Pack 2013: Aqua-Inflatables

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Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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B
0
63 Pre
-
Release Resource
Pack 2013: Aqua
-
Inflatables

For January and June 2013
E
xaminations


POD 4849

ICT | GCSE | OCR |
J461

ICT
@zigzageducation.co.uk

zigzageducation.co.uk


B063: Aqua
-
Inflatables Pre
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Contents


Thank You for Choosing ZigZag Education
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3

Introduction

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Error! Bookmark not defined.

Aqua
-
Inflatables
: An

Overview

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3

Pre
-
Release Research

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3

1.0 Work
ing from Home

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5

1.1 Teleworking

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5

1.2 Software Options

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6

1.3 Lice
nsing Legislation
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8

Further Research

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8

Revision Questions
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8

2.0 Software Applications

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9

2.1 Language Translation Software
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9

2.2 The Use of Computer
-
Aided Design

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10

2.3 The Use of Computer
-
Aided Manufacture

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10

Further Research

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11

Revision Que
stions
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11

3.0 Cloud Computing & Thin Client Technology
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12

3.1 Cloud Computing Services

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12

3.2 Advantages & Disadvantages of Cloud Computing

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13

3.3 Thin Client Computing

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13

3.4 Cloud Computing & Thin Client at Aqua
-
Inflatables

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14

Further Research

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15

Revision Questions
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15

4.0 Comput
er Hardware Specifi cations

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16

4.1 Computer System Requirements
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16

4.2 Core Computer Hardware Components

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17

4.3 Computer Specification Selection

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18

Further Research

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19

Revision Questions
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19

5.0 Business Website Features

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20

5.1 Company Use of Website

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20

5.2 Company Use of Blogs
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21

5.3 Company Use of Forums
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22

5.
4 Online Catalogues

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23

5.5 Online Data Security

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24

5.6 Embedded Sources

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24

5.7 Expert Systems
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25

Further Research

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26

Revision Questions
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26

6.0 Electr
onic Communication

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27

6.1 Online Communication Methods

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27

6.2 Email
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29

6.3 Intranet & Ext
ranet
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30

Further Research

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3
1

Revision Questions
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31


7.0 Distributed Databases

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32


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-
Inflatables Pre
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7.
1 Distributed Databases

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32

Further Research

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33

Revision Questions
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33

8.0 Projec
t Management

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34

8.1 Project Management

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34

8.2 Use of Gantt Charts
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34

8.3
Project Planning Methods & Software

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36

Further Research

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37

Revision Questions
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37

9.0 Collaborative Working
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38

9.1 Collaboration Overview

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38

9.2 Keep Track of Changes

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38

9.3 Document Sharing & Digital Transfer of Files
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39

Further Research

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40

Revision Que
stions
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40

10.0 Survey Data Relevance

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41

10.1 Factors Affecting Relevance of Survey Data

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41

10.2 Advantages & Disadvantages of Surveys
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41

Further Research

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42

Revision Questions
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42

Self
-
Entry Revision Sheets

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43





B063: Aqua
-
Inflatables Pre
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Thank You f or Choosi ng Zi gZag Educat i on




A webpage containing all the links listed in the Further Research sections for each topic is conveniently provided
on ZigZag Education's we
bsite at
zigzag.at/b063
-
2013
.




Students may find this helpful for accessing the websites rather than typing in each URL.




Aqua
-
Inflatables
: An

Overview

Aqua
-
I
nflatables is a company specialising in the design and sales of inflatable boats. They are
the

subject

of the
pre
-
release for OCR GCSE ICT Unit B063, which will be examined in January and June 201
3
.






A brief outline of Aqua
-
Inflatables’ business model is shown in the flow chart below.

























Pre
-
Release Research

The pre
-
release
also
indicates th
at th
e following areas need to be researched:

1.

Computer hardware specifications for different purposes

2.

Proprietary, open source and commissioned bespoke software

3.

Legislation regarding software
licensing

4.

Project planning methods
and software, including the use of Gantt charts

5.

Expert systems

6.

Distributed databases

7.

The use of language translation software

8.

The use
of CAD/CAM

9.

Methods of document sharing and digital transfer of files

10.

Cloud computing and thin client
technology

11.

Working from home including benefits and drawbacks

12.

The ways in which companies use websites, blogs and forums

13.

Online catalogues

14.

Online data security

The 2013 pre
-
release is a PDF document that can be downloaded from the following link:

pdf.ocr.org.uk/download/prm/ocr_52091_prm_gcse_unit_b063.pdf?

Aqua
-
Inflatables

design and sell inflatable
boats. They have to work with a large
number of specialist manufacturers.

It uses CAD (computer
-
aided design) to
design boats in the UK and CAM
(computer
-
aided manufacture to
manufacture the boats in China.

It makes use of
special and general
purpose software for project management
and storing customer data.

It uses ICT for communication and the
sharing of documents between staff and
the external suppliers of the business.

Many of the Aqua
-
Inflatables staff work
from ho
me, using open
-
sourced, licensed
and bespoke software.

The business uses an online catalogue to
sell the boats; this catalogue is supported
by blogs, forums, expert system and
embedded videos.


B063: Aqua
-
Inflatables Pre
-
Release 2013

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15.

Embedded sources

16.

Online communication methods between individuals and gr
oups, including appropriate methods for one
-
to
-
one, one
-
to
-
many, and many
-
to
-
many communications

17.

The use of email, including multiple recipients and attachments

18.

Factors affecting the relevance of survey data



B063: Aqua
-
Inflatables Pre
-
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1.0
Working from Home








1.1
Teleworking

Teleworking

or

home working

is a collaborative process i
n

which the employee works
from home using ICT and is remotely connected to the company computer network.


The use of cloud computing for data storage makes teleworking
easily
possible from
any location
,

provided that
there is an
Internet

connection available.

In some cases
teleworkers have to attend work at the office on occasions, which is normally termed
core time, so that some face
-
to
-
face meetings and briefings can take place.


Normally the company will provide the worker with the necessary ICT equipment needed to

perform the role.

The benefits and drawbacks of teleworking
for
a
member of staff

are shown in the table below.


Advantages of Teleworking (Staff)

Disadvantages of Tel
eworking (Staff)



Can work at convenient times to fit in with
family and social commitments



Avoids the stress, frustration and time lost by
commuting to work



Avoids the cost of commuting to work



Useful for disabled people who have mobility
problems



Useful for single parents who can’t get to
work during normal hours due to childcare
commitments



No need to move house or relocate when
you get a new job.



It may be difficult to concentrate and work at certain
times due to general noise by other fam
ily members



Need to ensure that the employer provides and
maintains the ICT equipment required



Need to ensure that the employer makes some allowance
for the cost of heating and lighting a home office



Employee has no one to ask if they have a
work
-
related
problem without making contact with the company



There is a general lack of social interaction for
teleworkers, which may make them feel isolated and
unhappy



The work/life balance is confused by not working
regular hours and not leaving the

home


The benefits and drawbacks of teleworking
for
the
employer

are shown in the table below.


Advantages of Teleworking (Employer)

Disadvantages of Teleworking (Employer)



Can solve problems with the skills shortage
by using workers outside of the
employer’s
region



Costs are reduced as less office space is
required



Reduction in office overheads for utility bills



Fewer maintenance staff, caretakers and
cleaners are required for the office



There is difficulty in holding and organising meetings



either virtual or physical



Difficult to supervise workers and determine how hard
they are working



There are security risks for data and equipment when
located away from the office



Difficult to maintain the ICT equipment that has to be
purchased
for teleworkers


Teleworking has created some benefits for
society in general
:



Less traffic congestion as there are fewer commuters to work



Less environmental damage through reduced air pollution and the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions



Teleworking from remote areas helps the local economy


From
Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:




Proprietary, open source and commissioned bespoke software



Legislation regarding software licensing



Working from home including benefits and drawbacks



Most members of staff work at
home using a variety of
software
including open source, lic
ensed
and bespoke software.”

Organisati
on

Telework
er

Telework
er

INTERN
ET


B063: Aqua
-
Inflatables Pre
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Proprietary software

is
licensed to the purchaser
and gives the right to use
the software, but not to
modify or redistribute it.

