Mobile IPv6-Based Ad Hoc Networks: Its Development and Application

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Nov 12, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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1

Mobile IPv6
-
Based Ad Hoc Networks:

Its Development and Application

Advisor: Dr. Kai
-
Wei Ke


Speaker: Wei
-
Ying Huang

2

Outline


Introduction


MANET Tree Overlay Management


Routing Protocol


Mobile IPv6 Support


P2P Information Sharing System


Implementation


Conclusion


Reference

3

Introduction


IEEE 802.11 WLAN interface cards


Infrastructure mode


Ad Hoc mode



Ad Hoc mode more flexible, but its aim is
not to connect to the Internet

4

Introduction (cont)


Goal: Allow MN form an IPv6
-
based
MANET flexibly and access the global
IPv6 Internet


MN form a self
-
organization, self
-
addressing
MANET into a tree structure rooted with an
Internet gateway, referred to as the access
router (AS)


Specially designed unicast/multicast routing
protocols for MANETs, which are more
suitable for IPv6


5

Introduction (cont)

6

Introduction (cont)


Using many small
-
size MANETs connected
to the global Internet via access routers
(ARs)



There exist several tree
-
based multicast
routing protocols for MANET, but they
consume excessive overhead to maintain a
great quantity of source trees

7

Introduction (cont)


Each mobile device will move around, but
only at walking speed (low mobility, less
than 2 m/s)



Mobile IPv6 will be supported such that a
mobile node can move from one MANET
to another

8

Introduction (cont)


P2P applications are very important in the
future


PDI can efficiently search files scattered over
mobile devices by querying locally


ORION combines application layer query and
overlay network layer route discovery to
ensure accurate search and low overhead


These solutions are not scalable and
curtail throughput as the size of a MANET
grows.


9

Introduction (cont)


Designed a distributed, but structured P2P
information sharing system over our IPv6
-
based MANET using the distributed
hashing table (DHT) technique



Note that this design is under the mobile
nodes only move in low speed

10


Introduction


MANET Tree Overlay Management


Routing Protocol


Mobile IPv6 Support


P2P Information Sharing System


Implementation


Conclusion


Reference


11

JOIN Procedure


It sends out a JOIN REQUEST message
to its neighbors


Each neighbor will select a unique address
among its current child nodes and
response the JOIN message with the
selected address


Upon receiving a JOIN request, a neighbor
node with address x1,…,xi will select an
address x1,…,xi,xi+1

12

JOIN Procedure


If the new node does not receive any
response within a fixed time, it will keep
sending the JOIN REQUEST message
until it got a response



Select the one near the tree root, because
it results in a flat tree which yields shorter
routing path.


13

JOIN Procedure

14

IPv6 Address Configuration


A mobile node may configure its IPv6 link
-
local or global address by attaching a
network prefix to its 64
-
bit network
interface ID



Use a mobile node’s logic address as its
64
-
bit interface ID when configuring its
IPv6 addresses (link
-
local or global)

15

IPv6 Address Configuration


For example, if the logical address of a
node is “1.2.1,” its link local address will be
set to FE80::1210:0:0:0/64



The 64
-
bit interface ID is divided into
sixteen levels, each with four bits. That is,
each node can have at most 15 child
nodes, and the height of overlay tree is at
also most 16

16

IPv6 Address Configuration

17

Maintain the Tree Overlay


Heartbeat (for child)


Each node regularly sends a heartbeat to its
parent node, and node should receive an
ACK from its parent


If a child node does not receive the ACK
message, it increases its heartbeat
-
ACK
-
missed counter


If the counter is larger than a certain threshold,
it assumes that its parent has crashed or
moved away

18

Maintain the Tree Overlay


Parent maintenance at the child node

19

Maintain the Tree Overlay


child
-
heartbeat timer (for parent)


If a child does not send a heartbeat for a long
time, the child
-
heartbeat timer will expire



the parent node assumes that the child has
crashed or moved away, then the resource
and address of the child will then be released.



