A proposed theoretical model for m-learning

friendlybathMobile - Wireless

Nov 12, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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A proposed theoretical model for m
-
learning
adoption in the developing countries
.

Andrea Barker, Greig Krull and Brenda Mallinson

Department of information system, Rhodes university, South Africa


http://www.mlearn.org.za/CD/papers/Barker.pdf

Presented by

Salahadin Seid (08305202)

MTech CSE


Outline


Introduction



Current uses of wireless technologies in education


Impact of wireless technologies on education


The potential for M
-
learning in Africa



Proposed model


Remarks and future works


1.Introduction


mobile learning "mLearning", it refer to learning with
mobile devices
.



Wireless technologies are revolutionizing education , transforming the
traditional ways of learning and teaching to ‘
any time
’ and ‘
any place

education .



Empirical studies have reported the advantages of using wireless
technologies in learning environments, including supporting group
work on projects, engaging learners in learning
-
related activates in
diverse physical locations, and enhancing communication and
collaborative learning in the class room .


Limited research has been conducted on the potential of wireless
technology for educational use in
developing counties
. But using
wireless technologies in education contribute to combating the
digital
divide

in the developing countries, as this technology cheaper than
desktop computers.


2.Current uses of wireless technologies in
education


According to the
British educational communication and technology
agency

(BECTA) (2004), handhelds are useful where learners need to
record information during a lesson
, but where moving to Desktop computer
would be impractical.



Sharing writing ( file can be moved easily between handhelds)


Working on individual pieces work around the table (face to face ,but
not Desktop computers)




They extend the learning environment beyond the class room, as
they are portable,
support paperless class room

,and provide
additional methods of communication.

3.Impact of wireless technologies on
education

Mobile technology extends learning beyond the walls of classrooms and it
has the benefits for
learners
,
parents

and
teachers
.

1.
Portability


the most important of which to learners and teachers is the
opportunity to take learning experience outside of the confines the class
room, a field trip and outside school environment .

2.
Collaboration


allow learner groups to distribute ,aggregate and share
information. According to Becta (2004) , the use of wireless technologies
results in
parents’ increased involvement

in education.


3.Motivation


according to Vahey and Crawford (2003), learners using
handheld wireless technologies demonstrate an increased autonomy in
learning, increased self
-
directness in learning.


4.The potential for M
-
learning in Africa


Africa has many developing nations that are
technologically far behind the developed
world.


This lack of technological development has a
detrimental effect on the
education sector.
As a result, young people in the developing
countries face challenges, which make it
difficult for the next generation to catch up
with developed world.








According to Jensen (2002), of the
approximately 816 million people in Africa in
2001,it is estimated that


1 in 13 have TV


1 in 35 have a mobile phone


1 in 40 have fixed line


1 in 130 have a pc


1 in 160 use the Internet


Generally the level of technology penetration
in Africa is low compared to developed
countries, because the general population
can not afford it (BEUTE 2004).

The table above shows More people in Africa have
mobile phones
, in
comparison to
fixed lines
, indicates
the potential for m
-
learning in Africa
.


South Africa

2000

2001

2002

Mobile phones (per 1,000 people)

191

242

304

Telephone mainlines (per 1,000 people)

114

111

107


The study conducted by Thornton et al(2004) show that the wireless
technologies such as mobile phones and PDAs can be effictive tools for
delivering
foreign language (English) learning materials

to learners.




This could be particularly beneficial in developing countries like
South Africa, where many learners are not educated in their home
language.


5.Proposed model

This paper provide recommendation and proposes a model for adoption of

M
-
learning in developing countries.

5.1 Recommendation for adoption of M
-
learning



When considering the adoption of wireless technologies in
education ,schools need to ensure that
learners
, t
eachers

and
parents

are involved as much as possible in the planning mobile
learning initiatives.



The school also provide
support and training

in order to make success
of m
-
learning.





5.2 proposed model and discussion

Fig 1 : Model for M
-
learning adoption

5.2.1 stakeholders


The stakeholder in the proposed model include

1.
Learners

2.

parents
-

3.
Teachers

4.

System designers (execute on the device


include both
software developer and hardware manufacturers)

5.
device venders (sell the devices )

6.

support staff.




5.2.2 critical success factors

1.
Interactivity


the amount of interaction between the learner using mobile devices

2.
Coordination

3.

negotiation and communication

4.

organization of material

5.

mobility.



6 The future work





Guideline and polices need to be in place to ensure the successful adoption of
m
-
learning




Analyzing the technical capabilities of different wireless technologies and
determining their suitability to m
-
learning environment .

Thank you