Information Systems for

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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ISYS 363



Information Systems for
Management

David Chao


A Technology News

Bay Area Apartment Complex To ‘DNA Print’ Dog Waste

http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/san
-
francisco/bay
-
area
-
apartment
-
complex
-
dna
-
print
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dog
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waste
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150618123.html



A Redwood City apartment complex expects
to be the first in the Bay Area to "DNA
print" the solid waste from pets as a high
-
tech solution to the age
-
old and often gross
dilemma of owners who refuse to curb their
dogs.


Wireless Parking San Francisco


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVq9pd
am14M

PG&E Smart Meter

Wireless Communication


http://www.pge.com/smartmeter/


Energy Alerts


let you know when you’re moving into higher
-
priced
electric tiers so you can manage your energy use and
save.


Understanding your electric charges


http://www.pge.com/myhome/myaccount/charges/


Track energy use online


http://www.pge.com/myhome/myaccount/myaccount/syp
-
myaccount/


Information Technology


Support day
-
to
-
day business operations


Create new way of doing business


Example:


Making reservations


United Airelines
-

http://www.united.com/


Select your seats


Web check
-
In


Mobile check
-
in with
web
-
enabled mobile phones
:


http://www.cathaypacific.com/cpa/en_INTL/manageyourtrip/m
obileservices/mobilecheckin


Save your check
-
in confirmation with the barcode on your
mobile device

Mobile Banking


Mobile banking (M
-
Banking) is a term used for
performing balance checks, account transactions,
payments, credit applications and other banking
transactions through a mobile device such as a
mobile phone or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA).


Bank of America:
http://www.bankofamerica.com/onlinebanking/index.cfm?template=mo
bile_web


US Bank:


http://www.usbank.com/mobile/index.html

Technology

Life Cycle


Problem


Solution


Service


Competition:


Yahoo Map vs Google Map


Google search vs Bing.com


Obsolete

D
igital
E
ntrepreneur


People who develop new technologies.


Search engines, map, browser, etc.


People who use the technologies innovatively.


Most popular iPhone applications:


http://www.apple.com/webapps/index.html


Twitter applications:


http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/02/19/the
-
top
-
20
-
twitter
-
applications/


Why study information systems?


An end
-
user perspective


Enhance personal productivity, and the
productivity of their work groups and
department.


Increase your opportunities for success:


be aware of the management problems and
opportunities presented by the information
technology.


Why study information systems?


An enterprise perspective: Information
systems play a vital role in the success of
an enterprise.


Efficient operations


Effective management


Competitive advantage


Business Are Becoming Internetworked
Enterprises


The internet and Internet
-
like networks (intranets and
extranets) have become the primary information
technology infrastructure that supports the business
operations of many organizations.


Electronic commerce:


The buying and selling, and marketing and servicing of
products, services, and information over a variety of computer
networks.


Globalization:


Global markets, global production facilities, global partners,
global competitors, global customers.

The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Information Technology Capital Investment

Information technology investment, defined as hardware,
software, and communications equipment, grew from 34% to 50%
between 1980 and 2004.

Source
: Based on data in U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic
Analysis,
National Income and Product Accounts
, 2006.

Techies might finally be able to
move into top management


More Chief Information Officers (CIOs)
are reporting directly to CEOs.


More CIOs are being included on
management committees.


In a recent survey of executives at capital
market firms, 89% believed that
technology managers would assume
greater responsibilities.


Geek
-
Suit

http://www.nri.co.jp/english/opinion/papers/2009/pdf/np2009143.pdf

Course Introduction


IT


Introduction to information technology


Computer hardware, software
, network


IT management


IS


Introduction to information systems


Information system components


Types of information systems


PC


personal computing


Advanced spreadsheet techniques in decision support.


Introduction to database and database application
development


Internet techniques

What is Information Technology?


A term used to refer to a wide variety of items and
abilities used in the creation, storage, and dispersal
of data, information and knowledge.


Data:

Raw facts, figures, and details.


Numerical, text, multimedia


Information:

An organized, meaningful, and useful
interpretation of data.


Knowledge
: Insight of a subject matter.

Raw data from a supermarket checkout counter can be processed and
organized to produce meaningful information, such as the total unit
sales of dish detergent or the total sales revenue from dish detergent for
a specific store or sales territory.

Data and Information

Hardware


Input devices


CPU and primary storage


RAM
-

temporary storage


Processor


Control Unit
-

decoder


Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU)


Output devices


Secondary storage

devices


Communication devices


Computer System Concept


Types of Computer Systems


Micro/Minicomputers


Personal computing, workstation,network server.


Departmental and workgroup systems, network server, workstation.