20

Maintain the Tree Overlay


Child maintenance at the parent node



21


Introduction


MANET Tree Overlay Management


Routing Protocol


Mobile IPv6 Support


P2P Information Sharing System


Implementation


Conclusion


Reference


22

Routing Protocol


To avoid additional overhead, the
proposed routing protocol does not need
to find routing path on demand



Each mobile node maintains a routing
table with two kinds of information: default
routing and soft state routing cache

23

Unicast Routing Protocol


default routing


Longest prefix matching is used to determine
how to forward a packet to its destination



soft state routing cache


mobile node can improve the routing
efficiency by adding its neighbor information
into the routing cache

24

Unicast Routing Protocol

25

Multicast Routing Protocol


Multicast is especially important for
sending ICMPv6 messages


default routing


Forward by using flooding and stop at the leaf
nodes


unidirectional routing cache


A direction flag, which can be set to up, or down


Direction flag of a multicast packet sent by the AR,
or a MN, is set to down, or up, respectively


26

Multicast Routing Protocol

27


Introduction


MANET Tree Overlay Management


Routing Protocol


Mobile IPv6 Support


P2P Information Sharing System


Implementation


Conclusion


Reference


28

Mobile IPv6 Support


MN joins a MANET and gets a global IPv6
address at first


MN moves to another MANET where it will
perform the JOIN procedure again to join the
new MANET


After joined the new MANET, it will receive a
new global prefix and form its new global IPv6
address, which will become its CoA


Then send binding update to original home
agent and corresponding nodes

29

Mobile IPv6 Support

30

Mobile IPv6 Support

31


Introduction


MANET Tree Overlay Management


Routing Protocol


Mobile IPv6 Support


P2P Information Sharing System


Implementation


Conclusion


Reference


32

distributed hashing table (DHT)


Logic address is used as the node id (key)
of the P2P system


a node uses the filename or some
keywords as the input to a hash function


output of the hash function, called a key,
will correspond to the logic address of a
mobile node which will be responsible for
storing the information of the shared object

33

distributed hashing table (DHT)

34


Introduction


MANET Tree Overlay Management


Routing Protocol


Mobile IPv6 Support


P2P Information Sharing System


Implementation


Conclusion


Reference


35

Implementation


Implementation of Tree Overlay
Maintenance Protocols


Implementation of Routing Protocol


Implementation of P2P Information
Sharing System


36

Implementation of Tree Overlay
Maintenance Protocols

37

Implementation of Tree Overlay
Maintenance Protocols

38

Implementation of Routing Protocol

39

Implementation of P2P Information
Sharing System

40

Performance Evaluation


Unicast


Control Message Overhead


Delivery Ratio = the number of data packets
actually received by receivers over the
number of data packets sent by sources


Multicast


Number of Nodes


Delivery Ratio = the number of nonduplicated
data packets actually received by receivers
over the number of packets supposed to be
received by receivers.

41

Environment


Using the Qualnet network simulator


Our simulation models a network 50 ~ 200 MN placed randomly
within a 1000 x 1000 area


Radio propagation range for each node is 200 meters and channel
capacity is 11 Mb/s.


The random way point model is adopted as our mobility model in
which the pause time is varied from 0 to 400 s


Traffic model uses constant bit rate (CBR) source and MANET
consists of 500 CBR sources, each with sending rate of 1 packet/s
and the packet size is 1024 bytes


Simulate the scenarios that Internet traffic contributes 80% of the
traffic


Mobility speed is varied from 0 to 10 m/s


Multiple runs, each runs for 600 simulation times, are conducted for
each scenario


The collected results are averaged over all runs and 95%
confidence intervals are calculated.

42

Unicast

43

Unicast

44

Unicast

45

Unicast

46

Unicast

47

Unicast

48

Multicast

49

Multicast

50

Multicast

51

Multicast

52


Introduction


MANET Tree Overlay Management


Routing Protocol


Mobile IPv6 Support


P2P Information Sharing System


Implementation


Conclusion


Reference


53

Conclusion


proposed a self
-
organizing, self
-
addressing, self
-
routing IPv6
-
based
MANET, which supports global
connectivity and IPv6 mobility



Several issues require further study


Designing a power saving protocol


Internet games (distributed virtual
environment) over the proposed MANET are
also under investigation

54


Introduction


MANET Tree Overlay Management


Routing Protocol


Mobile IPv6 Support


P2P Information Sharing System


Implementation


Conclusion


Reference


55

Reference


“Mobile IPv6
-
based ad hoc networks: its development and
application”

Ren
-
Hung Hwang; Cheng
-
Ying Li; Chiung
-
Ying Wang; Yuh
-
Shyan
Chen;

Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Volume 23,


Issue 11,


Nov. 2005 Page(s):2161
-

2171

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JSAC.2005.856826


“Mobile IPv6 and the future of wireless Internet access”

Vaughan
-
Nichols, S.J.;

Computer

Volume 36,


Issue 2,


Feb. 2003 Page(s):18
-

20

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MC.2003.1178041


“Mobile IPv6”
http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~b89053/netexp_report3/7.htm