MeXICO

forestsaintregisOil and Offshore

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

100 views

MEXICO

Geography

MEXICO
-
OUR SOUTHERN NEIGHBOR


Mexico has a long and colorful history.


Over 500 years ago, people from Europe sailed
to Mexico.


Before that, Mexico had some of the world’s
greatest civilizations.


Today, Mexico is highly industrialized.


Mexico is an important resource of workers,
resources and food for the United States.


MEXICO
-
GEOGRAPHY STATISTICS


Population: 99,734,000


Area: 754,120 miles


Length of Coastline:
5,794 miles


Length of Roads:
155,250 miles


Longest River: Rio
Grande (1,900 miles)


Highest Mountain: Pico
de Orizaba (18,700 ft.)


Major Cities: Mexico City
(capital), Guadalajara,
Monterrey


Major Religions: Roman
Catholic, Protestant
Christian


Major languages:
Spanish, native
languages


Official Currency: Peso


Workforce: 36.6 million

WHERE IS MEXICO LOCATED?


Mexico is just south of the United States.


It is shaped like a triangle.


Mexico is the widest in the north where it
borders the United States.


That border is 1,429 miles long.


In the south Mexico is bordered by the Central
American countries of Belize and Guatemala.


The Pacific Ocean borders Mexico on the west
and the Gulf of Mexico borders it on the east.


PHYSICAL REGIONS OF MEXICO


CENTRAL PLATEAU
-
The largest region in Mexico.


COASTAL PLAINS REGION
-

form a rim around
the central region of plateau and mountains.


DESERT REGION
-
This is in the northwestern
part of Mexico.


YUCATAN PENISULA REGION
-
This region is in
the southeastern part of Mexico.


CENTRAL PLATEAU REGION


A plateau is an area of level highland


The plateau is divided into two parts.


The northern half is dry and farmers must use
irrigation in order to raise crops.


The southern half of the plateau is higher than
the northern half.


This area gets more rain so more crops are
grown, especially corn.


The southern half is Mexico’s heartland.

CENTRAL PLATEAU REGION


Most of Mexico’s people live in the southern
part of this region.


In this southern part is the Valley of Mexico.


This valley is 50 miles long and 40 miles wide.


Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, is located in
this large valley.


Mexico City is the 3
rd

largest city in the World.


It is bigger than any city in the United States.


There are over 20 million people in Mexico City.

Mexico City

CENTRAL PLATEAU REGION


This area of Mexico has many active volcanoes.


Some of these volcanoes are active enough to
produce lava.


The Central Plateau also has many
earthquakes.


Earthquakes happen when the Earth’s plates
shift.


Four important tectonic plates come together in
Mexico.

Mexico City
Earthquake of 1985

Popocatepetl
-
A very
active volcano

COASTAL PLAINS REGION


This area is divided up into two coastal regions.


The eastern coastal plain runs along the Gulf of
Mexico, from the Texas border to the Yucatan
Peninsula.


This plain is warm and the southern half is a
jungle.


The western coastal plain along the Pacific is
more narrow and dry than the gulf coastal plain.


Farmers use irrigation to grow cotton, wheat, and
other crops.


Hurricanes


A
common
occurrence in
the coastal
plain.

Hurricane
damage in
Mexico

DESERT REGION


The largest desert in this region is called the
Sonoran

Desert.


Another desert lies in the most western part of
Mexico.


This desert is called Baja California.


Baja California is a peninsula, which means
that it is a strip of land surrounded by water on
three sides.


Few people live in this region.


Sonoran

Desert

Baja California

YUCATAN PENINSULA REGION


This area is near the coast and somewhat flat.


Limestone rock formed most of the peninsula.


This soft rock dissolves in water.


Because of this there are huge underground
caves.


These are some of the biggest caves in the
world.


This area is not good for farming, so there is a
small population that lives here.

Yucatan
Peninsula

Cave Diving in
the Yucatan
Peninsula

MOUNTAINS IN
MEXICO


This is Mexico’s main physical feature.