Mainframes


Speed: MIPS million instructions per second


26 MIPS to about 17,801 MIPS


Enterprisewide systems


for organizations have to deal with huge amounts of data. Giga
-
record
or tera
-
record files are not unusual.


Data mining and warehousing


Supercomputers


Speed: Floating
-
point operations per second


20 peta flops


Supercomputers are often purpose
-
built for one or a very few specific
institutional tasks (E.g. Simulation and Modeling).


Scientific calculations


Networked computer systems


WAN, LAN, PAN


Personal Area Network


A personal area network (PAN) is a computer
network used for communication among computer
devices (including telephones and personal digital
assistants) close to one person. The devices may or
may not belong to the person in question. The reach
of a PAN is typically a few meters.


BlueTooth: It
is an industrial specification for
wireless PANs. Bluetooth provides a way to connect
and exchange information between devices such as
mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital
cameras and video game consoles via a short
-
range
radio frequency.

Bluetooth Applications


Business applications:


http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p
=24243


Bluetooth Social Networking


http://www.btflirt.com/

Storage Device


Terabytes of storage


RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks):


Arrays of disk drives that provides a
fault tolerant

capability by
storing multiple copies of data on several disks.


Mirroring


Storage Network


Storage Area Network, SAN:


A
storage area network

is an architecture to
attach remote computer storage devices to
servers in such a way that the devices appear as
locally attached to the operating system.

Data Center


A data center is a facility used to house
computer systems and associated
components, such as telecommunications and
storage systems.


Modular Data Center


Data Center Containers:


Google:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zRwPSFpLX8I


Microsoft: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPnoKb9fTkA


Where to put data center?


The cost of electric power, labor, taxes,
natural disasters and land are key factors
when choosing a data center location.


http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/300809/Low_Cost_Locat
ions?taxonomyId=155&intsrc=kc_feat&taxonomyName=servers


http://news.idg.no/cw/art.cfm?id=6ECF9E56
-
17A4
-
0F78
-
31EAB0750688E73E#


http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=417091

Radio Frequency Identification


RFID is a system for tagging and identifying objects.


Antenna to send and receive signals.


RFID reader


Applications:


An alternative to bar code


Supermarket


Tracking objects



RFID

AN RFID tag is small compared to current bar
-
code labels.

Passive & Active RFID


A passive RFID tag does not contain a battery; the power
is supplied by the reader. When radio waves from the
reader are encountered by a passive rfid tag, the coiled
antenna within the tag forms a magnetic field. The tag
draws power from it, energizing the circuits in the tag. The
tag then sends the information encoded in the tag's
memory.


An active RFID tag is equipped with a battery that can be
used as a partial or complete source of power for the tag's
circuitry and antenna. Active RFID always broadcasts or
beacons its signal.

A few interesting RFID applications


RFID tags help you to choose clothes


http://blogs.zdnet.com/emergingtech/?p=719


Ford embeds RFID tech into new trucks and
vans


http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command
=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9061580&intsrc=hm_list


Digital watermark to prevent counterfeit:


http://www.industryweek.com/articles/new_rfid_
device_helps_fight_counterfeiting_15439.aspx

Software


System software


Operating system


Application software


University’s registration system


Application development software

Operating system functions


User interface


Resource management (managing
hardware)


Task management (managing the
accomplishment of tasks)


File management (managing data and
program files)


Utilities (providing a variety of supporting
services)


Current Operating Systems (continued)

Today’s Operating Systems


Personal computers:


IBM PC compatible:


Microsoft windows, Unix
-
like systems such as Linux.


Apple Macintosh:


Mac OS X, Linux


Workgroup computers:


MS Windows Server, Mac OS X Server, Linux.
Solaris


Mainframe computers:


IBM z/OS, Linux

Linux and Open Source


A Linux system is sometimes referred to as
GNU/Linux
.


GNU


free software


Linux has been more widely ported to different
computing platforms than any other operating
system.


Linux is the most prominent example of free
software and of open source development. Its
underlying source code is available for anyone to
use, modify, and redistribute freely, and in some
instances the entire operating system consists of
free/open source software.

Free Software: http://www.gnu.org/


“Free software” is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand
the concept, you should think of “free” as in “free speech”, not
as in “free beer”.


Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run, copy,
distribute, study, change and improve the software. More
precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the users of the
software:


The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).


The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to
your needs (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a
precondition for this.


The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your
neighbor (freedom 2).


The freedom to improve the program, and release your
improvements to the public, so that the whole community
benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition
for this.

