Mineral and Energy Resources

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Geologic Resources: Nonrenewable
Mineral and Energy Resources

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13
th

Edition


Chapter 15

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

Modified by Charlotte Kirkpatrick



Key Concepts


Types of mineral resources


Formation and location of mineral
resources


Extraction and processing of mineral
resources


Increasing supplies of mineral resources


Major types, acquisition, advantages,
and disadvantages of fuel resources



Nature of Mineral Resources


Mineral resources:
concentration of naturally

occurring material in or on the earth’s crust that can be

extracted and processed into useful materials at an

affordable cost


Metallic:
iron, copper , aluminum


Non
-
metallic:
salt, clay, sand, phosphates,

soil


Energy resources:
Coal, oil, natural gas,

uranium



General classification of
mineral resources

Fig. 15
-
2 p. 339



Nature and Formation of Mineral
Resources


Magma:
magma flows to the surface at divergent
and convergent plate boundaries it cools, and
crystallizes into mineral containing igneous rocks.


Hydrothermal:
hydrothermal vents allow seeping
of metal
-
bearing solutions to cool and their dissolved
minerals to form hydrothermal

ore deposits.



Manganese nodules:

cover 25
-
50% of the
ocean floor very concentrated form of manganese and
other important metals.



Hydrothermal vent
communities and deposits

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Magma
Black smoker
Sulfide
deposit
White crab
White clam
Tube worms
White
smoker
Figure 15
-
3
Page 340


Ores From Sedimentary and
Weathering Processes

Sedimentary processes:


Placer Deposits:
form as deposit settle out as
flowing water slow down:gold


Evaporites:
water evaporates from inland seas
or lakes with no outlets and concentrations of
dissolved salts increase and precipitate out for
form evaporites mineral deposits such as Salt,
borax, and sodium carbonate

Weathering:
moving water removes soluble ions
and leaves behind ions that form Residual
deposits of metal ores:Iron and Bauxite ore




Finding Nonrenewable Mineral
Resources


Satellite imagery


Aerial sensors (magnetometers)


Gravity differences


Core sampling


Seismic surveys


Chemical analysis of water and plants



Removing Nonrenewable Mineral
Resources

Surface mining: basics


Overburden:
soil and rock removed by
stripping away by mechanized
equipment


Spoil:
Waste material discarded from
overburden



Removing Nonrenewable Mineral
Resources:
Surface Mining Types


Open
-
pit:
land is dug up into a large hole to
remove deposits of mineral ores and sandstone, gravel
and stone.


Dredging:
removal of minerals from the ocean
floor



Removing Nonrenewable Mineral
Resources:
Surface Mining Types
(cont.)


Contour Strip Mining:
same as above except
on hilly terrain and leftover is a erodable wall of dirt
called a highwall.


Mountain Top Removal:
explosives and
large machinery used to remove mountain tops to expose
seams of coal underneath. Very environmentally
damaging.


Area Strip Mining:
flat terrain mining, removal
of overburden and in strips and if not restored spoil banks
left behind



Types of Surface Mining

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Open Pit Mine
Figure 15
-
4 (1)
Page 341
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Dredging
Figure 15
-
4 (2)
Page 341
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Area Strip Mining
Figure 15
-
4 (3)
Page 341
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Contour Strip Mining
Figure 15
-
4 (4)
Page 341


Removing Nonrenewable Mineral
Resources

Subsurface mining:

removes minerals too deep
for surface mining


Room and pillar


Longwall


Mine shafts and tunnels



Types of Subsurface Mining


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Underground Coal Mine
Figure 15
-
5(1)
Page 342
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Room
-
and
-
pillar
Figure 15
-
5 (2)
Page 342
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Longwall
Mining of Coal
Figure 15
-
5 (3)
Page 342


Environmental Effects of Extracting
Mineral Resources

Fig. 15
-
6 p. 343



Environmental Effects of Processing
Mineral Resources


Ore mineral:
Extracted from ore, contains
the desired metal


Gangue:
Also extracted from ore, waste
material


Tailings:
Piles of gangue waste left behind,
allows toxic metals to reach groundwater and
surface water supplies


Smelting:
Used to separate the metal from
the other elements in the ore mineral.

See
Case Study

p. 345



Typical Lifecycle of a metal
resource

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Surface
mining
Metal ore
Separation
of ore from
gangue
Scattered in environment
Recycling
Discarding
of product
Conversion
to product
Melting
metal
Smelting
Figure 15
-
8
Page 344


Acid Mine Drainage

Fig. 15
-
7 p. 344



Environmental Effects of Using
Mineral Resources


Disruption of land surface


Subsidence:
sinking of the land


Erosion of solid mining waste:
tailings,
spoil banks


Acid mine drainage:
pollution of water
sources as rainwater seeps into ground and surface
water


Air pollution:
smelters, toxic emissions


Storage and leakage of liquid mining
waste:
smelters, holding ponds



Supplies of Mineral Resources


Economic depletion


Depletion time:
shortened by recycle, reuse,
reduce, improved
technology, new discoveries,
higher prices


Reserve
-
to
-
production

ratio:
the number of years
that proven reserves of a
particular nonrenewable
mineral will last at current
annual production rates.

