in Northeast Asia

forestsaintregisOil and Offshore

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Interdisciplinary Workshop of Comparing Regional Environmental
Governance in East Asia and Europe (EE
-
REG)

January 24
-
25, 2013

RIHN (Kyoto, Japan)




Governing Trans
-
boundary Pollution

in Northeast Asia




Esook Yoon

Kwangwoon University



Contents:




T
rans
-
boundary environmental problems in Northeast
Asia




E
nvironmental cooperation mechanisms




Regime effectiveness




Gobi Desert

Taklamakan
Desert

Beijing

Shanghai

Environmental Cooperation in Northeast Asia


Background:




End of Cold War and Political Normalization among Countries




1992 UNCED




1992 Seoul Symposium on UNCED and Prospects for the
environmental Regime in the 21
st

Century


Trans
-
boundary Environmental Problems for Cooperation






A
cid rain(acid deposition)






M
慲楮攠灯汬畴楯i






Y
ellow dust and sand storms (DSS)





Acid rain

Cause
: SO
2
, NOx emissions (increasing fossil fuel consumptions: coal, oil)

Effect
: soil, forest, water source contamination, erosions, health problems







Acid rain in Northeast Asia



Research & Arguments:



Japan:



Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI):


50~
80% of domestic acid rain originated from China and Korea




摯浥獴m挠獯畲捥猺 癯汣慮漠敲異瑩t湳



Spindle tree blight in Nikko National Park





Korea:



National Institute of Environmental Research: 23% of SO
2,
20% of


NOx in Korea originated from China



䩯楮琠牥獥慲s栠潦o卥潵氠乡瑩N湡n 啮楶敲獩瑹 慮搠瑨攠䍨楮敳攠卣楥S捥

††
剥獥慲捨R䥮獴楴畴攺‴9┠%映摯浥獴m挠慩爠灯汬p瑩t渠晲f洠䍨楮愠



䍨慮C敳e楮 瑲t攠獰散楥猠慲潵湤 卥潵氬⁥牯獩s渠潦 䑡扯瑡瀠



China:




䅶敲慧攠1
-
3 ┠%映䍨楮敳攠敭e獳楯湳s楳i摥灯獩瑥搠楮i潴桥o 捯c湴物敳e








Global sulfur dioxide emissions by region

:
(North America = USA+Canada;

East Asia = Japan, China, and South Korea
). From Smith (2011).



Marine pollution





Marine Pollution in Two Regional Seas in NEA


Causes:


Land based pollution:
80%



捯c獴s氠慲敡a摥癥汯灭d湴n灬pn

†††

influx of industrial waste water and domestic sewage



heavy metal pollutants flow from the Yellow River (China)


up to 7.5 million tons into the Yellow Sea annually



Oil concentration:



潩氠慮搠条猠g硰汯牡瑩潮


21,000 tons of crude oil from offshore drilling in Bohai Bay



heavy marine transportations



emergent oil spills and discharges





Marine dumping:





Effects on marine eco system
: frequent red tides


decline in the number of fish species

Yellow Dust and Sandstorms (DSS): “yellow dragon”


Cause
:

land degradation and
desertification in China and Mongolia



Gobi Desert

Taklamakan Desert


Yellow Dust and Sand Storms (DSS)


Causes:


Desertification in Northern China and Inner Mongolia



1,739,000
km
2


1950s
-
1970s: 1,560
km
2

annually



Desertification in Mongolia


40% of territory: desert or being “desertified”



China’s annual production of yellow sand:
20 million tons



Effects:


Korea: public health (sore eyes, respiratory disease),


agricultural products, transportation, dust sensitive


industries (semiconductor, precision machinery)


US$6 billion in 2002 alone in Korea.



