A continuum of life cycle approaches - Greenhouse Gas Protocol

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Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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1


INTERNATIONAL
WORKSHOP

OF GHG
PROTOCOL

PROGRAMS

World Resources Institute, Washington DC,

March 22
-
23, 2010



Accounting For GHG Emissions In
Corporate and Product Supply Chains

1


Growing Practice of GHG Management in the
Supply Chain


GHG Protocol and Supply Chain Initiative
Overview


Scope 3 Standard: Overview and Key
Requirements


Product Life Cycle Standard: Overview & Key
Requirements


Next Steps


Presentation Outline

2

3


Corporate GHG management moving beyond
companies’ own operations, toward full value
chain


Investors

pushing for supply chain GHG
disclosure and risk management


Governments programs and policies

increasing public reporting of scope 3 and
product
-
level GHG emissions


Companies

requesting product and supply chain
information from suppliers


The Growing Practice of GHG Management in
the Supply Chain

4


Company
-
specific
: Wal
-
Mart’s supply chain
sustainability initiative; Tesco’s product carbon labeling
initiative; etc.


Sector
-
specific
: Electronics industry; Beverage industry;
Dairy industry; Utility industry; World Auto Steel; etc.


Cross
-
sector
: Carbon Disclosure Project’s Supply Chain
Initiative; WWF Climate Positive Initiative (under
development)


Methodologies
: Carbon Trust/
Defra

product life cycle
methodology

Emerging Initiatives

5

New Standards in Development

Scope 3 (Corporate Value Chain)

Accounting & Reporting Standard



Quantify and report major GHG
emissions in the value chain at the
company/organization level (scope 3)



To understand, manage, and report
GHG emissions across the entire
value chain



Build on GHG Protocol Corporate
Standard




Quantify and report product
-
level
emissions



To understand, manage, and report
the life cycle GHG emissions
associated with individual products



Build on existing life cycle
assessment standards



Product Life Cycle

Accounting & Reporting Standard

5

6

Process Structure

WRI/WBCSD Secretariat

Steering Committee (25 members)

Product

Technical Working

Groups

( 100+ members)

Scope 3

Technical Working

Groups

( 60+ members)

Stakeholder Advisory Group (1,000+)

Product Standard

Scope 3 Standard

6

7

7

Setting Boundaries:

What do you include in scope 3?

Steering Committee Members




Alcan Packaging



Carbon Disclosure Project



Carbon Trust



Carnegie Mellon University



Dow Chemical Company



DNV



Energy Research Institute, China



Environmental Defense Fund



ERM



European Commission Joint
Research Centre



General Electric



Georgia Pacific



Harvard School of Public Health



Natura



Natural Resources Defense Council



New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture
and Forestry



Product Carbon Footprint Pilot
Project, Germany



PricewaterhouseCoopers



Shell



Tsinghua

University, China



UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative



Unilever



UK Department for Environment,
Food and Rural Affairs



US Environmental Protection
Agency



ISO TC207
-

US TAG



Walmart

7

Date

Activity

March/April 2010


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Address all written comments to maintain transparency in the process