Fig. 15
-
9 p. 346



Supplies of Mineral Resources


Foreign sources:
we are highly dependent on
sources outside the U.S.


Economics:
mine higher grade ore first, lower grade
ores are more environmentally damaging. Most of the
environmental costs for mining are not included in the
prices for processed metals and products


Follow normal supply and demand


Mining law of 1872: hard rock minerals may be mined
without paying royalties, by patenting parcels of land,
no environmental cleanup required,



World Mineral Map



World Mineral Reserves



Environmental concerns


Environmental concerns:
5
-
10% of world
energy use is for extraction of minerals. Major
contributor to air and water pollution. Largely
determined by mineral content or grade.


Mining on Public lands; national forests, parks,
resource

lands and wilderness.




Supplies of Mineral Resources


Mining lower grade ores:
New earth
-
moving
equipment, improved techniques for removing
impurities, technical advances in mineral
extraction and processing


Mining the ocean:
Many mineral elements found
in seawater, sediments and deposits on the shallow
continental shelf, hydrothermal ore deposits, and
manganese rich nodules



Finding substitutes:
Mainly plastics and ceramics



Evaluating Energy Resources


Renewable energy:
Energy resources that can be
used sustainably and be available for future generations.


Non
-
renewable energy:
Energy that has a finite
supply and the only way to increase supply is through
conservation techniques.


Environmental effects:
Use of mostly
nonrenewable energy resources has resulted in an increase
in air and water pollution, land disruption, and greenhouse
gas emissions.



Evaluating Energy Resources

Fig. 15
-
12 p. 351

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Figure 15
-
12 (1)
Page 351
World
Nuclear power
6%
Hydropower, geothermal,
solar, wind
7%
Natural
Gas
12%
Biomass
11%
Oil
32%
Coal
21%
Nonrenewable: 82%

Renewable: 18%

Nonrenewable:91%

Renewable : 9%

World

U.S.



Evaluating Energy Resources


Future
availability:
depends
largely on how we use
the resources.



Cost:
affected by the
promotion of subsidies,
and tax breaks,
availability of resource



Net Energy Yield


Net energy yield:
Usable amount of high
-
quality
energy available from a given quantity of an energy
resource.


Determined by the

total energy available

from a
resource
minus

the
energy needed

to find, extract,
process, and bring to consumers.


Figured by estimating the total energy available for
use over its lifetime minus the amount of energy 1.
used (1
st

law), 2.automatically wasted (2
nd

law), and
3. Unnecessarily wasted for finding, processing,
concentrating, and transporting.




Net Energy Ratios

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High
-
Temperature Industrial Heat
Surface
-
mined coal
Underground
-
mined coal
Natural gas
Oil
Coal gasification
Direct solar (highly
concentrated by
mirrors, heliostats, or
other devices)
0.9
1.5
4.7
4.9
25.8
28.2
Figure 15
-
17 (2)
Page 354
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Figure 15
-
17 (3)
Page 354
2
-
10
2
-
13
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Transportation
Natural gas
Gasoline (refined crude oil)
Biofuel
(ethyl alcohol)
Coal liquefaction
Oil shale
1.2
1.4
1.9
4.1
4.9
Figure 15
-
17 (4)
Page 354
Photovoltaic (solar) cells



Fuel Resources Over Time

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Year
2100
2025
1950
1875
1800
0
20
40
60
80
100
Contribution to total energy
consumption (percent)
Wood
Coal
Oil
Nuclear
Hydrogen
Solar
Natural gas
Figure 15
-
16
Page 353


Some Important Energy Sources

Fig. 15
-
10 p. 350



Oil


Petroleum (crude oil):
oil as it comes out of
the ground, is a thick liquid consisting of hundreds
of combustible hydrocarbons along with small
amounts of sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen impurities.

Formed from decomposition of dead organic
matter from plants (plankton) and animals
buried under lake and ocean sediments from 2
-
140 million years ago (MYA)



Oil


Primary recovery:
Involves drilling a well
and pumping out the oil that flows by gravity
into the bottom of the well.


Secondary recovery:
After flowing oil is
removed water can be infected into a nearby
well to force some of the heavy oil to the
surface.


