Wireless and Mobile System Infrastructure - Parallels H-Sphere cse ...

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

1

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

2

2

Universal Cell Phone Coverage

Maintaining the telephone number across
geographical areas in a wireless and mobile system

Microwave
Tower

Cell

Dhaka

Chittagong

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

3

First Generation Cellular Systems and Services

1970s

Developments of radio and computer technologies for
800/900 MHz mobile communications

1976

WARC (World Administrative Radio Conference) allocates
spectrum for cellular radio

1979

NTT (Nippon Telephone & Telegraph) introduces the first
cellular system in Japan

1981

NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) 900 system introduced by
Ericsson Radio System AB and deployed in Scandinavia

1984


AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) introduced by
AT&T in North America

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

4

Second Generation Cellular Systems and Services

1982

CEPT (Conference Europeenne des Post et Telecommunications) established GSM
to define future Pan
-
European cellular Radio Standards

1990

Interim Standard IS
-
54 (USDC) adopted by TIA (Telecommunications Industry
Association)

1990

Interim Standard IS
-
19B (NAMPS) adopted by TIA

1991

Japanese PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) system standardized by the MPT
(Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications)

1992

Phase I GSM system is operational

1993

Interim Standard IS
-
95 (CDMA) adopted by TIA

1994

Interim Standard IS
-
136 adopted by TIA

1995

PCS Licenses issued in North America

1996

Phase II GSM operational

1997

North American PCS deploys GSM, IS
-
54, IS
-
95

1999

IS
-
54: North America

IS
-
95: North America, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, China, etc

GSM: 110 countries

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

5

Third Generation Cellular Systems


and Services


IMT
-
2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications
-
2000):


-

Fulfill one's dream of anywhere, anytime communications
a reality.




Key Features of IMT
-
2000 include:


-

High degree of commonality of design worldwide;


-

Compatibility of services within IMT
-
2000 and with the

fixed networks;



-

High quality;



-

Small terminal for worldwide use;



-

Worldwide roaming capability;



-

Capability for multimedia applications, and a wide



range of services and terminals.

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

6

Third Generation Cellular Systems


and Services
(continued)


Important Component of IMT
-
2000 is ability to
provide high bearer rate capabilities:



-

2 Mbps for fixed environment;



-

384 Kbps for indoor/outdoor and pedestrian



environment;



-

144 kbps for vehicular environment.


Standardization Work:



-

In processing


Scheduled Service:



-

Started in October 2001 in Japan (W
-
CDMA)

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

7

Subscriber Growth

3G Subscribers

2G Digital only Subscribers

1G Analogue only Subscribers

Subscribers

Year

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

8

Macrocell

Suburban

Coverage Aspect of Next Generation Mobile
Communication Systems

Microcell

Urban

Satellite

Global

Global

Picocell

In
-
building

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

9

Transmission Capacity

Global
System

for Mobile Communications

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Transmission capacity as a function of mobility in some radio access systems

Mobility

Universal
Mobile
Telecommunicat
ions System

Mobile Broadband System

Broadband Satellite Multimedia

Local Multipoint Distribution System

Satellite Universal Mobile
Telecommunications
System

Data rate (Mb/s)

Stationary

Pedestrian

Vehicular

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

10

Wireless Technology and Associated
Characteristics



Cellular



Wireless LAN/PAN



GPS



Satellite Based GPS



Home Networking



Ad Hoc Networks



Sensor Networks



Bluetooth

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

11

Medical and Healthcare Applications

ATM
Backbone
Network


Possibility for Remote consulting

(including Audio Visual communication)

ATM Switch

Wireless Remote

consultation from

Ambulance

ATM Switch


Remote

Databases

In Hospital

Physician

Sensors on body

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

12

Fundamentals of Cellular Systems

Illustration of a cell with a mobile station and a base station

BS

MS

Cell

MS

Alternative
shape of a cell

Ideal cell area

(2
-
10 km radius)

Hexagonal cell area
used in most models

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

13

FDMA


(Frequency Division Multiple Access)

User 1

User 2

User n



Time

Frequency

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

14

FDMA Bandwidth Structure

1

2

3



n

Frequency

Total bandwidth

4

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

15

FDMA

Channel Allocation

Frequency 1

User 1

Frequency 2

User 2

Base Station

Frequency n

User n





Mobile Stations

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

16

TDMA


(Time Division Multiple Access)

User 1

User 2

User n



Time

Frequency

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

17

TDMA Frame Structure



Time

Frame

1

2

3

n

4

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

18

TDMA Frame Illustration


for Multiple Users

Time 1

Time 2

Time n





Base Station

User 1

User 2

User n



Mobile Stations

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

19

CDMA


(Code Division Multiple Access)

Time

Frequency

User n

Code

User 1

User 2

.

.

.

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

20

Cellular System Infrastructure

BS

Service area (Zone)

Early wireless system:
Large zone

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

21

Cellular System: Small Zone

BS

BS

BS

BS

BS

BS

BS

Service area

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

22

PSTN

Home phone

BSC







BSC



BSC



BSC



BS

MS

BS

MS

BS

MS

BS

MS

BS

MS

BS

MS

BS

MS

BS

MS

MSC



MSC

MS, BS, BSC, MSC, and PSTN

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

23

Control and Traffic Channels

Base Station (BS)

Mobile Station
(MS)

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

24

Call Setup from MS
(Cell Phone) to BS?

BS

MS

1. Need to establish path

2. Frequency/time slot/code assigned


(FDMA/TDMA/CDMA)

3. Control Information
Acknowledgement

4. Start communication

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

25

Steps for A Call Setup


from BS to MS

BS

MS

2. Ready to establish a path

3. Use frequency/time slot/code


(FDMA/TDMA/CDMA)

4. Ready for communication

5. Start communication

1. Call for MS # pending

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

26

Network Architectures
and Protocols


Systematic Signaling Steps for Information
Exchange


Open Systems Interconnections (OSI)


Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


Internet Protocol (IP)


Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)


Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)


Work in
progress


Mobile IP

Copyright © 2011, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An Zeng. All rights reserved

27

Ad Hoc Network

Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

28

Wireless Sensor Networks

Path of the Response
Radio Range
Data Collection and
Monitoring Agency
Cloud of Smoke
Predicted position for
the Cloud of Smoke
Path of the Response
Path of the Response
Radio Range
Data Collection and
Monitoring Agency
Cloud of Smoke
Predicted position for
the Cloud of Smoke
Copyright © 2010, Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal and Dr. Qing
-
An
Zeng
. All rights reserved

29

Wireless LAN and PAN


Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) using the
IEEE 802.11


HiperLAN is a European Standard


Wireless Personal Area Network (PAN)


Bluetooth


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