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December 2010


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Process Timeline

9

Scope 3

Accounting & Reporting Standard

9

10

10

Scope 3 Standard Contents

Part 1: General Requirements & Guidance

1.
Introduction

2.
Accounting and reporting principles

3.
Business goals and inventory design

4.
Mapping the value chain

5.
Setting the boundary

6.
Collecting data

7.
Calculating emissions

8.
Accounting for GHG reductions

9.
Performance tracking

10.
Setting a reduction target

11.
Managing inventory quality

12.
Assurance

13.
Reporting and communication

11

11

Scope 3 Standard Contents

Part 2: Guidance for Specific Scope 3 Categories

1.
Purchased Goods & Services


Direct
Supplier Emissions

2.
Purchased Goods & Services


Cradle
-
to
-
Gate Emissions

3.
Energy
-
Related Activities Not Included in Scope 2

4.
Capital Equipment

5.
Transportation & Distribution (Upstream / Inbound)

6.
Business Travel

7.
Waste Generated in Operations

8.
Franchises (Not Included In Scope 1 and 2)


Upstream

9.
Leased Assets (Not Included In Scope 1 and 2)


Upstream

10.
Investments (Not Included In Scope 1 and 2)

11.
Franchises (Not Included In Scope 1 and 2)


Downstream

12.
Leased Assets (Not Included In Scope 1 and 2)


Downstream

13.
Transportation & Distribution (Downstream / Outbound)

14.
Use of Sold Products

15.
Disposal of Sold Products at the End of Life

16.
Employee Commuting




12

12

GHG Protocol Reporting Requirements

Report in conformance with the

GHG Protocol
Corporate Standard

and
Scope 3 Standard



Shall report all scope 1 and
2 emissions



Should optionally report
scope 3
emissions





Shall report all scope 1 and 2
emissions



Shall report scope 3
emissions (following the
requirements/guidance in
this
standard
)

Report in conformance with the

GHG Protocol
Corporate Standard

13

Review
Principles


Chapter 2

Define
Business
Goals

Chapter 3

Map the
Value Chain

Chapter 4

Set the
Boundary

Chapter 5

Collect Data

Chapter 6

Calculate
Emissions

Chapter 7

Report
Emissions

Chapter 13

Steps in Scope 3 Accounting and Reporting

Scope 3: Steps in Accounting & Reporting



13

14

14

Business
Goals of

Scope 3 Accounting & Reporting

A.
GHG management
, including identifying GHG reduction
opportunities in the value chain; guiding investment and
procurement decisions; and managing climate
-
related risk

B.
Performance tracking
, including

setting a baseline, setting
GHG reduction goals, and tracking progress over time

C.
Engaging partners

in the value chain to expand GHG
accountability, transparency and management throughout the
value chain

D.
Public reporting

of GHG emissions to meet the decision
-
making needs of stakeholders (e.g., policy
-
makers, investors,
purchasers, customers, suppliers, employees, NGOs, etc.),
as well as participation in corporate
-
level GHG reporting
programs and registries




Principle

Definition

Relevance

Ensure the GHG inventory appropriately reflects the GHG emissions of the
company and

serves the decision
-
making needs of users


both internal and
external to the company.

Completeness

Account for and report on all GHG emission sources and activities within the
chosen

inventory boundary. Disclose and justify any specific exclusions.

Consistency

Use consistent methodologies to allow for meaningful

comparisons of
emissions over time.

Transparently document any changes to the data,
inventory boundary, methods, or any other

relevant factors in the time series.

Transparency

Address all relevant issues in a factual and coherent manner, based on a
clear audit trail.

Disclose any relevant assumptions and make appropriate
references to the accounting and

calculation methodologies and data sources
used.

Accuracy

Ensure that the quantification of GHG emissions is systematically neither over
nor under

actual emissions, as far as can be judged, and that uncertainties
are reduced as far as

practicable. Achieve sufficient accuracy to enable users
to make decisions with reasonable

assurance as to the integrity of the
reported information.

Accounting & Reporting Principles

15

16

Tier 1
Suppliers











Reporting
Company

Cradle

Grave

Cradle to Gate
emissions of
purchased products
and services

Gate to Grave
emissions from
sold products and
services

Gate

Gate

Raw Materials

Energy Activities

Capital Equipment

Transportation

Product Distribution

Product Use

Product Disposal

Scope 2 and 3

Scope 3

Scope 1

Purchase

Sale

Emissions
from the
company’s
operations

17

17





Category

Source Description

Upstream
Scope 3


Emissions
from
Purchased
Products

1. Purchased Goods &
Services: Direct Supplier
Emissions



Scope 1 and 2 emissions of a reporting company’s direct (tier 1) suppliers, including outsourced activities, (e.g., contract
ma
nufacturing, data
centers, outsourced services, etc.)

2. Purchased Goods &
Services: Cradle
-
to
-
Gate
Emissions



Extraction and production of inputs (i.e., purchased or acquired goods, services, materials, or fuels) associated with all su
pp
liers upstream
(tiers 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.)



Manufacturing/construction of tier 1, 2, 3, 4… suppliers’ capital equipment



Disposal/treatment of waste generated in the production of inputs (i.e., purchased or acquired goods, services, materials or
fu
els)



Transportation and distribution of inputs associated with suppliers further upstream (tier 2, 3, 4., etc.)