High mountain ranges rise on the east, west, and
south of the Central Plateau.


The Sierra Madre Oriental (The Eastern Sierras) is the
southern part of the Rocky Mountains that are in the
United States.


The Sierra Madre Occidental (The Western Sierras)
continues in California as the Sierra Nevada range.


Deciduous forests cover the northern part of the
Sierra Madre Occidental.

MOUNTAINS IN
MEXICO


The Madre del Sur (The Southern Sierras)
extend to the
isthmus

of Tehuantepec.


An isthmus is narrow strip of land connecting
two larger land areas.


A narrow plain separates these mountains from
the Pacific Ocean.


Tropical rain forests cover the Southern Sierras.


This type of thick forest grows in warm areas
where a great deal of rain falls.

MEXICO’S TALLEST MOUNTAINS


Mexico’s tallest mountain is Pico de Orizaba,
which is an old volcano.


It is 18,700 feet high.


The people of Mexico City can see two snow
-
covered mountains from their homes.


One is Popocatepetl, which means “Smoking
Mountain”.


The other is
Ixtacihuatl
, which means “White
Mountain”.

Pico de Orizaba
Mexico’s
Highest
Mountain

Ixtacihuatl

A very high
mountain in
Mexico.

Topographic
Map of Mexico

COAST RESORTS IN MEXICO


Mexico has a long coastline with some of the
world’s most beautiful beaches.


The government of Mexico has developed some
beaches into resorts.


Cancun is a popular resort on the Yucatán
Peninsula in the east on the Gulf of Mexico.


Acupulco
, Puerto Vallarta, and Mazatlan are
other resorts in the west on the Pacific Ocean.


Cancun

Mazatlan

Puerto Vallarta

Acupulco

MAJOR BODIES OF WATER IN
MEXICO


No major rivers cross Mexico.


Most rivers are short and drop quickly from the
high mountains to the coast, or they drain into
large lakes.


The largest lakes in Mexico are Lake
Chaplan

in
the state of Jalisco and Lake
Patzcuaro

in
Michoacan
.


The Rio Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) is the
largest river in Mexico and forms part of the
border between the U.S. and Mexico.

Lake
Chapala

Lake
Patzcuaro

CLIMATE IN
MEXICO


Much of Mexico has a
steppe

climate.


This is a dry climate that is usually found near
deserts.


Mexican deserts have a little more rain than other
deserts in the world.


They are still very dry because of the high
mountains that surround them.


The steppe can get very hot and cold with
temperatures as high as 90


F. and as cold as 32



CLIMATE IN
MEXICO


Some of Mexico’s coastal areas have a tropical
savanna climate.


They are hot all year around.


These areas receive a lot of rain, but have a
drier season during the winter.


The savanna is a place where there is lots of
tall grass with a few trees.

MOUNTAINS AND CLIMATE


Without mountains, Mexico would be hot most of
the time.


Temperature usually gets hotter the closer a place
is to the equator.


However, altitude affects climate as well.


Altitude is the height a place is above sea level.


A high altitude brings cooler temperatures.


Rainfall also usually increases at a high altitude.


Because mountains cover Mexico, its climate can
be both hot and cold.

Climate Map of
Mexico

MEXICO’S

ALTITUDINAL ZONES


Three names are given to the three different
zones of altitude that exist in Mexico


Tierra Caliente
-
these are the hot areas at lower
altitudes.


Tierra
templada
-
between 3,000 to 6,000 feet
above sea level. There areas are not to hot or
cold. This is where most of Mexico’s people
live.


Tierra
fria
-
altitudes over 8,000 feet where it is
colder and frost may form.

THE CULTURE OF
MEXICO


Before Europeans came to Mexico, many native
groups lived there.


They lived in villages and farmed the land.


Others developed large
empires.


An empire is a nation that rules a large area of
land.