Japan: brown rain, yellow snow, public transportation



Dust storms attacking a village near the Gobi desert

Beijing

Seou
l

Japan

1994~

Joint research/

Yen loan, Green Aid
Plan,

Environmental
Cooperation Center


1993~

Comprehensive cooperation
for environmental protection


1993~

Joint investigation of the Yellow Sea,
Environmental Technology Center,
Joint monitoring of DSS,

Forest rehabilitation


Bilateral Environmental Cooperation




China

Japan

Korea


Korea
-
Mongolia
:


Desertification and


DSS (2009)


Korea
-
Russia:

Marine pollution (East
Sea)

Natural disaster early
warning system

Japan
-
Mongolia

Environ. Policy
Dialogue(2007)


Japan
-
Russia
Environmental
Cooperation Agreement

China
-
Russia

China
-
Mongolia

China
-
N.
Korea




Multilateral Environmental Cooperation in Northeast Asia





The Northeast Asia Sub
-
regional Program of Environmental
Cooperation: NEASPEC, 1993




The Northwest Pacific Action Plan:

NOWPAP, 19
94




Tripartite Environmental Ministers Meeting:

TEMM, 1999















1.
the Northeast Asia Sub
-
regional Program of Environmental


Cooperation: NEASPEC, 1993~





UN
ESCAP (UN Economics and Social Commission of Asia


Pacific) and the Korean government





Korea, Japan, China, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea





Priority areas for cooperation:





energy and air pollution: air pollution abatement projects from


coal fired power plants in China and Mongolia with ADB fund,


1996~2011




Ecosystem management: deforestation and desertification




Capacity building: Joint date collection, standardization,


analysis of environmental degradation, training







U
久千䅐㨠瑨攠楮瑥物洠獥捲整慲楡琠⡉(捨敯測n䭯牥愬K獩湣攠2007)




周T 噩獩s渠却慴敭a湴⁦n爠䍯潰o牡瑩r渠




瑨攠䍯t攠䙵湤n⠲(00⤺)癯汵湴慲礠捯湴物扵瑩潮b潦o浥m扥b 捯c湴物敳e












2. the Northwest Pacific Action Plan: NOWPAP, 1994





Initiated by
UNEP’s Regional Sea Preservation Plan





Two regional seas preservation:


the Yellow Sea & the East Sea (Sea of Japan)





Korea, China, Japan, Russia





NOWPAP Activities for Cooperation


-
land based pollution and waste water flow


-
red tides and eutrophication


-
oil spills


-
biodiversity and changes in biological communities



-
the Marine Litter Activity Plan (MALITA, 2005/ 2007)


-
Oil and HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances) Spill


Contingency Plan (2008/ 2009)


-
Assessment of the current status of marine and coastal


biodiversity in the NOWPAP region (climate change impacts)






Trust

Fund: US$500,000 each year


Korea


Japan

China

Russia

Basic contribution

5%

5%

5%

5%

Voluntary contribution


15%

20%

3%

5%

Total (US$)

100,000(20%)

125,000(25%)

40,000(8%)

50,000(10%)


Total US$315,000, 63% of the target amount





䩯楮琠剥R楯湡n 䍯潲摩d慴楯渠啮楴i⡒䍕⤬⁐畳慮a☠呯祡浡





Regional

Activity Center (RAC)



Marine Environmental Emergency Preparedness and Responses (MER/RAC,
Korea)




Special Monitoring and Coastal Environment Assessment (CEA/RAC, Japan)




Data and Information Network (DIN/RAC, China)




Pollution Monitoring (POM/RAC, Russia)





MOU

潮 剥R楯湡n 䍯潰敲慴楯渠潮 偲数慲敤湥獳s慮搠剥獰潮獥猠瑯t


佩氠印楬汳Ⱐ2004




Oil Spill Contingency Plan and joint exercises






3. Tripartite Environmental Ministers Meeting, TEMM, 1999





Environmental Ministers’Meeting of Korea, Japan, China





Priority cooperation issues:



-
Environmental information exchange





-
Air pollution prevention and marine ecosystem preservation




-
Development of environmental technology and transfers





-
DSS issue



monitoring and early warning system:
Korea, China, Japan,


Mongolia with joint efforts with UNEP, ADB, UNESCAP,


UNCCD



DSS
-
RETA (the regional technical Assistance on DSS)


project was approved by ADB, UNEP, GEF



-
Climate change issue


Characteristics of environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia:



“institutionalized, but non
-
legally binding cooperation








Soft agreements based
:
F
rameworks, guidelines, conclusions





Entail reciprocal promises or actions for implementation, but not contain


formal clauses describing the parties’ commitments as binding obligations


or legal sanctions for non
-
compliance.