1.2 Software Options

In this section
most members of staff will use one or more of the
following software options
to work from home
:



Open
source software



Proprietary
software



Bespoke
software


1.2.1 Open
Source Software

Open

source software is freely available
for online download



the logo for the Open Source Initiative (OSI) is show
n below
.



Open Source Software Advantages

Open Source Software Disadvantages



The software
is free.



The 捯de is 捯ntinually being developed in a
捯llaborative way so new features are regularly
being added.



The 捯de for the software is available so
it 捡n be
modified to solve a spe捩fi挠problem.



Software updates are usually uns捨eduled and
sporadi挮



It may la捫 some of the features of its proprietary
rival.



Generally
less well
-
pa捫age
d

and la捫s the
dedi捡ted support of proprietary software.


The most popular op
en sour捥 software pa捫ages are: Mozilla Firefo砠(
w
eb
b
rowser),

Linu砠(
o
perating
s
ystem)
, Paint.net (image manipulation pa捫age)

and OpenOffi捥 (捯mbined
offi捥 software suite)
 these produ捴s 捡n be downloaded from the
Internet

for free and have
similar features to their rival proprietary software.



1
.2.2
Proprietary Software

Generally
a computer

user

will

purchase

some

proprietary
software
,

which has been
created by a software developer

who
holds the copyright to that software product.


Personal computers often come preloaded with a range of
commonly used proprietary software, such as Word, Exce
l or
Outlook from Microsoft.



Both proprietor and open source software are designed to
work with a range of file

types, so that they are compatible
with rival software products. For example
, the

screenshot on
the right shows a sample of the range of file types that can be
output from
Microsoft Word
.



Proprietary Software

Advantages

Proprietary Software

Disadvantages



Software is 捯ded and modified by the manufa捴urer
who provides automati挠updates.



The manufa捴urer normally provides support for their
pa捫age, su捨 as
help pages, wizards and online video
instru捴ions.



The software manufa捴urer tests the system
e硴ensively before release to ensure the software is
robust.



The software may have many 捯mple砠features
that are paid for but never used.



The software is o
ften large and 捯mpli捡ted and
takes a 捯nsiderable time to learn.



Competitors may have bought the same
software system so you will not have any
捯mpetitive advantage.

Open source

software permits the user
to use, modify and sometimes even
distribute the software as required.


B063: Aqua
-
Inflatables Pre
-
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1.2.3
Bespoke Software

Bespoke software
can be developed in
-
hous
e by the organisation or
it
can be
produced by a software house.


There are many organisations that
specialise in developing bespoke
software solutions such as:

trianglesoftware.co.uk/













The main advantages and

disadvantages are listed below:


Bespoke Software Advantages

Bespoke Software Disadvantages



It is tailor
-
made to meet the
company’s
requirements.



Using bespoke software solutions can give the
company a major advantage over their competitors.



It can be created to work with the company’s
business pro捥dures for whi捨 there is no proprietary
solution spe捩fi挠to these needs.




It can be designed to be intuitive and easy to learn,
since it will have no non
-
required features.



Software development costs higher than buying
off
-
the
-
shelf proprietary software.



There is less chance of finding all software bugs
than with widely
used proprietary software.



Bespoke software development time is longer
than buying off
-
the
-
shelf proprietary software.



It is difficult to recruit experts to develop
bespoke solutions.



1.2.4 Summary

P
ossible use
s

of these three software
types

used by

teleworkers or
home workers
are
:



Open
source software



used by
the
home worker for personal use, such as: OpenOffice to word process
,

or
Paint.Net to manipulate photographs



Proprietary
software



supplied by the company for the home worker to carry out company business, such
as:
computer
-
aided design
functions, modification and maintenance of company database and online
catalogue



Bespoke
software



specialist programs developed for the company
, such as: project management software





Bespoke software

solutions
are created for a particular
organisation and should meet
their exact requirements.


B063: Aqua
-
Inflatables Pre
-
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© ZigZag Education, 2012

The
Copyright, Design and
Patents Act

is aimed at
protecting the intellectual
property of individuals and
organisations that create and
produce materials based on
their own individual ideas.

1.3 Licensing Legislation

Proprietary software is usually
created
by commercial organisations that invest
a lot of time and mone
y in creating it. The software is the intellectual property
of the organisation that created it.


Software licensing is a set of rules
on
how the software can be used. The
licensing agreement will normally indicate that it is illegal to make and sell or
di
stribute multiple copies of the software. The exact rules depend on the
type
of software being considered:



Open
source software



this
licence
will permit the end

user the option to use the software for free.
They will
also have the option to
copy and improve the design
since the source code can be obtained if required.



Proprietary
software



this
licence
will give the user the permission to use one or more copies

that they have
purchased and

they do not have the right to modify or distribute
the software to others. The end user has to
purchase a
licence
and
agree to these terms before the software can be activated.



Bespoke
software



these
specialist programs
are
developed for
an organisation and so would not be legally
available for use by ot
her organisations.

If the bespoke solution is developed by a software house
,

the
contract will outline the terms of the agreement.




Further Research

Web Links


Telecommuting


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommuting


Advantages and Disadvantages of Teleworking


www.ehow.com/list_6383153_advantages
-
telework.html



Open Source Software


timjimnetworktech.wikidot.com/advantages
-
disadvantages
-
of
-
open
-
source


Why use custom software?


www.aldex.co.uk/whycustom.html



Bespoke versus Off
-
the
-
Shelf
Software


www.approvedindex.co.uk/a/softwaredevelopers/bespoke
-
vs
-
off
-
the
-
shelf/



Licensing Software
and
Copyright Law

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_license#Software_licenses_and_copyright_law


Software Licensing and the Law


www.businessitguide.com/guides/view
-
guide/5/



Videos


Cisco Teleworking Solutions


The World is
Your
Office
:


www.youtube.com/watch?v=kGNMnYOp4FM


The Best Website to Download
Openoffice

for FREE!

w
ww.youtube.com/watch?v=F7DA6QdvTYo




Revision Questions

1.

Describe two benefits and two drawbacks of teleworking for
a
member of staff
.

(8 marks)

2.

Describe two benefits and two drawbacks of teleworking for
an
employer
.

(8 marks)

3.

Define the term

open source software


and
give
an
advantage of using it
.

(3

marks)

4.

Define the term

proprietary software


and give an example
of how
a
n

Aqua
-
Inflatables
home worker might
use it
.

(3 marks)

5.

Define the term

bespoke software


and give
an example
of how
an

Aqua
-
Inflatables
home worker might
use it
.

(3 marks)

6.

Name the

software
licensing legislation and describe two rules that could form part of a proprietary
software license agreement
.

(5 marks)






?


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-
Inflatables Pre
-
Release 2013

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Instant translation

is
provided on sites such as
Yahoo and translates
text
-
to
-
text web pages,
email and online chat
text almost inst
antly.

2.0 Software Applications







2.1 Language Translation Software

Aqua
-
Inflatables


workforce will need to
communicate with many different
manufacturing companies in China; it is most
likely that very few of these workers will be
able to speak both English and Chinese
and
so language translation will be a necessary
part of any written co
mmunication.


There are many companies that provide
tex
t
-
to
-
text
English to Chinese language
translation programs.


The screenshot on the right shows a dialog
box
w
ith both languages displayed.


More details of the MultiTranse software
application can be
viewed

at
the
link:
www.tialsoft.com/chinese
-
translation/



Instant translation

is used widely in global business communication by
companies such as
Aqua
-
Inflatables
.

The
issues

that need to be considered

when using instant translation

are:



A special font will need to be installed on the user
’s

computer to view the
Chinese language hieroglyphs
.



Language translation is affected by the context in which it is used, so
minor translation errors could
cause the business problems
.



Language translation may not be able to cope with the slang words us
ed
in a particular country or business.


Speech
-
to
-
speech

translation can be useful, but this YouTube video for an iPad application shows the sort of
problems that can occur.


The video can be view
ed at:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ko0xGAAeh2A





From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:



The use of language translation software



The use of CAD/CAM



The boats are designed by Aqua
-
Inflatables’ staff in the UK
using Computer Aided Design (CAD) and are built in China
by a number of different
manufacturing companies using
Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM).