Operating Systems for Mobile Devices


Mobile devices:


Pocket PC/PDA


Smartphones


Portable media center


Smartphone Operating systems, t
he most
important software in any smartphone
:
http://communication.howstuffworks.com/smartphone2.htm


Windows Mobile, Windows Phone


Palm OS


Symbian OS for Nokia


iOS for iPhone/iPad


Android for Google phone


Virtualization


V
irtualization is a technology that
makes

it possible to run
multiple operating systems and multiple applications

on the
same computer at the same time, increasing the utilization
and flexibility of

hardware.


Average server utilization rate


10%


Reduce costs


Green computing


A virtual machine is a software container that can run its
own operating systems and applications as if it were a
physical computer. A virtual machine behaves exactly like
a physical computer and contains its own virtual (ie,
software
-
based) CPU, RAM hard disk and network
interface card (NIC).

A
n operating system can’t tell the
difference between a virtual machine and a physical
machine, nor can applications or other computers on a
network
.


Vendors: VMware, Parallels, etc.

Application development software


Low level language


High level language


third generation


fourth generation


Word processing, desktop publishing,
spreadsheet, database management, graphic
presentation, etc.


MS Office


OpenOffice.Org

»
http://www.openoffice.org/

A compiler translates a complete program into a set of
binary instructions that the CPU can execute

Object
-
oriented development tools


Graphical user interface


Component programming


Event
-
driven programming


Code generator/Wizard


Object example:


Excel’s cell, chart


Object
-
oriented tool example:


VB.Net


Java


Portability

Java: Write Once Run Anywhere

Java Source Code

Java Byte Code

(Intermediate Code)

Java Byte Code

Java Virtual Machine

(JVM)

Executable Code

Microsoft’s .Net


Language must compliance with Common
Language Specification, CLS.


Compile the language into Microsoft Intermediate
Language (MSIL) code.


The MSIL code is then executed in the
Common Language Runtime (CLR), which
conceptually is same as the JVM, where it is

translated into machine code by a compiler.


Microsoft .Net is a server
-
side technology. It runs
on any servers that implement the .Net system.


Software as a Service, SaaS


SaaS is a model of software deployment
where an application is hosted as a service
provided to customers across the Internet.


SaaS alleviates the customer's burden of software
maintenance, ongoing operation, and support.


no upfront investment in software development


Conversely, customers relinquish control over
software versions or changing requirements;


Costs to use the service become a continuous
expense, rather than a single expense at time of
purchase.

What is cloud computing?


Cloud computing

is a style of computing in
which computing resources are provided as a
service over the Internet. Users need not have
knowledge of, expertise in, or control over
the technology infrastructure in the "cloud"
that supports them.


Video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ae_DKNwK_ms
&eurl=http%3A%2F%2Fpardalis.squarespace.com
%2F&feature=player_embedded


Companies Offer SaaS


SalesForce.com:


http://www.salesforce.com/


Workday:


http://www.workday.com/index.php


Google Docs:


Demo:
http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/collaboratio
n.html#docs


Login: docs.google.com


Microsoft WindowsLive


https://login.live.com/


SkyDrive

Examples of Cloud Computing


SaaS


Utility computing

Companies such as Amazon.com, Sun, and IBM, now offer
storage and virtual servers that others can access on
demand.


Platform as a service, PaaS

This form of cloud computing delivers development
environments as a service. You build your own
applications that run on the provider's infrastructure and are
delivered to your users via the Internet from the provider's
servers.


Mainframe, Linux, Windows Server, etc.


Service commerce platforms:
software personal assistant.

This cloud computing offers a service hub that users
interact with:
http://www.reardencommerce.com/


Who owns the data?


Privacy:
http://venturebeat.com/2009/02/17/is
-
facebook
-
really
-
using
-
its
-
new
-
terms
-
of
-
service
-
to
-
own
-
your
-
data
/


Facebook introduced a new terms of service agreement in
Feb. 09:


You hereby grant Facebook an irrevocable, perpetual, non
-
exclusive,
transferable, fully paid, worldwide license (with the right to
sublicense) to (a) use, copy, publish, stream, store, retain, publicly
perform or display, transmit, scan, reformat, modify, edit, …..


Security:
http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/Pinning
-
Down
-
Enterprise
-
Data
-
Security
-
in
-
the
-
Cloud
-
67093.html?wlc=1252360837


T
op reasons why big businesses are reluctant to adopt
SaaS

:
http://www.executivebrief.com/blogs/the
-
pros
-
and
-
cons
-
of
-
saas
-
part
-
2
/


New products, services, and business
models:


Business model: describes how company
produces, delivers, and sells product or
service to create wealth


Information systems and technology a major
enabling tool for new products, services,
business models


E.g. Netflix’s Internet
-
based DVD rentals

IT and New Business Model