professors and 4 students).


a
ll of the participants used the Nokia N80 mobile phones and were
given the consent form at the beginning of the focus group, along
with an USB memory stick as a gift at the end of the test.


After testing the game, participants reported their positive attitude
towards the idea and the game itself
.




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24

Students


students liked it because the content was familiar to them and they tried to
collect as many points as they could, and were really competitive, comparing
their scores with each other.


they

found the game content satisfactory, and pertinent to real life; all
participants agreed that they would play the game again, to refresh their
knowledge and to learn new facts, because it contains the type of content that
is used in real life hazardous situations, and can very well save human lives
and property. They also thought it would be an excellent supplement for
learning.


students thought that the scores and reports should be good for the teacher
to see what areas the students are good/poor in. That way the teacher could
pay more attention to that area when giving a lecture. They would also like to
go through the analysis of the game play with the professor to help them
advance in that area.


they would play the game again if there were more and different supplements
in the game. Some students said they would play the game such as this after
the lectures to see how much they have learned from the lectures.





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25

Teachers


thought that this was an excellent tool for learning, not only for students, but
also for experienced sailors who use maritime distress procedures in real life
situations. They all agreed, considering the fact that this is an educational
game, that graphics are not that important.


this can be an interesting way for life
-
long learning processes, as well as an e
-
learning tool for any type of distant learning.


t
here wasn’t much difference in reporting from Croatian students/teachers
compared to Slovenian, Italian or any other partner focus group results
(D6.3, 2007).


i
n general, teachers
thought that the game with multiple possible scenarios
and an open
-
end game would give them an insight on how the students think,
how they make decisions, how they could apply that thinking into »real life«
situations.


a

thought about grouping the students to play group game was mentioned.
That way the game would tackle the collaborating part and team work in
education and real life.




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Conclusion


Students and professors, although biased before trying the games,
were in the end content with the usage of the games in the learning
process.


Most of them changed their attitudes about the games, and their
comments were directed towards improving of the process.


Furthermore, the game could be pure fun for the younger target
groups, while for the older target groups a simulation component
should be included.



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There is still plethora of challenges that mobile

game based learning
should address, from ethical and legal to technological and financial
issues and maybe most important and most difficult challenge to
encourage officials to take up the mobile games for learning support
in higher education environment.



The third User Trials will take place in the
summer

of 2008, combining both methodologies
which were used in the first and the second User Trials.

Part of the work has already been
done in Austria and Croatia.



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Vladimir Takšić


Ivana Ilijašić Mišić


Edvard Tijan

Thank you!