Tertiary recovery:
steam or carbon dioxide
gas are injected to remove approximately 10%
of the remaining heavy oil



Oil


Oil

and
Natural gas

are usually found
together trapped in a dome deep within the
earth’s crust.


Heavy Crude oil

is too expensive to extract
so most wells are only getting about 35% of
the oil out.


Drilling

causes little land damage yet it always
involves some oil spills on land and at sea and the
harmful effects of using associated with extraction,
processing, and using oil



Oil


Petrochemicals:
Products of oil distillation
that are used as raw materials in industrial
organic chemicals, pesticides, plastics, etc.


Refining:
based on boiling points
components are removed at various levels in
a giant distillation column. The most volatile
components with the lowest boiling points
are removed at the top.


Transporting:
by pipeline, trucks or ships



Fig. 15
-
18 p. 355

Oil refining by Distillation

Most volatile



Who has the World’s Oil?


Oil reserves are identified deposits from
which oil can be extracted profitably at
current prices with current technology.


OPEC contains 67% of the world’s crude
oil reserves
(see bottom of page 355).

Mainly in
Saudi Arabia (26%)


The remaining is found in Latin America,
Africa, the former Soviet Union, Asia, the
United States and Western Europe.



North American Energy Resources

Fig. 15
-
20

p. 356



Oil Use in the U.S.


Most oil drilled in the U.S. comes from
offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico and
form drilling in Alaska’s North Slope.


U.S. only produces 3% of the world’s oil
yet uses 26% of the crude oil extracted each
year.


Therefore, much of our oil is imported each
year, mainly from the Persian Gulf


1973 imported 36%, 2001 imported 55%
and predicted to import 61% by 2010.



Oil Usage and How Long Will
it Last?


We are not
currently

running out of oil!!


However,
our known reserves of oil are
limited and if we continue to use them at
current rates we may have only
53 years
left
. And if we increase usage by only 2%
per year only
42 years

of oil are left.


Undiscovered oil supplies might add
another 20
-
40 years to the global supplies.


See page 358




Oil Consumption

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Figure 15
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19
Page 355
Consumption (million barrels per day)
60
50
30
20
10
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Year
40
2020
History
Projections
0
Developed
countries

Developing
countries



Pros and Cons of Oil

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Low land use
Easily transported
within and
between countries
High net
energy yield
Low cost (with
huge subsidies)
Ample supply for
42

93 years
Advantages
Moderate water
pollution
Releases CO
2
when burned
Air pollution
when burned
Artificially low
price encourages
waste and
discourages
search for
alternatives
Need to find
substitute within
50 years
Disadvantages
Efficient
distribu
-
tion
system
Figure 15
-
26
Page 361


Oil Shale and Tar Sands


Oil shale:
shale
rock that contains oil.


Keragen:
actual
substance locked in the
shale, converted to oil


Tar sand:
sand
that contains clay, sand,
water and bitumen



Bitumen:
heavy
oil with a high sulfur
content (high sulfur
oil)

Keragen must be refined before
use and to be sent by pipeline
to the refinery it must be heated
to increase flow and processed
to remove impurities.

Bitumen must be removed,
purified, and chemically
upgraded into a synthetic
crude oil suitable for refining.


Canada has a very rich Tar
sand supply and has been
using it since 1978



Pros and Cons of Shale Oil
and Tar Sands



Natural Gas


50
-
90% methane

with small amounts of
heavier gases (propane,butane) and hydrogen
sulfide


Conventional gas:
Lies just above crude oil
reservoirs


Unconventional gas:
found by itself in
underground sources. Not economical to extract, yet.


Ex. Methane hydrate:
composed of small
bubbles of natural gas trapped inice crystals deep
under the arctic permafrost and beneath deep ocean
sediments.



Natural Gas


Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG):
When a
natural gas field is tapped the propane and butane
are liquefied and removed and stored in pressurized
tanks mainly for use in rural areas not serviced by
gas pipelines.


Liquefied natural gas (LNG):
The remainder of
the gas is dried, cleansed of impurities, and pumped into
pressurized pipelines (natural gas at your homes). Then, if
exposed to a very low temperature, it can be converted into
LNG. And if refrigerated it can be transported by tankers