2004 MOU/NOWPAP
:
“best endeavors,” no obligations




Project based cooperation




Institutionalized cooperation
:


existence of agreements


organizational structure
-
administrative and decision
-
making system














Environmental Cooperation in Europe


1.
Acid Rain
: Framework

convention and series of binding


protocols




Convention of Long Range Trans
-
boundary Air Pollution


(CLRTAP), 1979



1985, Helsinki Protocol (30 % SO
2

emission reduction)


1988, Sofia Protocol for NOx


1994, Oslo Protocol (87% SO
2

emission reduction)


1998, Aarhur Protocol


1999, Gothenburg Protocol

Marine Pollution
:
Framework

convention and series of binding protocols


Mediterranean Action Plan, 1975


The Barcelona Convention (the Convention for the Protection of


the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution in 1975)



Protocols on Marine Dumping and Emergency Oil Pollution (1975)



Protocol Concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas



Athens Protocol on Land Based Pollution Source (1980).



Baltic and North Sea:


Oslo Convention, 1972


Paris Convention, 1974


Helsinki Convention 1980/1990


Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment


of the North East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), 1992

What makes difference in environmental governance
of different regions?






Political

cultures of regions?



Simply a stage in the progressive historical
development pattern for international cooperation?









Explanatory Variables





N
ature of environmental problems





P
olitical factors:
domestic environmental policy making
process




geopolitical factors





Economic factors
:
costs and benefits of environmental


cooperation, environmental markets





剥R楡扬攠獣楥湴楦楣⁣潭浵湩瑹






1.
Nature of environmental
problems






Unidirectional pollution transfer





Issue saliency







SO
2

and

NOx

Emissions

(thousand ton)

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Japan






SO
2

1,158

795

615

708

629

n.a


Korea

n.a

n.a

1,611

1,532

951

408


China


n.a

13,25
0

14,99
0

18,90
0

19,47
2

20,000

(27,000
in
2010)

Japan


NOx

819

699

780

878

837

Korea

n.a

n.a

926

1,153

1,136

China

4,760

-

-

12,03
0

10,00
0

Source: China Environment Yearbook; Korean National Statistical office;


Ministry of Environment, Japan

Energy Structure of China

Primary energy consumption structure in China

(Source:

Database of the National Bureau of
Statistics, 2008)

O


Coal Demands in Northeast Asia






Millions of tons of coal






2000



2010



2020


China


1,225.7


1,845.6


2,751.8


Japan


152


164


169


Korea (ROK)


65.5


93.6


95.2


Korea (DPRK)


27.3


37.1


54.5


Mongolia


5.2


6.8


9.0


Russia Far
East


30.1


44.4


65.1


Total


1,505.8


2,191.4


3,145.3



China: 81.4% (2000) 84.2% (2010) 87.5% (2020)


China’s Growth, Coal Consumption, S
O
2

Emissions: 1995
-
2009


Explanatory Variables:








N
ature of environmental problems





P
潬楴o捡氠晡捴潲猺 摯浥獴m挠敮癩牯湭n湴慬 灯汩捹p浡m楮i
灲p捥獳 ††††††††††

††††††††††††
楮瑥牮慴楯湡n 晡捴潲猠





Economic factors
:
costs and benefits of environmental


cooperation, environmental markets





剥汩慢汥R獣楥i瑩晩挠捯浭畮楴c






Position in regional environmental cooperation:




Building a community in NEA




Opinion leader/ C
oordinator between different interests



Policy Interests:




Cope with trans
-
boundary pollution as a victim




Develop environmental industry and technology as a


strategic export sector/ obtain advanced environmental


technology




Strong incentive to promote regional environmental


cooperation, but;




No strong interest in pursuing legal binging cooperation



Korea

Position in environmental cooperation in East Asia:






Promote broader regional cooperation in Asia Pacific




P
roject based cooperation




Cooperation among societal and local governments



Policy interests in environmental cooperation:




Economic

Concerns



Leadership




B
uilding broader regional community in Asia Pacific

Japan


Basic Position in international environmental negotiations




Secure s
overeignty




Pr
imacy of economic development




Emphasis on
responsibility of EDCs for environmental problems




Pursue financial and technical resources to solve domestic


pollution


Negotiations position in regional environmental cooperation




B
ilateral cooperation to multilateral cooperation




project based cooperation




Stress
common but differentiated
responsibility




Policy Interests




Solving domestic environmental problems




Enhance its scientific practice up to international standards




I
nstitutional capacity building





China

Non
-
legally binding cooperation in NEA:





Avoid high political and economic costs




Emphasis on practical performance with project based


cooperation





Separate environmental issues from geopolitical situation





Permit great flexibility and rapid progress in reaching


conclusions

Effectiveness of Environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia





1.