3. Energy
-
Related
Activities Not Included in
Scope 2



Extraction, production, and transportation of fuels consumed in the generation of electricity, steam, heating and cooling (ei
th
er purchased or
own generated by the reporting company)



Generation of electricity, steam, heating, and cooling that is consumed in a T&D system (reported by end user)



Purchase of electricity, steam, heating, and cooling that is sold to an end user (reported by utility company)

4. Capital Equipment



Manufacturing/construction of capital equipment owned or controlled by the reporting company

5. Transportation &
Distribution



Transportation and distribution of inputs (i.e., purchased or acquired goods, services, materials or fuels), including interm
ed
iate (inter
-
facility)
transport & distribution, warehousing & storage, warehousing and storage, associated with direct suppliers



Transportation of waste generated in operations

6. Business Travel



Employee business travel

7. Waste Generated in
Operations


Disposal/treatment of waste generated in operations

8. Franchises



Operations of franchisor (reported by franchisee)

9. Leased Assets



Manufacturing/construction and operation of leased assets not included in lessee’s scope 1 (reported by lessee)

10. Investments



GHG emissions associated with investments, including fixed asset investments and equity investments not included in scope 1 a
nd

2

Downstream
Scope 3



Emissions
from Sold
Products

11. Franchises



Manufacturing/construction and operation of franchise not included in franchisor’s scope 1 (reported by franchisor)

12. Leased Assets



Manufacturing/construction and operation of leased assets not included in lessor’s scope 1 (reported by lessor)

13. Transportation &
Distribution



Transportation and distribution of sold products, including warehousing and retail

14. Use of Sold Products



Use of sold products and services

15. Waste



Disposal of sold products at the end of their life

Other Scope
3 Emissions

16. Employee
Commuting



Employees commuting to and from work

18


After mapping the value chain, companies shall account for and report:


The largest scope 3 sources that collectively account for at least
80%*

of total anticipated scope 3 emissions (excluding use phase);


The use phase emissions of select product types; and


All scope 1 and scope 2 emissions, as required by the GHG
Protocol
Corporate Standard


* The selection of an 80% threshold is tentative pending road testing

Setting the Boundary: Boundary Requirements

18

19



To determine which scope 3 activities are most significant in size,
companies should follow these steps:

1.
Use screening methods to individually estimate the emissions from all
scope 3 activities (examples provided in Part 2 of the standard for
each category)

2.
Express each individual scope 3 activity’s estimated emissions as a
fraction of total anticipated scope 3 emissions

3.
Rank all scope 3 activities from largest to smallest to determine which
activities are most significant


Setting the
Boundary

19

20

Product Type

Examples


Consumes energy (fuels or
electricity) in the use phase

Automobiles, aircraft, engines, motors,
buildings, appliances, electronics,
lighting


Fuels

Petroleum products, natural gas, coal,
biofuels


Contains GHGs that are
emitted during use

Aerosols, refrigerants, industrial gases,
SF
6
, HFCs, PFCs, fire extinguishers

Use of Sold Products:

Required

Product Types

21

Guidance: Prioritizing
Relevant Emissions

Based on Other Criteria




Additional scope 3 activities (below the threshold) should be
considered relevant if they meet any of the following criteria:


Criteria

Description

Influence

There are potential emissions reductions that could be
undertaken or influenced by the company

Risk

They contribute to the company’s risk exposure

Stakeholders

They are deemed critical by key stakeholders (e.g.
customers, suppliers, investors or civil society)

Outsourcing

They are outsourced activities typically insourced by
other companies in the reporting company’s sector

Other

They meet additional criteria developed by the company
or industry sector

21

22

Collecting Data

Four
-
step process for collecting and evaluating data:


Prioritize

activities

1

Assess

data sources

2

Collect

data

3

Evaluate

collected data

4

23

Collecting Data: Data Types

Data Type

Description

Examples

Primary Data

Observed data collected from
specific facilities owned or
operated by the reporting
company or a company in its
supply chain

The reporting company
surveys its suppliers and
collects product
-
level data
or scope 1 and 2
emissions data from
specific facilities in its
supply chain.

Secondary Data

Generic or industry average data
from published sources that are
representative of a company’s
operations, activities, or products

Data from life cycle
inventory databases,
literature studies,
environmentally
-
extended
input
-
output models;
default IPCC emission
factors; industry
associations; etc.



