CRUDE OIL Fossil Fuel

forestsaintregisOil and Offshore

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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CRUDE OIL





Fossil Fuel

(Today’s World Dependence)






Nonrenewable Energy Source




Extracted from deep wells, either on land or on the seafloor




Chemical Composition:
Hundreds of chemicals including:


Nitrogen compounds


Oxygen compounds


Sulfur compounds (e.g. toxic Hydrogen Sulfide (H
2
S))


Heavy metal contaminants (Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, V, etc.)


Hydrocarbons (the vast majority):



Alkanes (C
n
H
2n+2
) [also called Aliphatic hydrocarbons]




Methane (CH
4
), Ethane (CH
3
CH
3
), Propane (CH
3
CH
2
CH
3
),




Butane (CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
), etc.




Waxes (longer chain alkanes, C
>18

)




Isoalkanes & Cycloalkanes



Aromatic hydrocarbons




examples: Benzene (C
6
H
6
), Ethylbenzene, Xylenes, etc.



Asphaltenes (high molecular weight hydrocarbons)

CRUDE OIL



Commonly Used Chemical Sub
-
classifications in the Petroleum Industry:



Olefinic
: linear chain aliphatic hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds;


ethylene (C
2
H
2
) is the smallest olefin.




Paraffinic
: (paraffins, C
n
H
2n+2
) aliphatic hydrocarbons C
6



C
18



longer chain aliphatics, C
>18
, are paraffin waxes




Naphtha is the lightest paraffin, then kerosene.




Isoparaffinic
: branched aliphatic hydrocarbons, generally C
10



C
15




Naphthalenic
: naphthalene and related aromatics




Asphaltic
: high molecular weight cycloaliphatics



high viscosity lubricating oils


CRUDE OIL



More Terms, Commonly Used Chemical Sub
-
classifications:



TPH

(Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) subdivided by chain length:


GRO
-
TPH
(gasoline range organics)

C
6



C
10


DRO
-
TPH
(diesel range organics)

C
10



C
28


ORO
-
TPH
(oil range organics)

C
28



C
>35




VOCs

(volatile organic compounds) include most GRO and some DRO




BTEX

(benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes)




PAHs

(Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)


Some are carcinogenic, including the prototype PAH carcinogen,

Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]


CRUDE OIL




More Terms:



Light

crude oil: low paraffin wax content




Heavy
crude oil: higher density, high paraffin wax content,



flow rate is slow




Sweet

crude oil: low sulfur content



CRUDE OIL






Extraction from deep wells


Onshore, Offshore, or Imported






Transportation


Pipeline, Supertanker, Tanker, Barge, Truck, & Railcar




Refineries


Gasoline, jet fuel, lubricants, kerosene,


asphalt, etc.


and then back to:




Transportation & Storage




Consumers




PRODUCTS OF REFINING CRUDE OIL

Per Barrel (44 gallons)




Gasoline



Distillate Fuel Oil



Jet Fuel



Residual Fuel Oil



Liquefied Gases



Still Gas



Petroleum Coke



Asphalt / Road Oil



Lubricants



Kerosene



Other


19.5 gallons (44%)


9.2 gallons (21%)


4.1 gallons ( 9.3%)


2.3 gallons ( 5.2%)


1.9 gallons ( 4.3%)


1.9 gallons ( 4.3%)


1.8 gallons ( 4.0%)


1.3 gallons ( 3.0%)


0.5 gallons ( 1.1%)


0.2 gallons ( 0.5%)


1.5 gallons ( 3.3%)


OIL SPILLS




Environmental impacts are mostly due


to oil spills and


from combustion products


Exxon
-
Valdez 1989

Oil in the Marine Waters


Natural Seepage




Tanker & Supertanker Accidents


Platform Blow
-
out






Deepwater Horizon 2010

Deepwater Horizon Disaster




Deepwater Horizon Platform


(semi
-
submersible mobile offshore drilling rig)


located in the Gulf of Mexico 50 miles south from the


tip of Louisiana and the mouth of the


Mississippi River




Platform Explosion and Fire, April 20, 2010




Well Blow
-
Out on sea bottom


5,000 ft depth




Plugged on July 15, 2010


(after 86 days)




Estimated 4.9 million barrels


(206 gallons)


OIL SPILL IMPACT




Oiled birds and marine life




Habitat disruption




Fish, Shrimp, Crab, Oyster Beds




Estuarine disruption




Food chain issues



Oil Reached Marine Estuaries




RECOVER & REMEDIATION

Deepwater Horizon Spill




Skimming




Burning




Dispersants (COREXIT 9500)




Natural


Evaporation


Dissolution


Bacterial action


Sinks to bottom

OIL CONTAINMENT & RECOVERY



SHORE PROTECTION



SUMMARY


CRUDE OIL





Chemical Composition




Environmental Impacts


Combustion Products


Oil Spills




Marine Wildlife




Fisheries




Habitats