Note:

To avoid translation errors it is useful

for someone proficient in the language to check
important business documents.



B063: Aqua
-
Inflatables Pre
-
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© ZigZag Education, 2012

Computer
-
aided manufacture
is
the use of specialist computer
software to automatically control
manufacturing machines.

2.2 The Use of Computer
-
Aided Design

Computer
-
aided design
is widely used
to design products using a computer.

CAD
software is expensive, as shown in the advertisement on the right, where a single
user copy of Turbo C
AD costs over £1
,
000.


In the case of
Aqua
-
Inflatables

the designers would create
design

drawings

that could be used by the small specialist manufacturing companies around the world.


The inflatable boat designs would be constructed in a
three
-
dimensional
format
,

which is usually
how

physical objects like boats and buildings

are
designed
.


The drawings would be saved electronically
:



The files will contain technical drawing
s
, but can also be used to
create a spares list
.



T
h
e files
could be stored on disk
for backup or future edits
.



The files could be
emailed to the manufacturer for printing or to
control a
machine
to produce the final product.


The advantages and disadvantages of using CAD are outlined below:



2.3 The Use of
Computer
-
Aided
Manufacture

Computer
-
aided design

(CAD) software
packages
are used to create
designs that can be automatically used in a
computer
-
aided manufacture
(CAM) production li
ne to control
manufacturing using programmed machines.


This approach has been taken by
Aqua
-
Inflatables

who create the designs in
the
UK for production by small
specialist manufacturing companies around the world.


The designs used by the
computer
-
aided manufacturing
process can be set up to cut the accurate amount of raw
material or fabric for the product and so minimise any wastage. The production process will be faster than
traditional manufacturing since it is automatic
; however
,

settin
g up the automatic production line is expensive



custom
-
made machine
s

will need to be purchased.


The advantages and disadvantages of using CAM are outlined below:


Advantages of CA
M

Disadvantages of CA
M



Produces accurate results for large
-
scale produ
ction
operations



Can operate 24/7 with no reduction in the quality of
products



Useful for large
-
scale production as it saves time



Start
-
up costs of software and machinery is
expensive



Not cost
-
effective
for low volume or one
-
off
production



There is a cost involved in training staff to use
A
d
vantages of
using
CAD

Disadvantages of
using
CAD



More accurate than hand
-
drawn designs



Can create new designs by modifying old
designs which saves time



Can view drawing in detail by zooming in



Objects in a drawing can be copied and pasted
to make a consistent
image



CAD software packages contain frequently used
objects that can be used in a drawing to save time



The company will have to purchase expensive software



There is a need to train workers to use this
complicated software



A CAD system can only be u
sed if the organisation
has a computer system



There is a need to create a suitable file backup system
to prevent losing any work



Many people lost their jobs when CAD/CAM was
introduced

Computer
-
aided design
is the use of specialist
computer software by a
designer to create
technical drawings.


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Mass
-
produced products will be identical

the software and machinery

Further Research

Web Links


Instant Language Translation Applications

searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/instant
-
translation


Automatic Language Translation Applications

whatis.techtarget.com/definition/automatic
-
language
-
translation


Computer
-
Aided Design

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer
-
aided_design


Computer
-
Aided Manufacture

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer
-
aided_manufacture


Videos


English to Chinese
Speech
-
to
-
Speech Translation Demonstration Video

ww
w.youtube.com/watch?v=Ko0xGAAeh2A


3D CAD Boat Designs

www.youtube.com/watch?v=KRo7JN0Ujdg


Harley
-
Davidson
Crankshaft Assembly
in Autodesk Inventor

www.youtube.com/watch?v=mj_Eo7llCOI&
feature=related



Revision Questions

1.

Describe the term
‘instant translation’.
(2

marks)

2.

Describe
three

issues that need to be considered when using instant translation
.

(6 marks)

3.

Define the term CAD and describe two advantages and two
disadvantages of using it
.

(9 marks)

4.

Define the term CAM and describe two advantages and two disadvantages of using it
.

(9 marks)





?


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3
.0 Cloud Computing

& Thin Client Technology






3.1 Cloud Computing Services

Cloud
computing
can be defined as Internet
-
based computing, in which shared resources, software and
information are provided to computers and other devices on

demand
, as shown in the diagram below
.



















Cloud computing is normally a concept that involves a combination of the following layers:



Software as a Service (SaaS)



this is where software is supplied over the
Internet

and so there is no need to
install the software applications on the customer server.

In the retail context software such as
customer relationship management
software (CRM) and
human
resources management
(HR) are common SaaS examples.

Google Apps is an ex
ample of cloud software that
is commonly used in the domestic market.




Platform as a Service (PaaS)



the cloud provider supplies a platform to run the application software. It is not
necessary to download the platform software as it can be operated using
your
Internet

browser.

Commonly
available cloud platform providers are Microsoft Windows Azure and Google App Engine
.



Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)



in this case the cloud is providing online (or virtual) hardware, rather than
the business buying their own. Typically this will include servers, networking and data storage and the cloud
provider is responsible for maintaining and running the devices.


Scalability

Cloud computing is said to be
scalable
, which means that the service can be increased or decreased as required.
This is best shown in an example
: when
a client or organisation is paying for online storage, if they need more
space
,

the cloud p
rovider will automatically increase the space required and charge accordingly.


Charges

Note organisations can be charged
at
a fixed cost for use of the cloud facility, or pay a usage rate based on the
number of transactions processed; this applies to rent
ing software, a platform or the computer system
infrastructure.


Cloud computing is therefore useful
when
an organisation needs to trial a particular type of software, or
when
precise transaction costs need to be known in advance.


From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:



Cloud computing and thin cli
ent technology


Cloud
Computing
Accessed via the
Internet

Software as a
Service

SaaS

Platform as a
Service

PaaS

Infrastructure
as a Service

IaaS


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Router / switch

Thin client
computer

Thin client
computer

Server

3
.2 Advantages & Disadv
antages of Cloud Computing

There are advantages and disadvantages of using cloud computing as described below.


Cloud Computing Advantages

Cloud Computing Disadvantages



Cloud providers typically provide software which can be
used by many different organisations; so the organisations
benefit by avoiding the purchase of the software and the
purchase of hardware to operate it.



Data can be obtained by staff who are telewor
king wherever
they have an Internet account to log on.



Scalability is a useful feature for a web server


if the website
is hosted by the cloud and the site becomes popular, the
cloud provider will automatically increase the
server/transaction capacity.




The use of equipment is rented from the cloud which is initially
cheaper than purchasing equipment for a new project.




Special hardware environments are not required and
organisations can leave the cloud companies to organise
data backup and security
, including disaster recovery.



The web service provided may be
unreliable.



There is a concern about how secure
data is when it is stored globally.



The organisation may become
dependent on proprietary cloud
applications and services so that it is
dif
ficult to opt out of the system.



One cloud company may not be able to
provide all the software packages
provided, meaning that multiple cloud
companies are needed.



Legal issues (Data Protection Act) may
arise if the cloud operates outside of the
Europ
ean Union.


3.3 Thin Client Computing

A thin client computer is usually a low specification computer and it
contains client software that is used to interface with the application
software or operation system that is provided by the network server.


Thin client computers are unable to function on their own and

are often used
with a server
for single functions such as online
web access or email or surfing the
Internet

or print serving
.


The diagram on the right shows a typical layout for a thin client

network.



The
operation is as follows:



The thin client computer has the ability to start up and connect to a

powerful server via the network.



The thin client software is mostly made up of a graphic user interface (GUI), so

that the user can see all the

tools, features and data from a normal software package.



The powerful server is running the software package and carrying out all the processing.


Thin Client Computing Advantages

Thin Client Computing Disadvantages



The installation, updating or
removal of software only needs
to be added at the server which saves time and creates a
consistent system.



Backing up and recovery are fast as it can all take place at
the server and there is no need for any user involvement.



It makes use of low speci
fication computers as thin clients;
they are easy to maintain and set up.



There is less maintenance on a thin client computer to carry
out as hardware and software upgrades are not necessary;
this saves time and the cost of upgrading PCs.