24

Collecting Data: Methods to Fill Data Gaps



Estimation
Method

Description

Examples

Extrapolated Data



Data
related to a similar (but not
representative) input,
process or
activity to the one in the
inventory




Customized
to a new situation to
make more
representative

There
is secondary data available
for electricity in Ukraine but not for
electricity in Moldova. The
company customizes the data for
electricity in Ukraine to make it
more representative of electricity
in Moldova (e.g., by modifying the
electricity generation mix).

Proxy Data



Data
related to a similar (but not
representative) input, process, or
activity to the one in the
inventory




Not customized to a new situation
to make more representative


There
is secondary data available
for electricity in Ukraine but not for
electricity in Moldova. The
company uses the data for
electricity from Ukraine without
modification as a proxy for
electricity in Moldova.

25

Collecting Data


As a general rule, companies should apply the
following hierarchy in collecting data:


1.
Primary data

2.
Secondary data

3.
Extrapolated data

4.
Proxy data



When collecting primary data from value chain partners,
companies should obtain the most product
-
specific data
available, according to the following hierarchy:


1.
Product
-
level data

2.
Process
-
level data

3.
Facility
-
level data

4.
Business unit
-
level data

5.
Corporate
-
level data

26

Collecting
Primary Data

from Value Chain Partners

27



The
degree to which the data represents the relevant activity



The
percentage of locations for which site specific or generic data are available and used
out of the total number that relate to a specific activity. Generally, a percent target is
identified for the number of sites from which data is collected for each activity

Technological
representativeness

Completeness



Degree
to which the data set reflects the actual technology(
ies
) used

Criteria

Description

Temporal
representativeness



Degree
to which the data set reflects the actual time (e.g., year) or age of
the activity or whether an appropriate time period is used (e.g.,
annual/seasonal averages may be appropriate to smooth out data variability
due to factors such as weather conditions)

Geographical
representativeness



Degree
to which the data set reflects actual geographic location of the
activity, e.g., country or site

Precision



Measure
of the variability of the data points used to derive the GHG
emissions from an activity (e.g., low variance = high precision). Relates
mostly to where direct measurements have been used.

Data Quality Criteria

28



Illustrative

GHG Reporting Form

Primary

Secondary

Total

Uncertainty

Scope 1: Direct Emissions from Owned/Controlled Operations

Scope 2: Indirect Emissions from the Use of Purchased
Electricity, Steam, Heating and Cooling

Scope
3:
Other Indirect Emissions

a.
Indirect Emissions from Purchased Products (Upstream)


1. Purchased
Goods & Services (Cradle
-
to
-
Gate Emissions
)


(
Not

Otherwise
Included in Categories 2
-
10)


2.

Energy
-
Related
Emissions (Not Included in Scope 2)


3. Capital
Equipment


4. Transportation
& Distribution


5. Waste
Generated in Operations


6. Business
Travel


7.

Franchises
(Not Included in Scope 1 or
2)


8.

Leased
Assets (Not Included in Scope 1 or 2
)


9. Investments
(Not Included in Scope 1 or 2)


10. Other

b. Indirect Emissions from Sold Products (Downstream)


1. Franchises
(Not Included in Scope 1 or
2


2.

Leased
Assets (Not Included in Scope 1 or
2


3. Distribution
of Sold Products


4. Use of Sold Products


5. Disposal
of Sold Products at the End of Life


6. Other

c. Other Indirect Emissions


1. Employee Commuting


2.

Other

Direct (Tier 1) Supplier Emissions

N/A


% of suppliers accounted for (as a % of total spend)

CO
2

from Biomass Combustion



28

29

Questions?

29

30

Product Life Cycle

Accounting & Reporting Standard

30

Current Product Standard Content

31


Goal and Scope of the Product Standard


Principles of GHG Accounting


Steps to Performing a GHG Inventory


Establishing the Methodology


Defining the Functional Unit


Boundary Setting


Data Collection & Data Quality


Allocation


Calculating GHG Emissions


Assurance


Reporting a Product GHG Inventory

Goal and Scope

32


The primary goal of the standard is public disclosure
of product level GHG
emissions


A product is any good or service


Implementing the
standard
may support additional
business
goals including:
Identification of GHG reduction
opportunities in a supply chain, performance tracking, supply
chain engagement, and product differentiation


The standard is sufficiently flexible to support GHG
quantification and reporting for many product types


Goal & Scope

Goal and Scope


This standard does not fully support product
comparison


Valid product comparison, comparative assertion,
and labeling requires a greater degree of
prescriptiveness

than is provided in this standard.