The Mayans built an empire in the Yucatan and
Guatemala.


The Aztecs and
Toltecs

formed empires in the
Valley of Mexico.

THE CULTURE OF
MEXICO


At one time, millions of native people lived in
Mexico.


Europeans brought diseases, such as measles and
smallpox.


These killed many native people.


As many as 90 percent of them died by the end of
the 1500’s.


Descendants of these native people make up 10%
of the population.


These people have kept much of their culture
because they live in rural, isolated areas.

Aztec

Empire

Mayan

Ruins

MESTIZOS


In 1519, a Spaniard named Hernando Cortes
sailed to Mexico.


He met the Aztecs, who were the native people
of the area.


He also met some smaller native groups who
did not like the Aztecs.


These smaller groups helped Cortes defeat the
Aztecs.

MESTIZOS


More and more Spaniards arrived in Mexico.


Some of them married native women.


These people of mixed European and native
ancestry are called
mestizos
.


About 75% of the Mexican people are
mestizos
.


Their culture is a blend between the two
cultures they came from, but they tend to be
more European than native.


Some are wealthy, while others are poor.

OTHER CULTURES IN
MEXICO


About 15% of the Mexican people are neither
native people nor
mestizos
.


This 15% is made up of immigrants.


Most of them come from countries in Central
America.


Some came to escape political troubles, or to find
better jobs.


People from Japan, Canada, Spain, and the United
States.


Most of them are sent there by the companies
they work for.

LANGUAGES IN
MEXICO


Because Spain ruled Mexico for many years, Spanish
is its official language.


The government, businesses, and schools use
Spanish.


Many native people speak their native languages.


There are as many as 50 native languages spoken in
Mexico.


Over a million native people only speak their native
languages.


Words like tortilla and tamale come from the
language of the Aztecs, not from Spanish.

RELIGION IN
MEXICO


The Spanish also brought their religion to
Mexico.


More than 90% of the people in Mexico are
Roman Catholic.


Some of the poor have gone away from the
Catholic church and joined
Protestant

churches.


Many people in rural areas belong to these
protestant religions.

Catholic
Cathedral
-

Mexico
City

LDS
Temple
-
Mexico
City

POPULATION TRENDS IN
MEXICO


In the last 100 years Mexico’s population has
exploded.


In 1900, Mexico had 13 million people, today
the population is close to 100 million.


Nearly 1/3 of the population is under the age
of 15.


This growth has caused problems like high
unemployment.


The government struggles to provide basic
services for its people.


WHERE DO MOST
MEXICANS

LIVE?


Most Mexicans used to live in small farming
villages.


Today, over two
-
thirds of Mexico’s people live in
urban areas.


This is a trend throughout the world.


One out of every five Mexicans live in Mexico City.


Between 22 and 23 million people live in Mexico
City and its surrounding areas.


This gigantic city was built on the top of the Aztec
capital of Tenochtitlan.


MEXICO CITY


This is a city of many differences.


It has beautiful tree
-
lines streets and tall
buildings.


It also has some of the worst
slums

in the
world.


Slums are poor, overcrowded areas.


Mexico City has many busy, noisy city markets


There are many horrible traffic jams that are
much worse than U.S. Cities

The Many
Parts of
Mexico
City

OTHER MAJOR CITIES IN
MEXICO


Guadalajara is Mexico’s second largest city. It
is also located on the Central Plateau. It is an
important and growing industrial center.


Monterrey is the largest city in Northern
Mexico. It produces much of Mexico’s steel
and iron.


Tampico and Vera Cruz are Mexico’s biggest
ports. Both sit on the Gulf of Mexico. Vera
Cruz is a major rail center.


Acapulco, on the Pacific coast, is also an
important port.

Major
Cities in
Mexico

Guadalajara

Guadalajara

Vera Cruz

Monterrey

OIL IN
MEXICO


The most important natural resource Mexico
has is oil.


Most of the oil that has been discovered is
along the Gulf of Mexico.


