The Dynamics of Migration, Health and

frequentverseUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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The Dynamics of Migration, Health and
Livelihoods:

INDEPTH Network Perspectives



INDEPTH Migration and Urbanisation Working Group




Prepared for the 9
th

INDEPTH AGM

27 October 2009


Background


Internal migration is a force transforming societies in
developing countries


Communities, networks, households, individuals change


Livelihoods and health impacts occur
-

evidence mixed


Data is minimal for examining more than snapshots of the
dynamics


INDEPTH Network has done a multi
-
country study


Rural sub
-
districts and urban slums in low and middle
income countries


Longitudinal data, comparative analysis


"The publication, by the INDEPTH
Migration and Urbanization Working
Group, contains theoretical and
methodological migration research based
on a decade of demographic
surveillance.

What makes this volume
especially a must read is the application of
longitudinal methods at a variety of sites
among countries. “


Aphichat Charatithirong,

Mahidol University, Thailand


The multi
-
site network approach
adopted in the book does not only
provide a demographic understanding
of migration dynamics, but presents a
new perspective to comparative
analysis of the impact of migration on
human health and livelihood over time.
I believe this book is a must read, for all
scholars of population and migration
studies.”


Dr Godwin Ode Ikwuyatum,

University of Ibadan, Nigeria

'Building on the richness of the
INDEPTH surveillance data network,
this volume takes a deep dive into the
causes and consequences of
geographic movement, identifying
systematic regularities, and important
differences, across the six research
sites. This unique compendium of
case studies offers valuable lessons
for scholars of migration, students of
program evaluation, and field
workers.


It is a tour de force in a
rapidly growing field.‘


Marta Tienda,

Princeton University, USA

INDEPTH Migration and
Urbanisation Working Group
(MUWG)


Editors : Mark Collinson, Kubaje Adazu, Michael White, Sally Findley


Authors: Kubaje Adazu, Nurul Alam, Pedro Alonso, John Aponte, Donatien
Beguy, Philippe Bocquier, Nguyen T. K. Chuc, Samuel J. Clark, Mark A.
Collinson, Daniel Feiken, Sally E. Findley, Annette A.M. Gerritsen, Philip
Guest, Kathleen Kahn, Rose Kiriinya, Adama Konseiga, Kayla Laserson,
Leonildo Matsinhe, Cheikh Mbacké, Kanyiva Muindi, Ariel Nhacolo, Delino
Nhalungo, David Obor, Peter Ofware, Ben Onyango, Ho D. Phuc, Sureeporn
Punpuing, Charfudin Sacoor, Laurence Slutsker, Peter K. Streatfield, Nguyen
X. Thanh, Stephen M. Tollman, John Vulule, Michael J. White, Yazoumé Yé
and Eliya Zulu

Dr. Kubaje Adazu

(1961
-

2009)


He will be remembered and honoured for his
contribution to scientific knowledge and skills
development in social demography; and his
passion for migration studies.

Overview chapters:



1. Introduction


Opportunities and challenges


What we can hope to gain from the surveillance
approach to tracking migration


Introduces the themes and site contributions

2. Methodology


Methods used for migration surveillance in HDSS sites


Comparative table of migration definitions used in the
different sites

3. Community context


Comparison of contexts


The importance of place

Comparative age
-
sex profiles



We compare age
-
sex migration profiles from the seven
participating sites

Theme 1:

Migration and Livelihoods

(3 sites)

Thailand
-

Kanchanaburi site



Households with out
-
migrants face
constraints in the agriculture activities
immediately after the out
-
migration of a
household member.


But, households soon adjust to these
constraints, drawing on existing household
resources to substitute for the labour lost
through out
-
migration


South Africa


Agincourt
site


In rural South Africa short
-
term female
migrants provide vital support to their
families of origin


Female migrants are the most vital
contributors to the upkeep of the poorest
households

Bangladesh


Matlab

site


In Matlab households with international male
migrants have better educational outcomes
for their children remaining at home
compared to households without migrants.


Theme 2:

Migration and Health

(4 sites)

Kenya


Nairobi Urban site


Children who are born in Nairobi’s urban
slums to non
-
migrant mothers have
significantly higher survival chances than
those born to in
-
migrant mothers, regardless
of their origin

Kenya


Kisumu

site


Migrant children moving from Kenyan urban
areas to rural Nyanza enjoy a clear survival
advantage compared to both non
-
migrant
and migrant children from other rural areas


Urban
vs

rural


child survival


The fact that these findings come from an
urban and rural site in the same country
epitomizes the complexity of the relationship
between migration and child survival


This relationship depends on a host of factors
including exposure to new threats, migrant
selectivity and differential health
endowments between migrants and non
-
migrants


Vietnam


Filabavi

site


The data point to the importance of maternal
care for these children by revealing a higher
incidence of illness among left
-
behind
children compared to children with non
-
migrant mothers


No such negative impact is seen by the out
-
migration of the children’s fathers,
underscoring the importance of the mother’s
role in providing health care to young
children

Mozambique


Manhiça

site


In the past, returning migrants were positively
selected for health and economic position


From 1999, there is a reversal of the survival
advantage of return migrants


Migrants returning home to die


Policy implications 1


Given the intensity of population movements
it is important that policy makers and
program implementers understand and take
into account migration in their efforts


Implementation of activities in both the
origin and destination communities


Policy implications 2


Better off households are more likely to reap
the benefits of migration and this can
contribute to increasing inequalities


This selectivity could be incorporated into
poverty
-
reduction programs by enhancing
outreach to those households with no or few
migrants



There might be access issues for in
-
migrants,
particularly those who are not fully integrated in
local households


Conclusion


The findings contrast the beneficial impacts
of migration on household livelihoods with
potential health burdens


The impacts of migration can go either way,
they can be positive or negative for sending
and/or receiving communities depending on
the issues at hand and the type of migration
under consideration

MUWG II


New longitudinal studies using existing data


which can be themed and published together


A comparable multi
-
site study


a migration
module or survey in each participating HDSS


Supporting and marketing existing single
-
site
HDSS studies



Workshop: 17h00 today


Venue: FF2