The standard will include guidance on how
programs, sector specific guidance developers
and organizations can specify additional
constraints so that valid product comparisons
and claims can be made




33

Goal & Scope

34

34


The overarching method for accounting for product GHG
emissions is
a life cycle approach


Including all stages of the life cycle, from cradle to grave:

Establishing the Methodology

Raw Material
Acquisition

Production

Distribution
& Retail

Use

End of Life


Companies shall follow the process life cycle
accounting approach


Companies shall use an attributional approach
to assign life cycle GHG emissions to an
individual product system for the purpose of
public reporting


Companies shall define the unit of analysis as
the functional unit of the product

35

Establishing the Methodology

Key Requirements: Setting the Boundary


Processes that are attributable to the function of
the product shall

be included in the boundary of
the product system


Capital equipment shall be included in the
product system if deemed significant for the
studied product or product sector


Significance can be proven using a qualitative
or quantitative test.


Companies shall conduct a cradle
-
to
-
grave
assessment for all final products


Companies may conduct a cradle
-
to
-
gate
assessment for intermediate products when the
eventual fate of a product is unknown


36

Setting the Boundary

37

Life Cycle Stages

Setting the Boundary

Key Requirements: Collecting Data


Primary data shall be collected for all
processes under the control of the
company undertaking the product
inventory


For all other processes, primary or
secondary data of the highest practical
quality shall be collected


Data gaps shall be filled using
extrapolation or proxy data


38

Collecting Data

Key Requirements: Data Quality Assessment


A data quality assessment
shall

be undertaken for all
GHG emissions sources that cumulatively sum to 75% of
total product emissions


For all processes quantified using any primary data, a
qualitative data quality assessment
shall

be undertaken
based on technological, temporal and geographical
representativeness, completeness, and precision


For processes that only use secondary data, the data
quality assessment
shall

be undertaken based on
technological, temporal and geographical
representativeness




39

Data Quality Assessment

Key Requirements: Assurance


The product GHG Inventory
shall be assured


The following types of
assurance are permissible:


First Party (“Self” or “Internal”)
assurance


Third Party (”External”) process
assurance


The assurance opinion shall be
expressed in the form of either
reasonable (high) assurance or
limited (moderate) assurance

40

Assurance (referred to as
“verification” in the GHG
Protocol

Corporate Standard
) is
an objective assessment of the
accuracy, completeness and
presentation of a reported
product GHG inventory and the
conformity of the product GHG
inventory to the standard. In
order to state compliance with
the standard, the product GHG
inventory shall

be assured

Performing Assurance

Key Requirements: Reporting


A company shall

publicly disclose a GHG
inventory report



This report is divided into a summary and
detailed report to address the needs of
different audiences:


The summary and detailed reports shall be
disclosed together

41

Reporting

Key Requirements: Summary Report


The summary report shall include:


Introduction


Process map


Results


Assurance and data quality information


A statement on the use of results


e.g., a company will use the results to reduce GHG
emissions along the product life cycle


42

Reporting


The detailed report shall include more
information on:


Sector or product specific data sources used


Assumptions and justifications


Cradle to Gate Inventories


Temporal Boundary


Exclusion of Capital Goods


Allocation (performed on data collected under the
ownership of the company)


Recycling




43

Key Requirements: Detailed Report

Reporting

44

Next Steps

44

Road Testing

45


More than 70 companies currently road
testing one or both of the standards


Wide range of sizes, sectors, and
geographical locations


Kick
-
off meeting: January 21
st

2010


Process continues through the end of June


Each company will provide detailed
feedback and a case study on their
experience with the standard

Scope 3 Standard Road Testing Companies

3M Company

Kraft Foods

Abengoa

Levi Strauss & Co.

Acer Inc

National Grid

Airbus S.A.S

Natura

Cosméticos

AkzoNobel

New Belgium Brewing

Alcan Packaging

PE International

Autodesk, Inc.

Pfizer

Baoshan

Iron & Steel
CO. LTD

Pinchin

Environmental Ltd.

BASF SE

PricewaterhouseCoopers

Coca
-
Cola
Erfrischungsgetränke

AG

Public Service Enterprise Group, Inc.