Security is i
mproved as all data can be kept away from the
network in a secure location.



The system is dependent upon the server
so, if it fails, the whole system fails; this
can be protected against by using a
mirrored server that can automatically
take over in the
event of a failure.



There is a limit to the number of thin
clients that can be run from a server; this
is dependent upon the specification of
the server.



Users of thin client computers may find
the operation of software slower when
the server is heav
ily loaded.

Thin client computing
is when a
computer relies on a server to provide
the software and to run it based on
inputs from the thin client user.


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3.4 Cloud Computing
& Thin Client at
Aqua
-
Inflatables

Cloud Computing
to
Store Data

There are many ways that cloud computing and thin client technology can be used by Aqua
-
Inflatables.


It is possible for them to keep their data in the cloud
so that it can be accessed by the manufacturers throughout
the world. They could supply technical drawings and computer
-
aided manufacture control programs to
manufacturers that could be downloaded to create the various parts of the inflatable boats.


Data
and specialised software could be supplied to teleworkers for use at home. Transferring data to the cloud
allows other workers to view the files created.



Teleworkers may have low specification computers that are not easily capable of running complex soft
ware, so they
could access this software using a thin client approach where the cloud server does the majority of the processing.















Thin Client Networks

Aqua
-
Inflatables

could make use of a thin client network in their design offices in

the

UK; the advantages of which
have already been discussed above.


Although most workers operate from ho
me
,

there will be occasions when they will attend the office and so it would
be possible to keep a range of
low
-
cost computers to work on for these occasions.



Aqua
-
Inflatables’
Cloud Data
Data supplied to
worldwide
manufacturers

Data and software
supplied to
Aqua
-
Inflatables’ teleworkers



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Further Research

Web Links

Check out following web

link
s

for an explanation of how cloud computing works.


Introduction to
Cloud Computing

www.explainthatstuff.com/cloud
-
computing
-
introduction.html


What is meant by Cloud Comput
ing

fromheart.hubpages.com/hub/what
-
is
-
meant
-
by
-
cloud
-
computing


Thin Client Computing

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thin_c
lient


Thin Client Technologies


www.bigmastech.com/linux
-
solutions/linux
-
open
-
source
-
business
-
solutions/thin
-
client
-
desktop
-
technology


Videos

Check out the following videos from YouTube

for the basics of cloud computing.


What is Cloud Computing?

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ae_DKNwK_ms


Cloud Computing in Plain English

www.youtube.com/watch?v=txvGNDnKNWw&feature=related



HP Education Solutions


Thin Clients

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c36irFkjeFY



Revision Questions

1.

Exp
lain the term

cloud computing
’.

(3

marks)

2.

Explain the term

scalability


with regard to
cloud computing and discuss
,

using examples
,

the advantages
of scalability
.

(6 marks)

3.

D
escribe
one

advantage and one
disadvantage

of
Aqua
-
Inflatables

using cloud computing to provide their
infrastructure

or storage
.

(
4

marks)

4.

Explain the three terms
: (6 marks)

(a)

Software as a

service

(b)

Platform as a service

(c)

Infrastructure as a service

5.

Explain the term
‘thin client computer’.
(2 marks)

6.

Describe two advantages and one disadvantage of
Aqua
-
Inflatables

using thin client computing to provide
software and data for th
eir teleworkers
.









?


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4
.0 Computer Hardware Specifications






4.1 Computer
System Requirements

The computer hardware specification required for different purpose
s

is dependent upon

the task that the
organisation intends to carry out. Clearly a higher specification machine will be needed to perform CAD/CAM
design or
video editing
than will be needed to simply browse the
Internet

or use a word processor.


The system requirements for
AutoCAD 2013 and Photoshop CS6 are shown below to indicate the main hardware
features that are under consideration.
































Computer hardware specifications

have to be suitable for different purposes. When a software package is
purchased it will indicate the system requirements needed to run that package. Normally the hardware specification
to run a software package includes:



The RAM available



The hard disk space required



The minimum processor (CPU) performance required.


In the
following pages these terms are explained and the methods used to select hardware specifications.


From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:



Computer hardware specifications for different purposes



Based in the UK, the company uses the latest
technology to help design and market the
boats
worldwide.



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A
CPU

is mounted on the
motherboard and controls the
input and processing of
data

and the output of
information
.

Clock speed
is the rate at which
a CPU carries out instructions.
Normally clock spee
d is
measured in MHz or GHz.

4.
2

Core Computer Hardware Components

Computer System Overview

Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer which includes digital circuitry, as
distinguished from the
applications software that is executed using the hardware. The processing hardware is necessary to gain a useable
output from the system
.




















T
he block diagram of a computer is shown above and all ICT systems have these same essential components with
some typical examples of devices entered. The main part of the system is the microprocessor, which is a single chip
responsible for all the processi
ng.


Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The central processing

unit

(or CPU) is sometimes called a microprocessor
and is normally mounted on a single motherboard for personal computers
or small workstations.


Recent developments have created
dual and quad core processors

that are faster and more efficient than their
prede
cessors.



When selecting a computer system the clock speed of the CPU is important as the faster the clock speed
,

the more
instructions can be carried out per second.






Backing Storage

The backing store is normally a hard disk, which retains the data written on to it after the computer system has
been switched off; it could also include other storage devices such as CD
-
RW, DVD
-
RW, flash memory and
removable disks.


The computer specifications shown in
Section
4.1 of this
document indicate that some space
is
required to store the
actual program that

is installed and downloaded; usually the
backing storage space needed is in excess of 1

GB and as

much as 20

GB in the case of some office applications.

Internal Memory (RAM
& ROM)


Central Processing
Unit (CPU)

Backing Storage

(Hard Disk)

Output Devices

(e.g. Monitor)

Input Devices

(e.g. Keyboard)

Note:

T
hin client computers may not have a
requirement for backing storage as their files
can be stored on the server.


High clock speed is more important when running CAD/CAM
software which needs to carry out many calculations per
second. The CPU needed for a word processor can have a much
slower clock speed and still perform the task.



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A
multi
-
core processor
is a single
CPU that
contains two or more processing units that can
simultaneously read and execute programs.

Random
-
Access Memory (
RA
M)

Random
-
access memory
(RAM) is the computer’s working memory that is
made up of a series of chips as shown in the illustration. The actual memory is
volatile
,

which means that the contents of the storage are lost when the
computer is switched off.


In computing, computer memory is used as follows:



RAM is used for temporarily storing programs and data that are
being used at any given time.



The contents of RAM can be changed but are lost when the
computer is turned off, so it is essential to save any documents
being worked on before turning off th
e computer.



RAM is also needed so that it is possible to multi
-
task by switching

between multiple windows

or multiple programs
that are open.


When RAM memory is full the system operation slows down as programs


and data that are loaded but not current
ly in use will be stored on the hard disk

and then retrieved when required.

If this happens on a regular basis
,

it is worth

selecting a RAM upgrade

to improve system performance.



The typical amount of RAM fitted in a computer has increased as memory production

costs fall and as more
memory
-
hungry programs are installed.
At the time of writing a

typical system would be sold with between 1
GB

and 5 GB of RAM
.



4.3 Computer Specific
ation Selection

When selecting a computer specification for a particular purpose the most important factor is the choice of
processor

or CPU, since other features like the RAM can be increased if necessary and additional hard disk storage
can be purchased
if required.

The factors that affect CPU
performance
are
clock speed
and
number
of
cores
.


Clock Speed

Clock speed
is the number of electronic pul
s
es a second that can be used to control the CPU; at the time of writing
(2012)
the latest CPUs can be purcha
sed with clock speeds in excess of 3.5

GHz

or 3.5 billion pulses per second.


Number of Cores


Below is an advertisement for one of the latest 2012 CPUs. It has a high clock speed and a
quad
-
core processor.










Multi
-
core processors help to
improve

the perform
ance
of the CPU by
running

s
everal tasks at the same time.

The introduction of multi
-
core processors has dev
eloped
as it became difficult to further increase clock speeds.




RAM or random
-
access
memory
is used for
temporary storage and the
data is lost when the
system is
powered down.