Direct effect: serve as a workable instrument for environmental


protection in the region




turn present and emerging environmental problems into policy


interests




incorporate agendas and cooperation projects into domestic


environmental policies



financial and technology transfers




capacity building for environmental management



Emerging Global
-
regional
-
national environmental policy


coordination





2. Indirect

effects: implications

for Regional Politics







r
educing uncertainty (by information and personnel exchanges)





deepening and broadening ties of interdependence




promoting more diffused forms of reciprocity (from strict


reciprocal bargaining of “give and take”analogus to a barter


transaction to complex interdependences)




lengthening the shadow of the future (by institutionalization of


agenda setting and project implementation
-
potential spillover


effects to other regional issue areas)







Non
-
binding but institutionalized
environmental cooperation in Northeast
Asia


Thank you!


Discussions:


The current form of environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia
is ‘informal and non
-
binding. What would be the future of


environmental cooperation in the region?


A 1: Non
-
binding environmental cooperation as simply a stage in
the


progressive historical developmental pattern for international


cooperation, which starts with a range of non
-
binding


guidelines, declarations, and resolutions before moving
through


various stages of negotiation to culminate with binding


conventions and protocols.


A 2: Such non
-
binding cooperation as consistent with the region’s


legal tradition, that is to say, its consensus
-
based decision
-


making practices and distaste for legalization.


Regional Institutional Buildings: a comparison


Europe:
Council of Europe (1945), Commission on Security and Cooperation
in


Europe (1975), EU


America:
Inter
-
American System (1826), Organization of American States,
1948


NAFTA, Mercorsor, Andean Community of Nations


Africa: Organization of African Unity(1963), African Union (2000)


African Economic Community, Organization of African Unity, Community of


Sahel
-
Saharan States etc


East Asia
: Multilateral ‘dialogues’


ASEAN Regional Forum, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, Conference on Interaction
and


Confidence Building Measures in Asia, Council for Security Cooperation in the


Asia Pacific, Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialogue, Pacific Islands Forum, APEC



Southeast Asian countries:
ASEAN


Northeast Asia: ?


























Research Methods:


Library search:


Elite Interviewing
:




An excellent form of date collection when the behavior of interest


can best be described and explained by those who are deeply


involved in political processes.




Interviews government officials, researchers, and NGO activists in


Japan and Korea; Chinese government officials and


scholars in Japan, Korea and the US.





The validity of interviewee’statement: examining their plausibility,


checking for internal consistency, written documents, and


counterpart interviews.


Participatory Observations:






China’s

Growth and environmental implications





Average growth rate for past three decades: 10%


(2011: 9.2%)




2
nd

largest economy in the world by mid 2010




World’s largest automotive market in 2009:


15 million car sales in 2009, increasing demands


for used cars





By 2030: expected annual GDP growth rate: 6%




Manufacturing based economic structure


Broader Regional Environmental Cooperation : Asia Pacific


1.
Environmental Congress for Asia and the Pacific
(ECO
-
ASIA)
:
1991


Initiated by Ministry of Environment, Japan


2. East Asia Acid Deposition Monitoring Network (EANET)
:

1992


Initiated by Ministry of Environment, Japan


1
st

intergovernmental meeting in 1998


Secretariat, decision
-
making body, the Network Center(the Acid


Deposition and Oxidant Research Center: ADORC) along with


47 wet deposition monitoring sites


Technical training workshops for local engineers and scientists





Energy Demands of China


World’s largest energy consuming country



-
Coal consumption: 1
st



-

Oil consumption: 2
nd



-

Oil imports: 3
rd


The primary energy consumption growth rates from 2000
-
2008:




9.5%, 3.8 times higher than world average