Atmosphere and The Carbon Cycle - Leo Hayes High School

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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The Atmosphere

Characteristics of the Atmosphere


It is a
blanket

of moisture
-
filled air that surrounds the
earth


It consists 78%
nitrogen
, 21%
oxygen
, 1% other gases
(argon, carbon dioxide and water)


It has
ozone

in its upper layers which absorb harmful UV
rays from the sun


It protects us from
meteors

(they vaporize due to the
friction with the atmosphere)
SEE ALBERTA CLIP


It keeps the earth warm enough for us to live

BRRRRRR!! DO YOU KNOW JUST HOW COLD SPACE
IS!!

Layers of Atmosphere

Temperature Gradient


A change in temperature over a distance

****In the troposphere the temperature gradient
if
-
0.65
°
/100 m in altitude





Example: What is the temperature at the top of an
8000 m mountain if the temperature is 18
°
C at
the foot of the mountain?

Layers Again….

Layers in Order…(starting from the
Earth upwards)

1. Troposphere


up approx 12 km


Closest to the Earth’s surface


Where all weather takes place


Air is in constant motion with both vertical and horizontal currents


Pressure decreases as altitude increases


Has very small amounts of ozone


2. Tropopause


Contains more ozone than troposphere


Is warmer than the troposphere because it absorbs UV rays from
the sun



3.STRATOSPHERE


12
-
50 km above the
Earth’s surface


Higher levels of ozone
than any other layer


4.MESOSPHERE


Temperatures are very
low here


50 to 80 km above the
earth


Very low density


Meteors from space
usually burn up in this
layer due to air friction


Temperatures are very
low here


5.Thermosphere

AKA

Ionosphere


80 km to 500 km from
Earth’s surface


Fewest air molecules


Also called ionosphere b/c
the Sun’s radiation causes
particles to become
electrically charged ions


The Northern and Southern
lights (aurora borealis) are
produced by these ions


These charged particles also
reflect radio signals so they
can travel around the World

6. Exosphere


Outer limits! SPACE


The thin, outermost layer


Very few particles (few hydrogen particles)
spread out very far











-
DISCOVERY






COMMERCIAL

THE CARBON CYCLE

CHAPTER 2.5

A Little Background Info …

Organic Substances
:


Always contain atoms of carbon and
hydrogen and often contain oxygen and
nitrogen atoms.


EXAMPLES:


Proteins, sugars, and fats


Inorganic Substances:


Matter that doesn’t contain a combination
of carbon and hydrogen atoms


EXAMPLES:


Carbon Dioxide (CO
2
), water (H
2
O), and
ammonia (NH
3
)

CYCLING OF ORGANIC MATTER


The materials used in building the
bodies of living organisms are
limited to the atoms and molecules
that make up the planet.


To maintain life on Earth, matter
must be recycled.


Every carbon atom is recycled time
and time again into new life forms.


The Cycle of Matter





CO
2

+ Energy

Plant
Leaves

Plant Roots

Inorganic
Materials

Inorganic
Molecules

Bacteria

Rabbit

Fox

Decomposers
or Organic
Matter

Feed Matter
Decomposition

THE CARBON CYCLE


Carbon is an element


Carbon atoms are the basis for all
living things (called organic matter)
and for all matter that was once
living (called detritus)


Carbon is stored in
FOUR

places:


Living things


The atmosphere


The ocean


The earth’s crust


These storage places are called carbon
sinks.






Carbon is removed from the
atmosphere by plants when they
photosynthesize to make sugar.


Photosynthesis



Reactants

Products


6CO
2

+ 6H
2
O + light = C
6
H
12
O
6

+6O
2


Carbon Dioxide + water + light = Sugar ( Glucose) + oxygen




Carbon is returned to the
atmosphere by plants and by
animals when they respire or
exhale.


Respiration



Reactants

Products


C
6
H
12
O
6

+ O
2

= CO
2

+ H
2
O



Sugar + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water




Please fill in chart on page 62.


Photosynthesis and cellular
respiration are complementary
processes.


The carbon that they use is
repeatedly cycled through both
processes, this relationship is often
called the
CARBON CYCLE
.



Most of the carbon that forms
living organisms is released to the
atmosphere or water as carbon
dioxide from dead decaying
organisms.


Under certain conditions the decay
process is delayed, and the organic
matter may be converted into rock
or fossil fuels such as coal,
petroleum and natural gas.


This carbon is not released until
the combustion process takes place
through burning the fuels.

Reservoirs for Inorganic Carbon


Carbon, when not in organic form,
can be found in three main
reservoirs (storage areas):



The atmosphere


The oceans


The Earth’s crust

The Ocean


Carbon is found in sea shells and
bones. When these fall to the
bottom of the oceans and get
covered with sediment, they
decompose over millions of years to
form oil (one of the fossil fuels).




Shells and Bones

(Millions of tonnes of
soil)

Sink to the bottom of the ocean

Covered by sediment (Millions of years)

Form oil (example: Offshore drilling NFLD)

Reservoirs for Organic Carbon


Organic carbon is also held in
reservoirs


the bodies of living
things.


All living things die and
decomposition eventually returns
the carbon to the cycle in inorganic
form.


One Important Exception


Bogs



store huge quantities of carbon in
organic form


Bogs have very little oxygen, therefore
decomposition is very slow


Carbon atoms may remain locked away in
dead plant matter (peat) for many years
in a bog.


When plants decompose in a bog, they
form peat that can get trapped under
sediments over millions of years and
form coal (another form of fossil fuel)





PLANTS

Die in a bog and form Peat

Millions of years and tonnes of
pressure form coal

HOMEWORK


QUESTIONS:


Page 65


#1,2,4,5,6a,7ad