Volatile memory
means that the
data is lost from memory when
the system is powered down.


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Summary


Different computer hardware specifications are needed for different purposes, for example:



Aqua
-
Inflatables are considering using thin client technology which

makes use of low spec
ification

computers.



They also plan to use CAD which requires much higher specification computers.
AutoCAD requires a
minimum clock speed of 1.6
GHz on a single core processor
.



Even higher specification computers are
mainly used in the production and viewing of graphics, particularly
in gaming and in video.


However
,

many
business organisations

choose to buy the latest hardware as a form of future proofing to make sure
they are capable of running the latest software e
fficiently.




Further Research

Web Links


What is
computer power
?

computer.howstuffworks.com/computing
-
power.htm


How to choose the right computer


h41112.www4.hp.com/promo/obc/uk/en/how
-
to
-
choose/technol
ogy
-
explained
-
hardware/how
-
to
-
choose
-
the
-
right
-
pc.html


Guide to Good Practice

guides.archaelogydataservice.ac.uk/g2gp/Ca
d_3
-
1


Best CPU 2011

2012


Intel versus AMD

www.squidoo.com/cpuprocessors


Multi
-
core processors

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi
-
core_processor


Videos


How to know your computer specification

www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHBGcaVjVuU


AMD
computer gaming computer specification

www.youtube.com/watch?v=EhYlKXQcs14


Revision Questions

1.

List the
main hardware components in a computer system
.

(5

marks)

2.

Explain the following terms
:

(10 marks)

(a)

CPU


(
b
)

RAM


(
c
)

Backing Storage


(
d
)

C
lock Speed


(
e
)

M
ulti
-
Core
Processor

3.

The
Aqua
-
Inflatables

IT
department
have to replace the computers
used by
two of its workers.

One of the computers they have available is a
quad
-
core processor running at 3.5

GHz with 8 MB
of
RAM
,

and the other is a
single
-
core processor
running at 1.9

GHz with 2 MB
of
RAM
.

(a)

Explain with a reason which computer would be most suitable for use as a thin client
.

(2 marks)

(b)

Explain with a reason which computer would be most suitable for
running

CAD/CAM
software
.

(2 marks)






?


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A

website
is a group of
World Wide Web
(WWW) pages
containing hyperlinks to
each other and made
available online.

Webs
ite
can contain links
to
blogs
and

forums

to
help present customers
with dynamic content.

5
.0
Business

Website Features












Marketing a business using the
Internet

and social network
s

is most successful when a multi
-
pronged approach is
taken; this would involve the use of websites, blogs and
Internet

discussion forums.


5.1 Company Use of Website

Aqua
-
Inflatables

need a professionally designed website so that they can improve
customer interaction with the business.



The content of the website is very import
ant
;

the

aim

must be to get customers to visit and revisit
the site.


Typical content for the inflatable boat company
would include:



Boats available for sale



E
commerce
shopping trolley and secure
payment



Engine sales



Terms
and conditions



Boat care and
repair methods



Patching
instructions


The screenshot
below

shows a website page for a
boat company
:

www.outdoorhub.co.uk/



There are many
benefits that
Aqua
-
Inflatables

would

gain from using

a website,
these
include
:



G
ain
ing

a competitive advantage


if you have a website and your competitors don’t
, then
your
Internet

presentation will reach more new potential customers
.



Customers will find you on the
Internet



most buyers will look at products online, so it
is important to have
a web presence
;
they can also buy products online using ecommerce
.



Cost effective


customers can contact you throug
h the website which is cheaper than using traditional
methods like participating in exhibitions or contacting customers

personally
.



Using memorable website addresses makes

it easy for customers to find you



w
eb addresses can be
advertised in newspapers, on the back of cars or on posters. People see the address

and often look it up on
the Internet out of curiosity
.



Place
product catalogue on website



this can be

useful to customers as they have all the information they
want. It can be printed by the customer or downloaded and viewed,
without waiting for a catalogue
to arrive in the post
.



Website
presentation


site is set up to show the company
at
their best,
giv
ing the customer a good impression of the business
.


From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:



The ways in which companies use websites, blogs and forums



Online catalogues



Online data security



Embedded sources



Expert systems


“Boats are sold via an online catalogue
supported by blogs and forums. There is also a
helpline staffed by non
-
specialists who have
access to an expert system. To promote the
boats, the catalogue has a wide range of
embedded videos and other resources showing

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Search engine
optimisation (SEO)
is
where increased
website traffic achieves
higher rankings by the
search engines and thus
is easier to find by
prospective customers.

5.2 Company Use of Blogs

A blog, which is short for web log, is a short journal
entry. When blogs first cam
e

out they were used by writers
to
write on
the
topics they love and update the
entries daily
,
the blogs being stored in chronological order.


Recently there has been a move towards commercial blogs which provide details
about business
es
.







Creating and maintaining a blog for a

boat manufacturer

is

a

large task as a
significant amount of content will be displayed
, but it can change
the
business
.


T
he
Aqua
-
Inflatables

blog
must

contain dynamic and up
-
to
-
date content that changes on a regular basis; for
example
,

there could be an article
on the
problems
a
reader might face when doing boat repairs.


B
logs
can be made attractive and
are based on the following
embedded elements
:



Te
xt
-
based and links to other blogs



Other blogs use a range of styles such as photo blogs (based on photographs), video blogs (based on video),
and MP3 blogs (based on music)













T
here are many benefits
of using web logs for advertising and promotion
for
businesses
such as
Aqua
-
Inflatables
;
these

includ
e
:



The b
usiness

can get members by sending email
s

to known customers with links
to
blog
s

and social
network
s.



Blogs can be used to drive people to your website, which might help to improve your site ranking by
search
engine optimisation
(SEO).



The content can be kept up

to

date and users notified of special offers
.



It is a c
heap form of advertising compared with television, press and magazines.



Once someone subscribes there will be sufficient new content to keep them interested and promote
customer
loyalty
.



The busines
s c
an use embedded video/audio content to create dynamic advertising
.



The business c
an give loyalty points and special offer codes to subscribers to help increase sales.


Blog
or

web log
is a
website where an individual
or group of users record
opinions or information on a
regular basis.

Microblogging

is a
further form of blogging,
using very short posts.
Twitter

is

an example of
a microblog with short
updates called
Tweets
.

Aqua
-
Inflatables is a boat manufacturer that uses
blogging to display and promote
their latest products
and to give details of special offers and promotions.


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5.3 Company Use of Forums

Online
f
orums
or
m
essage
b
oards
are widely used by
businesses to
contact

people that might be interested in or
are having problems with their products.


There are many of these forums on the
Internet

for most
hobbies and activities.


A forum can be set up so that
the
general public can view it.
However
,

it is only possible to actually

make any
comments or add a new thread onto a forum
site

if a user is registered
.
The registration
process requires the user to provide a name and
an email address.


Aqua
-
Inflatables

coul
d make use of site like the
one shown in the screenshot
on the right
.



They might make their own blog with a range of
topics, such as:



Details of latest models



Instruction on h
ow to carry out repairs



FAQs



Boat
shows



Navigation
technology



There are many

advantages to
Aqua
-
Inflatables

in using Internet
forums
.



Internet Forum
Benefits

Internet Forum
Limitations



During registration AI can obtain the email addresses
and names of forum members which can be used for
marketing.



Forums encourage increased

website traffic and
repeat visitors; this helps AI to build a relationship
with customers or potential customers.



AI can answer questions to help educate users about
their range of products and their performance.



Many hours are required to build a suc
cessful
forum. Initially no one will want to post on an
empty forum so AI will need to post various
threads to populate the forum with some
interesting information.



Time will need to be spent moderating the
forum to make sure that posts are appropriate
a
nd not spam.

Social Networking

Many businesses are
setting up
s
ocial
n
etwork
ing
sites
as a
form of free marketing.


Businesses are able add a forum to their social networking
site in addition to the website
-
based forum they run.


Facebook actively
promote the use of forums as the

screenshot on the right shows
;

it
is
straightforward

to

set up
a forum on Facebook.



Threads

are topics in
Internet forums. They
can contain many
comments from
different members
and are viewed in
date order.