Approximate 200 year supply



Pros and Cons of Natural Gas



Coal


Primarily strip
-
mined


Used mostly for generating electricity


Enough coal for about 1000 years


Highest environmental impact


Coal gasification and liquefaction



Coal


Highest environmental impact


Coal gasification and liquefaction



Fig. 15
-
30 p. 363

Coal: Stages of Formation



Burning Coal More Cleanly


Fluidized
-
Bed
Combustion

Fig. 15
-
32 p. 364



Nuclear Energy


Fission
reactors


Uranium
-
235


Potentially
dangerous


Radioactive
wastes

Refer to
Introductory Essay

p. 338

Fig. 15
-
35 p. 366



The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Fig. 15
-
36

p. 367



Dealing with Nuclear Waste


Low
-
level waste


High
-
level waste

Fig. 15
-
40

p. 370



Dealing with Nuclear Waste


Underground burial


Disposal in space


Burial in ice sheets


Dumping into subduction zones


Burial in ocean mud


Conversion into harmless materials

Fig. 15
-
40

p. 370



Nuclear Alternatives


Breeder nuclear
fission reactors


Nuclear fusion


New reactor designs

Storage Containers

Fuel rod

Primary canister

Overpack

container

sealed

Underground

Buried and capped

Ground Level

Unloaded from train

Lowered down shaft

Personnal

elevator

Air shaft

Nuclear waste

shaft

Fig. 15
-
42

p. 376



Groups for Presentations (Period 4)

Group #1

Passive Solar Heating System

Lindsey Whang, Michelle Manzer, Jake McCune,

Group #2

Active Solar Heating System

Tim Hawes, White Xie, Kathy Chou, Rachel Kim

Group #3

Solar Thermal Systems

Sabaha Khakoo, Christine Buzan, Bryan Koorstad

Group #4

Electricity from Solar Cells

Christopher Gray, Andrew Plaza, Riley
Thornburgh

Group #5

Hydroelectric Power

Lauren Comise, Michael Shin, Kate Wyrick

Group #6

Electricity from Tides and
Waves

Ryan Kim, Alex Conrad, Anish Gala

Group#7

Heat stored in Tropical Oceans
and Solar Ponds

Jessica Shim, Sujan T., Timothy Tran

Group #8

Electricity from Wind

Michael Wurth, Patrick Goh, Jennifer Chow

Group #9

Biomass plantations and
burning wood

Christine Kobayashi, Karthick Bhaskaran, Henry
Kaplan

Group #10

Burning Agricultural wastes

Jason Perecko, Ryan Haggerty, Jenn Hori

Group #11

Solar Hydrogen

Jimmy Jea, Ernie Chen, James Bai

Group #12

Geothermal Energy

Robin Kim, Eileen Ong, Nikhil Gupta



Groups for Presentations (Period 5)

Group #1

Passive Solar Heating System

Danielle Reyes, Bhumi Desai, Hershel Mehta

Group #2

Active Solar Heating System

Christopher DeLeon, Linh Duong

Group #3

Solar Thermal Systems

Hannah Cole, Rachel Nishimura

Group #4

Electricity from Solar Cells

Brent Reed, Sung Jin, Dale Stoica

Group #5

Hydroelectric Power

Nirlai Shah, Colin Webber, Scott Shin

Group #6

Electricity from Tides and
Waves

Daniel Chung, Paul Kang

Group#7

Heat stored in Tropical Oceans
and Solar Ponds

Andrew Murase, Nicole Uchida

Group #8

Electricity from Wind

Kacey Kim, Janet Lee, Michelle Lee

Group #9

Biomass plantations and
burning wood

Elliot Kim, Eunice Choi

Group #10

Burning Agricultural wastes

Kasen Bien, Rachel Yang

Group #11

Solar Hydrogen

Christie Hsu, Zain Lalani, Priya Gohil

Group #12

Geothermal Energy

Kevin Wang, Sarah Ortiz, Justin Wang



Groups for Presentations (Period 6)

Group #1

Passive Solar Heating System

Jane Huh, Brandon Wong, Harrison Lam, Alison
Ozaki

Group #2

Active Solar Heating System

Justin Phan, Mackenzie Chang, Christopher
Guevara, Arti Kothari

Group #3

Solar Thermal Systems

Alexander Kim, Tiffany Lai, Riye Takahashi

Group #4

Electricity from Solar Cells

Alyssa Pasternack, Brandon Liu, Dayanita
Ramesh

Group #5

Hydroelectric Power

Dionne Bang, Vivian Wu, Namrata Doshi

Group #6

Electricity from Tides and
Waves

HaYon Chun, Kathy Li, Emma Hartman

Group#7

Heat stored in Tropical Oceans
and Solar Ponds

Sophia Chou, Nataya Chayasriwong, Marko
Cristal

Group #8

Electricity from Wind

Kyle Barnes, Mark Kim, Christopher Patuwo

Group #9

Biomass plantations and
burning wood

Nicholas Lowe, Joshua Ahn, Isabella Luong

Group #10

Burning Agricultural wastes

Andrew Tran, Patricia Shnell, David Lin

Group #11

Solar Hydrogen

Jason Su, Rachel Chen, Grace Yee

Group #12

Geothermal Energy

Alex Norby, Brandon Hui, Gerardo Saucedo