Deutsche Post DHL

SAP AG

Deutsche Telekom AG

SC
Johnson and Son

Eclipse Networks (Pty) Ltd.

Siemens

Ford Motor Company

Suzano

Pulp and Paper

US GSA Federal Acquisition Service

Swire Beverages

Hasbro Inc.

UK Highways Agency

Hydro Tasmania

Veolia Water

IBM

VT Group

IKEA

Webcor

Builders

Italcementi

Group

Product Standard Road Testing Companies

3M Company

Italcementi Group

Acer Inc

JohnsonDiversey

AkzoNobel

Lenovo

Alcan Packaging

Levi Strauss & Co.

Alcoa

Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation

Anvil Knitwear, Inc.

Natura Cosméticos

Baoshan

Iron & Steel
CO. LTD

New Belgium Brewing

BASF SE

Ningbo
Youngor

Sunrise Textile Dyeing
& Finishing
Co
., ltd.

Belkin

PepsiCo, Inc.

Belron International

Procter & Gamble Eurocor

Bloomberg LP

Rogers Communications

BT plc

Shanghai
Zidan

Food Packaging and
Printing
Co., Ltd.

CA, Inc.

Shell International Petroleum Company Ltd

Colors Fruit SA (Pty) Ltd

Siemens AG

Deutsche Post DHL

Suzano Pulp and Paper

Deutsche Telekom AG

Swire Beverages

DuPont

TAL Apparel Limited

Eclipse Networks (Pty) Ltd.

Tech
-
Front (Shanghai) Computer Co., Ltd.

/
Quanta Shanghai Manufacturing City

Ecolab

Tennant Company

General Electric

Verso Paper Corp.

Gold’n Plump Poultry, LLC

Weyerhaeuser

US GSA Federal Acquisition Service

WorldAutoSteel

47

List of Products (to date)

2.5 MW Wind Turbine

Food Packaging Product

Advanced High Strength Steels

Forged Aluminum Wheel

AnvilSustainable™ Transitional Cotton Tee

䡯浥m楮sur慮捥c

B汯l浢mr朠䙬a琠P慮敬

䡯琠
r潬o敤 c潩o

Bresso Packaged Cream Cheese

Industrial Chemical

Calcestruzzo (concrete)

Just
BARE chicken

Chemicals for a T
-
Shirt Production

Magazine

Citrus Fruit Exports from South Africa to the
UK

Men's Levi Jeans

Coated Freesheet Paper

MPLS (Multi
-
Protocol Label Switching) network product

Coca
-
Cola Branded Products

N
on
-
iron
shirt

Conserve Smart AV

Notebook Computer

Cosmetics and soap products

Restaurant Meals

Cotton bleached fabric

Scotchkote

Spray in Place Pipe 269 Coating

Desktop Computer

SIPROTEC 4 (Universal Differential Protection Relay for Two Line
Ends)

Detergent

T3 with ec
-
H2O, floor scrubber with chemical free cleaning
technology

Deutsche
Post PLUSPÄCKCHEN;
DHL Express TDI

Vehicle windscreen replacement/repair

European Disposable Diaper Size 4

Videoconferencing system

Fat Tire Amber Ale

Wood Product

48

49


In 2010, WRI and WBCSD, in collaboration with the
Steering Committee and Technical Working Groups,
will:


Revise draft standards based on feedback received
during 5 stakeholder workshops and the stakeholder
comment period (November 11


December 21, 2009)


Revise draft standards based on feedback received
during road testing


Circulate second drafts for public comment in September
2010


Revise second drafts based on feedback received


Finalize text in December 2010

Finalizing Draft Standards

49


For copies of any GHG Protocol Publication,
please see:
www.ghgprotocol.org


For copies of the draft Scope 3 and Product
Standards, please see:
www.ghgprotocol.org/standards/product
-
and
-
supply
-
chain
-
standard


For updates on the standard development
process, please join the stakeholder advisory
group

50

GHG Protocol Standards & Publications

51

Thank You

51

Cynthia Cummis

ccummis@wri.org

www.ghgprotocol.org


Are any existing programs considering the
incorporation of the scope 3 and/or product
standard?


What are the anticipated challenges to incorporate
these standards into your programs?


Do you anticipate any new programs or policies
being developed once these standards are
finalized?


What role can WRI play in the design
and
implementation of
programs/policies based on these
new standards?



52

Discussion Questions