Internet forums

are online
discussion sites on
which interested
people can type in
messages as part
of the discussion.


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5.4 Online Catalogues

Online catalogues
are
a useful website feature that is used by
Aqua
-
Inflatables
.


The screenshot
below

shows an exa
mple of an online catalogue created by

www.flippingBook.com







Catalogues are normally opened in a new window, by clicking a
hyper
link

or hotspot

on the website

or from a blog
.


They are designed to appear like a
real
catalogue and contain many features as listed below:



Table of
c
ontents



Thumbnail images



Full screen view



Sound on/off



Zoom
-
in control



E
mbedded video



Download or
print
control

(in PDF file format)



Page
navigation
and
page number
indication


A

potential customer can view the range of products available
in an online catalogue immediately if they have
Internet

access. This is more convenient and faster than
waiting for a conventional catalogue to be posted
; it is also

easier to search through an online catalogue.


Online catalogues can be set up for many computing devices, such as PC, Mac, iPad or
s
mart
p
hone.






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5.5 Online Data Security

Online Data Transmission

When data is transmitted between computers and websites there is a danger
of the data being stolen or hacked.


This can be avoided by using a secure site based on HTTPS (or Hypertext
Transfer Protocol Secure) and data is encrypted to protect data such as

credit card details.



The

padlock image


on
the
right

shows that

the website transmits data using
encrypt
ion.


It is quite common to encrypt the data in a database. Many schools use Microsoft Access as a relational database
and it has many security features built into it, including the option to encrypt the data and use password

protection on the system.


See the

screenshot on the right from Access Help for details.


The basic concept is
as follows:



S
tored data is encrypted by using a code.



If this
encrypted data is read
,

it appears as a collection of
meaningless characters. The data can then be transmitted with
no
danger of it being understood

if it is intercepted
.



When
the data is
delivered to
someone who is entitled to read it
they can apply the decode key to put meaning back into the
message or data transmitted.


Online Data Storage

It is important to check th
e data security arrangements when using
online or cloud data storage. The main difference between cloud
storage sites is the type of encryption used.


The following link gives details of the leading cloud storage companies.

www.cloudsider.com/en/cloud
-
storage
-
security.html


5.6 Embedded Sources

Embedding
video

into a blog or website is a straightforward
operation that makes use of some basic
HTML
code, as

outline
d

below.


<Embed SRC=
"
URL
"
, Command Parameters>

The URL is the name of the video and the command parameters
include size of display in pixels and whether
the video is to
be
started automatically.


It is far easier to embed a YouTube video as it will automatically
create the embed code for you to paste into your blog.


Ch
eck out this video for details:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZnehCBoYLbc



Embedding audio or image files uses a similar method. The embedded video can be activated by clicking a
hyperlink or a hotspot.

Encryption

is used to make
stored data more secure, by
making it unreadable to
people who do not have the
key to decode it.



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Expert systems
are
computer applications
that use a knowledge
database to give
advice rather than a
human
expert.

5.7 Expert Systems

Aqua
-
Inflatables

provide a helpline to their customers; the helpline
workers

are non
-
specialist and make use of an expert system to respond
to
the various customer
queries they receive.


The expert system
interacts with the helpline workers as sho
wn in the flow

chart
diagram below.























The expert system is based on a set of rules that has been constructed from a knowledge base of information.


Since the helpline is a trouble
-
shooting application it will ask the user a range of questions to determ
ine a possible
action that can be recommended.


If the actions recommended are unsuccessful, the expert system will ask further questions and offer further advice
until a solution is obtained.


This type of program is useful as it offers the non
-
specialist

user a series of logical steps that an expert would have
taken to solve the problem.









The terms of the
problem are inputted
into the system by the

helpline worker.


The system responds
with advice based on
a knowledge database
of facts.

The expert system
explains the reasoning
behind its
particular
response.


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Further Research

Web Links


Why
Businesses Have
to
Have
a
Website

www.creativesites.eu/why
-
to
-
have
-
website



Internet Forum

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_forum


Internet Forums


Pros & Cons

www.akamarketing.com/forums
-
pros
-
and
-
cons.html



How
Blog


Business Week



www.business2community.com/blogging/how
-
blogging
-
for
-
lead
-
generation
-
works
-
0114828


Online Catalogues

flippingbook.com/?gclid=CJikoPfCyLICFUEMfAodViAAYA


Data Security

www.bbc.co.uk/schools
/gcsebitesize/ict/databases/6datasecurityrev1.shtml


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_Secure


Cloud Storage Security

www.cloudsider
.com/en/cloud
-
storage
-
security.html


Expert Systems

www.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/AI1/mycin.html


Videos


Embed a YouTube
Video
into
Your Blog

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZnehCBoYLbc


Advertising on Facebook
Website

www.facebook.com/advertising/



Cloud Computing Data Centre

www.youtube.com/watch?v=UhAzs_WoAsA


Cloud Computing

www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dSCh1J0h
-
M


New Expert Systems

www.youtube.com
/watch?v=6kcpd613ZkE&feature=related



Revision Questions

1.

D
escribe the
four benefits that Aqua
-
I
nflatable
s

might gain from having a website
.

(8 mark
s)

2.

Explain the

term

blogging


and describe three benefits of using
blogs
. (8 m
arks)

3.

Describe why a blog might contain embedded vid
eo, graphics or sound
.

(4 marks)

4.

Explain the terms

Internet
f
orums


and
‘t
hreads
’.

(4 marks)

5.

Name four features that an online catalogue might use
.

(4 marks)

6.

Exp
lain the term

encryption
’.

(2 marks)

7.

Explain the term

expert systems
’.

(2 marks)






?


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6
.0
Electronic
Communication










6.1 Online

Communication Methods

Aqua
-
Inflatables

need to communicate with their
homeworkers and their worldwide manufacturers
on a regular
basis for the following reasons:



To
supply design drawings



To answer technical queries



For contract communication

with manufac
turers



To discuss new products and pricing



To download and modify documents


The various
online
and electronic
commu
nication
methods
that could be used by
Aqua
-
Inflatables

are
discussed in
this section.


Fax

A fax machine (short for facsimile) is used to
transfer a document to another fax machine or a computer using
telephone lines.

Faxes operate by scanning and digitising a document or diagram and transmitting it to a target
telephone number. The receiver of the fax can then print out the document or diag
ram. This method of
communication is still widely used in business to confirm an order by a company.


VoIP


Internet Telephone

Voice over Internet Protocol
(
VoIP
)

is
the
name of the process in which
voice
communications
are

transmitted over the
Internet
.


The main advantage of VoIP, which is also
known as Internet
telephony
, is that calls
are cheaper than using the conventional
telephone network
;

the cost of calls is
important when dealing with suppliers on a
worldwide basis.


However
,

there are some d
isadvantages, as
in the introduction of all emerging
technologies



there is no service available
when there is a power failure and the
quality of sound reproduction is often
poor.




From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:



Online communication methods between individuals and groups, including

appropriate methods for one
-
to
-
one, one
-
to
-
many, and
many
-
to
-
many communications




The use of email, including multiple recipients and attachments


The use of ICT to
communicate, design,
manufacture and project
manage the production of the
boats is vital to the success of

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SMS

Short message service (SMS) is normally known as texting or text me
ssaging. This service enables text messages to
be sent from one mobile phone to another or from a computer (using the web) to another mobile phone. Text
messages are limited to 160 characters including spaces. They are increasingly used in business as they

are a brief
informal method of communicating with business partners.


Instant Messaging

Instant messaging
(
IM
)

occurs when
two or more people
ar
e involved in

a

text
-
based Internet conversation. IM can be used between personal
computers or other Interne
t
-
connected devices and is carried out in real
time.


Instant messaging can also be conducted across any network and so
could be set up for a single company use;

most
instant messaging
programs contain the following features:



Instant
m
essaging

by sending
text
-
based notes online



Create a chat room for a business group



Chat face to face using
webcam
s
to transmit video



Sharing files and web links


Video
c
onferencing

Video/teleconferencing is a useful method of communicating with
people
worldwide. It is based o
n two or more
locations being able to interact with others via multi
-
way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. The arrival
of broadband Internet and affordable webcams has had a major influence in popularising videoconferencing.