Most of the oil and natural gas fields are
located
offshore
.


Offshore means that they are in water not land.


Mexico’s economy depends a lot on oil.


A lot of gas and oil is exported to the U.S.A.

Offshore
Oil Rig

Examples of
Offshore Drilling at
Different

Water Depths

OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES


Mexico has many
mineral
resources.


Minerals are materials that are valuable, solid,
and found in the earth.


Workers in Mexico mine uranium, mercury, iron
ore, coal, zinc, copper, lead, and silver.


Mexico is the worlds leading producer of silver.


The biggest mining regions are in the Central
Plateau and the Sierra Madre Occidental.


Mexico also has large forest resources.

LAND REFORM IN MEXICO


Only about 12 percent of Mexico’s land can be
used for farming.


About 25% of Mexico’s people are farmers.


At one time rich landowners controlled almost all
the land.


In 1910, there was a
revolution
.


A revolution is the overthrowing of a government.


Because of this revolution, land reform occurred
that took land from the wealthy and gave it to the
poor.

MANUFACTURING IN
MEXICO


The largest manufacturing industry in Mexico is
producing metal products.


Other important manufacturing products are
cars, textiles, chemicals, food products,
electrical goods, glass, and paper.


There are many foreign
-
owned assembly plants
near the U.S.
-
Mexico border.


Companies from the U.S. produce goods in
Mexico and then sell the finished goods in the
United States.

SERVICE INDUSTRIES IN
MEXICO


A Service industry is a job or business that
provides a service directly to a customer.


The biggest service industries are tourism,
banking, and insurance.


Tourism is the biggest service industry because
tourists come to Mexico for the sunshine,
beautiful beaches, and scenery.


They also visit the remains of Mexico’s ancient
ruins.

NAFTA


Mexico, the United States, and Canada signed
the North America Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) in 1994.


These means that these three countries got rid
of trade
barriers.


A barrier divides one thing from another.


Trade barriers divide countries because they
limit imports or put special taxes on them.

NAFTA


Products from all three NAFTA countries cross
international borders easily.


Mexico does more than two
-
thirds of its trade
with the U.S.


Mexico hopes that the U.S. will trade more with
them.


They also hope U.S. companies will continue to
invest money in Mexico.


This would lead to more jobs for people in
Mexico.

U.S. President Bill
Clinton signing
NAFTA in 1994.

A negative view of
NAFTA

POVERTY IN
MEXICO



There is a great gap between the rich and poor
in Mexico.


At least 40 percent of Mexico’s population
today lives in poverty.


Rural areas experience a lot of poverty.


Millions of
peasants,

Mexico’s small farmers
and farm workers remain poor.


The poorest people in Mexico are its native
people.

OTHER PROBLEMS IN
MEXICO


In 1994, a group called the Zapatistas raised
and army and tried to overthrow the
government.


They were upset over NAFTA and the
government’s treatment of the poor.


A lot of poor people have turned to the drug
trade to make money.


The sale and distribution of illegal drugs has
not been stopped by the U.S. and Mexican
governments. It is not easy to do this.

Drug money seized
by the Drug
Enforcement
Agency (DEA)

The beginnings of
a new border wall
being built
between the U.S.
and Mexico.

FOREIGN DEBT


This is the money a country owes to other
governments.


In the 1970’s and 1980’s, Mexico borrowed
huge sums of money to pay for industrial
development.


Mexico owes a large amount of money.


Because of this the government cut back on
imports, medical care, education, and care for
the elderly.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN
MEXICO


Air pollution is a serious problem in Mexico City.


It may cause up to 100,000 deaths a year.


Millions of tons of untreated waste flow into rivers
each year.


Mexico City produces 11,000 tons of garbage
everyday, but only 75 percent of it is actually
collected.


Deforestation and soil erosion are also problems.

The Smog of
Mexico City

Lack of Garbage
Collection in
Mexico City is a big
problem