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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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As the EPA Investigates Hydraulic
Fracturing’s

Impact on Drinking Water

How Should the State React?



© 2011 Heather Ash

Resource Geography


Orange



Williston Basin



Green



Bakken


25,000 sq. mile resource



Blue



Three Forks


Beneath Bakken


Source: Energy Policy
Research Foundation

© 2011 Heather Ash

Bakken Geology

A Light Tight Oil Play



Upper Shale


Black Organic Rich Shale



Middle Dolomite


Principal Resource



Lower Shale


Black Organic Rich Shale

Source: Energy Policy
Research Foundation

© 2011 Heather Ash

Accessing the Mid
-
Layer


Horizontal Drilling
:


Conventional vertical well to kickoff


Kickoff


500 ft above target



Flexible drill string


90 Degree Bend


Horizontal Segment


10,000 ft



Benefits
:

Decreased Environmental Footprint

Increased Production




© 2011 Heather Ash

Taping the Shale


Hydraulic Fracturing
:



Horizontal wellbore is perforated



Fracturing fluid pumped
downhole


Water +
Propant

+ Chemical Additives = Fracturing Fluid


40
-
100 hours of total wellbore pressurization



Fluid pumped off of well


Propant

remains to ensure fractures do not heal




Source: DMR Newsletter

Vol. 35, No. 1

What’s the Big Deal with
Fracing
?


© 2011 Heather Ash

National
Fracing

Concerns



Water Quality
:


Aquifer Contamination


Errant Fractures


Natural gas migration to


drinking water resources



Water Use
:


Approx 5 million gallons


EPA
Coalbed

Methane Study
:

“No unequivocal evidence” of
health risks associated with hydraulic fracturing. (2004)

© 2011 Heather Ash

Impact Study Prescribed




Congress calls upon EPA
:



Relationship between
fracing

and drinking water


Full lifecycle of
fracing

H2O


Retrospective case studies


Prospective analysis


© 2011 Heather Ash


Full Industrial Cooperation



September 2010
:



EPA issued a voluntary information requests


Rumours of non
-
disclosure



November 2010
:



8 of 9 operators comply with EPA’s request


Halliburton refuses EPA request claiming trade secret



December 2010
:


Halliburton voluntarily complies with EPA



© 2011 Heather Ash

North Dakota’s Sentiments 2010
-
2011

1)
NDIC encourages formal complaint


2)
NDIC spokesman indicates
fracing

in ND will be
abandoned if heightened regulations are imposed


3)
House Bill #1216 declares
fracing

acceptable practice


Bill Sponsor : “It is important to have


a defensive measure in case there are


problems down the road with EPA”




Source:

Rebecca
Beitsch
,
Gov.
Hoeven
: Tell EPA that N.D. can Handle


Fracturing,
B
ISMARK

T
RIBUNE
, May 16, 2010.





Source: Chevron Texaco Corp.

© 2011 Heather Ash

Current Permitting Requirements



N.D.A.C. 43
-
02
-
03
-
16



Surveyor Certified Plat & Drill Plan
:


Drill Location


Drill Pad Layout & Well Depth


Mud, Casing & Cement Programs


Information as requested by director

© 2011 Heather Ash

Note Proposal:




Content
:


Physical & vegetative setting of drill site


Current land use & projected disruption


Erosion & reclamation plans



Benefits
:


Protects environmentally fragile areas


Promotes evaluation of site specific concerns



Successful Implementation
:


Colorado


Green River Basin


Alabama


Black Warrior Basin


Pennsylvania


Marcellus Shale


New York


Marcellus Shale


© 2011 Heather Ash

Note Proposal:




Benefits
:


Does not effect production numbers


Bonds returned to operator with N.D.C.C. compliance


Promotes safe practices and


operating procedures



Successful Implementation
:


Pennsylvania State Parks


Offshore Drilling Operations

© 2011 Heather Ash

NDIC Proposed Amendments 2012


Single Well





Blanket Bond








2


9 Wells

10+ Wells

$50,000

$100,000

2+ Wells

$100,000

$20,000

$50,000

© 2011 Heather Ash

Note Proposal:


Current ND Regulations
:


Fluid Composition Disclosure:


Offsite Spill


On
-
site Spill in excess of 42 gallons



Benefits of Disclosure
:


Increased Emergency Response Capabilities


Ability to Track Contamination


No Added Cost to Operators



Movement Towards Full Disclosure
:


Halliburton & Range Resources Electronic Disclosure


Successful Implementation


Wyoming




© 2011 Heather Ash

NDIC Proposed Amendments 2012



New Administrative Code Section
:


43
-
02
-
03
-
27.1

-

Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation



FracFocus

Chemical Disclosure Registry
:


Operator Name


Well Location


Chemical Ingredients Used to
Frac


Chemical Supplier


Purpose of Chemical Application




© 2011 Heather Ash


EPA Study Well Underway



Science Advisory Board Approval
:


Public Meetings & Comment


Tribal and State Consultations



Primary Prospective Test Sites
:


Haynesville Shale


Louisiana


Marcellus Shale


Pennsylvania



Retrospective Test Sites
:


Bakken Shale
-

Killdeer and Dunn Counties


Production well failures


Suspected aquifer contamination


Interim Study Results


2012

Published Report


2014


© 2011 Heather Ash