To use videoconfe
rencing the following equipment is needed:



Computer



Webcam



Broadband Internet connection



Microphone


Modern laptop computers have this equipment installed integrally and smartphones can

also

be used for
videoconferencing.


Video/Teleconferencing for Worldwide Communication with
Manufacturers

Advantages

Disadvantages



Employee does not have to spend time travelling
to meetings.



The company does not have to pay travel and
hotel expenses.



Meetings can be arranged at
short notice via email.



Time zones could be a problem for meetings with
multinational companies.



Even with a fast broadband connection there can be
delays in responses from people at the meeting.



Everybody needs the equipment and it needs to be in
g
ood working order.






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6.2 Email

Email has become an established method of communication both for business and social situations and most users
have a program to handle their email.


Addressing an
Email Message

This is as simple as typing the
intended recipient’s email address
into the
To

box; although in some
cases we want to indicate a different
level of involvement, such as
CC

and
BCC
.


Email messages can be sent to one or
many recipients. Since any of the
recipients can reply to the messages
they receive, email can be used for
many
-
to
-
many

communication.


Attaching a F
ile

This feature is often required by a
business and is a useful way of
transferring files between home and work
for teleworkers. It is also useful for
transferring files betw
een
Aqua
-
Inflatables

and their manufacturers.


It is easily carried out by pressing the
Attach File

button on the
Message

tab
and
then
browsing to select the file
or
files that
you need to insert.



Benefits
of U
sing Email for Business Communications



Attachments can be included with the email, such as an order for a supplier. The attached document can be
encrypted to maintain business privacy.




The email communication can be copied to others for record purposes, using CC or BCC feature.



Copies of sent items are automatically kept for business records.



Signature and company contact details can be added to the email automatically using a si
gnature.



Email contacts and address details can be added to an address book.



There are only brief time delays involved with sending and receiving emails.



Emails can be customised to include company logos, background colours and disclaimer notes.


The use of smartphones with
Internet

access has increased the use of email since the communication method is
available at all times and business users have an address book with details of their key business contacts and
suppliers. Smartphones include the f
eature to synchronise email contacts and emails with the

user’s

office
computer.


There are some disadvantages
of
using email for business, such as j
unk email
; this

is a major distraction for business
users as their inbox fills
up
with unsolicited email and
this
makes it difficult
for the user
to see the important ones.


Normally the
To

box will contain
the main intended recipient of the
email


it is not good practice to
send to a long list of people.

The
CC

or carbon copy field is
intended for sending emails to
keep others informed.

The
BCC

or blind carbon copy field
is used to sending a message to a
person without the other recipients
being aware of it.

To attach a fi
le click on
the
Attach File
icon and
browse for the file that
needs to be attached.


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6.3 Intranet & Extranet

Intranet

An intranet is rather

like an internal website for an organisation and so it is
used
in
-
house only
.


Aqua
-
Inflatables

could use the
i
r intranet for secure communication b
etween

the
workforce using email, instant messaging and even
Internet

telephones. It could
also be used to s
hare policy documents, standard company forms and computer
files.


Extranet

In this case the extranet can be
considered as an extension to the intranet for
trading partners. C
ommunication is based on
Internet

technology and involves
security features such as username, password and firewall to prevent
external
unauthorised access.


The
various manufacturers in China
can access the
relevant product design details
from the
Aqua
-
Inflatables

extranet
.


The

extranet
is also
able
to provide
secure communication with the worldwide
manufacturers
to discuss ongoing
orders,
time schedules
and pri
cing
information.



The main benefits of this communication system are:



It is a s
ecure and e
fficient method of communicating with
manufacturer
s
.



Service and access
are
always available (24/7
);
this help
s

with contacting worldwide organisations in different

time zone
s
.



It h
elps
designer
s

to automate the supply

and manufacture of products.


Summary Table


Communication Method

One to One

One to Many

Many to Many

Fax






VoIP


fnternet Telephone





SMS


Te硴






Instant Messaging






Video
c
onferen捩ng







Email







Intranet & E硴ranet











An
intranet

is a computer
network that uses Internet
protocol to share
information within an
organisation.

An
extranet

is similar to
an intranet and can be set
up to allow trading
partners to access parts
of the specific business
computer network.


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Further Research

Web Links


Benefits of Intranets and Extranets



www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1075386483&type=RESOURCES


Types of Electronic
Communication

www.ehow.com/list_7612671_6
-
types
-
electronic
-
communicati
on.html


Use of
E
lectronic
Fax

www.efax.co.uk/



Short Message Service

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS


Use of
Email
in
Business

www.ehow.com/about_5376611_uses
-
email
-
business.html



Global Video
c
onference Solutions

www.eyenetwork.com/



Intranet

& Extranet

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intranet


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extranet

Videos


How
Email Works

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBzLPmx3xTU


VOIP


Voice over Internet Protocol


www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Q_BrQpZfFE



Video
c
onference


How to
Have
a
Successful Interview

www.youtube.com/watch?v=oB8igBMlOM
s


Custom Portal Extranet and Intranet

www.youtube.com/watch?v=tB9md
-
9FYO0



Extranet versus Intranet

www.youtube.com/watch?
v=q5a44JJ9XCI&feature=related



Revision Questions

1.

List
seven
common features
available in
email programs
.

(7 marks)

2.

Explain the difference between CC and BCC when sending an email
.

(4

marks)

3.

Discuss the benefits and limitations of V
o
IP
communication
.

(4 marks)


4.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using videoconferencing to communicate with business
partners
.

(12 marks)

5.

Explain the difference between an intranet and an extranet
.

(4 marks)


6.

Explain the term

extranet


and list the advantages of using it for
communicating
with
business partners
.


(8 marks)





?


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Distributed database
: the elements of a
database are distributed throughout the
network to allow access at the loc
ation
where they are most needed.

7
.0

Distributed Databases






7.1 Distributed Databases

Global organisations such as Aqua
-
I
nflatables need to have
database systems that are accessible by users throughout the
world
. One method of providing this service would have been to
use a single database accessed by a wid
e area network

(WAN)
.


Distributed databases had many advantages over the single database since the organisation
is
not reliant upon a
single storage location.



There are several approaches to creating a distributed database but the general principle is
the same, whichever
method is adopted.

The most logical approach is the partitioned database
shown
below.





















The normal operation of the
partitioned distributed
database is as follows:



The required part of the central database is downloaded to the remote sites for local use.



Changes will be made to the data at the remote site each day
.



The central database is then updated on a regular basi
s to include these changes
.



The remote sites can communicate by telecommunication links or via the
Internet
.


Distributed Database Benefits

Distributed Database Limitations



Less risk of total database failure as database



distributed and not dependent upon one server



In捲eased speed of response to lo捡l database
queries



Data lo捡lised so less network traffi挠jamming up
the system



System is dependent upon
high
-
quality
捯mmuni捡tions links



Possible se捵rity issues as

database is distributed
over a wider area



Possible data in捯nsisten捹 as two versions of the
database are running in parallel for a period



From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:



Distributed databases

“Due to the specialist manufacturing methods needed to build the
boats, the company has to work alongside a large number of smaller,
specialist companies around the world.”

Remote
Database
Partition
B

Remote
Database
Partition A

Central
Database

Wide Area
Network


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Further Research

Web
L
inks


What is a
distributed database
?

searchoracle.techtarget.com/definition/distributed
-
database


Distributed Database Concepts

docs.oracle.com/cd/B10500_01/server.920/a96521/ds_concepts.htm


Distributed Database Notes

cgi.csc.liv.ac.uk/~dirk/Comp332/COMP332
-
DDB
-
notes.pdf


Distributed Database Present
ation

www.authorstream.com/Presentation/distributed
-
databases


Videos


Distributed Database
s for Dummies

www.youtube.com/watch?v
=aDTE8b
-
DHYU


Distributed Database Security


Marketing Video by IBM


www.youtube.com/watch?v=96sEBjdQ
-
vg


Revision Questions

1.

Explain the term
‘distributed database’.
(2 marks)

2.

Describe the normal operation of a
partitioned distributed
database
.

(4 marks)

3.

Discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of using a distributed database

of
VoIP
communicati
on
.


(
6

marks)









?


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8
.0
Project Management








8.1 Project Management

The p
roject management
team
have overall responsibility
to
ensure

that

all tasks are brought to a successful
conclusion.

Initially they plan the project as
described
;
they are then involved in scheduling, team allocation,
monitoring and reporting.



Task
b
reakdown
is an important aspect of project
management and is a process that cannot normally be
automated. The number of sub
-
tasks that the project will be broken down into is largely dependent upon the size
or scale of the project and the overall timescale; small sub
-
tasks are ideal as they are eas
ier to manage and to get
back on track if there is a problem.


Team
allocation


ideally the team will be allocated tasks that suit their
individual expertise; the project manager may well decide to put certain
members of staff together because they have p
roved to work well with each
other in the past.


Scheduling
is based on an estimation of the time required to complete the project and the associated manpower
needed. The project management would use this information along with the projected timescale to
draw up a
synchronised work schedule. With all projects there is an order in which tasks and sub
-
tasks need to be carried out.
Management normally use
Gantt
charts
and

critical path analysis

as tools to plan and manage complex projects.


Monitoring
and reporting
is essential to keep a project on track. Each sub
-
task must be monitored on a regular basis to ensure that

it is on schedule
and also that it is performing as required by the specification.

The key to monitoring and reporting is regular meetings which should be
synchronised between the various collaborating teams in the project.

Gantt
c
harts help you monitor
whether the project is on schedule. If the
project is not, they help you to pinpoint the remedial action necessary to put
it back on schedule.



8.
2

Use of Gantt Charts

A Gantt chart is widely used for illustrating all the activities involved in a project
;

it normally includes:



The start and end dates of all the activities included within the project



It shows the dependency between the various activities



for example, Activity E cannot start until Activity C is
completed



Some computer software Gantt charts

show the current date and the completed status of the project

A

Gantt chart
is a horizontal
bar chart that shows all the
tasks and activities involved
in a project to illustrate the
overall schedule.

Critical path analysis

is used
to map the project tasks, task
timescales and the
dependency between tasks.


From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release
material:



Project planning methods and software,

including the use of Gantt charts


The staff use a range of specialist and general pur
pose
project management software
.



The use of ICT to communicate, design, manufacture and
project manage the
production of the boats is vital to the
success of the company.



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An example of a simple Gantt chart is shown
below

left
;

it was created using Microsoft Visio Professional, which is
an advanced drawing package.



The creation of the Gantt chart in business s
cheduling software is normally straightforward. The tools in
the
MS
Visio package that are available for drawing the Gantt chart are shown
above right.


In this case the following steps were taken:

1.

Choose a Gantt chart template

2.

Choose the scale, in
days or months

3.

Insert a line for each task and enter a task name

4.

Enter the start date and end date for each task

5.

The duration and a schedule calendar will be created

6.

It is also possible to add dependencies between tasks on more complicated
projects

7.

It also possible to add milestones when a certain task has been completed


Note that Gantt charts can be drawn using spreadsheet software, but more specialised
software can automate the process and make it easier to modify.


The main advantage
s and disadvantages of Gantt charts are
described in the table
below:


Gantt Chart Advantages

Gantt Chart Disadvantages



This method can help to set realistic time frames
and organise the order in which the project
activities are carried out.



Gantt
charts are widely understood as a graphical
representation of project activities.



It is a useful method for scheduling small projects
that fit on a single page or computer screen.



Each bar on the chart indicates the time allocated
to complete the activ
ity, not the amount of work
involved. A short bar could indicate a large task (10
people working for five hours) whereas a longer
bar might indicate a small task of one man
working for 10 hours.



If dependencies are shown between the various
activities, t
he Gantt chart becomes cluttered and
difficult to understand.



It is important to visualise the whole of a project;
therefore, this is not an appropriate method for
larger projects that cannot be viewed on one
computer screen.




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Project planning software
is a
range of software that is used
for administration, planning,
scheduling and budget
management when dealing
with complex projects.


Milestones

are used to
indicate the end of key
tasks within a project.


Deadlines

are dates
by which milestones
must be completed.

8.
3

Project Planning
Methods &
Software

There are many
project management software
pac
kages available which can
help
Aqua
-
Inflatables workers
with project planning and
managing
the
production of boat
s.


Project management software
makes extensive use of diagrams
based on the simple Gantt chart
already described.

The screenshot below

shows
an
overview of the features in the
online
project management
software
package provided by

www.projectmanager.com



Planning

Planning

is the first duty that the project management will carry out in a collaborative work process. The overall task
will be broken down into a series of smaller tasks, each of which are small enough to be allocated to a small team
and can be completed in a shor
t time.


Throughout the project there will be milestones that indicate the end of one task; the completion of project design
is an example of a milestone and, once approval has been gained from the client, a stage payment might be
received and the project

will move onto the next task or phase.


Deadlines are dates by which milestones must be completed; the main deadline is the date by which the whole
project must be completed.


The
project manager
is heavily involved in the planning of all projects and makes
use of softwar
e for the following activities:



Creating a detailed list of tasks



Breaking them down further into su
b
-
tasks



Scheduling the start and end dates of each task



Linking tasks that have a dependency on each other



Allocating suitable people to the various tasks so that they are completed
on time


Progress

Project management

teams

need to be aware of the progres
s of a project so that they can make adjustments if the

project gets behind schedule
;

the softwa
re helps in the following ways:



Teams enter their progress and time spent on a task into the software



The p
roject manager can get email alerts for any task that

is running late



The actual project progress can be viewed against planned progress so that the project management is
aware of whether the project is ahead or behind schedule


Tracking

In addition to managing progress, project
management teams
also need to

track the use
of
resources:



Track the individual task and the overall project budgets



View
how much of

the project that has been completed at any time



Identify any risks at an early stage


Note that the areas of collaborative working are dealt with in
T
opic

9 of this publication
.





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Further Research

Web Links


Project Management Software

www.projectmanager.com/


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_management_software


www.microsoft.com/project/en
-
us/project
-
professional
-
2010.aspx


Project Planning Software

www.tenrox.com/en/solutions/project_planning.htm



Project Management Tools & Techniques

www.acornlive.com/demos/pdf/E2_EM_Chapter_7.pdf


Gantt
C
hart

Advantages & Disadvantages

www.pmhut.com/advantages
-
and
-
disadvantages
-
of
-
gantt
-
charts



Gantt
C
hart

en.w
ikipedia.org/wiki/Gantt_chart



Videos


Microsoft Project 2007


Linking Tasks

www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2tQLHD1cRk


What is a Gantt chart?

w
ww.youtube.com/watch?v=ANis9xuA8EA


How to
Create
a Gantt
Chart
in Excel 2010

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sA67g6zaKOE



Revision Questions

1.

Explain the term

Gantt chart
’.

(2 marks)

2.

Describe
two

advantages and
one

disadvantage of using a Gantt chart
.

(6 marks)

3.

Explain the term
‘project planning software’.
(2 marks)

4.

List
five

planning

activities that
project planning software
can provide
.

(5 marks)

5.

List
three progress

activities that
project planning software
can provide
.

(3 marks)

6.

List
three tracking
activities that
project planning software
can provide
.

(3 marks)

7.

Explain the terms
milestone and deadline

used in project planning
.

(2 marks)





?


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The collaborative
approach can be defined
as a process in which two
or more parties work
together to achieve a
common goal or objective


Creation of word
-
processed document
saved as:

Doc2010v1

Edit and add content
to word
-
processed
document saved as:

Doc2010v2

Proofread and correct
word
-
processed
document and save as:

Doc2010v3

Documents are normally
shared by using
digital
transfer of files

between
people and locations.


9
.0
Collaborat
ive Wor
king







9.1
Collaboration
Overview

In a modern business such as
Aqua
-
Inflatables

there is a need for documents to
be shared and transferred digitally between different workers and even
companies. This collaborative approach can be defined as a process in which
two or more parties work together to achieve a common goal or objective.


Collaboration does not just take place between individuals, in this case
it
can
involve any of the following

working together
:




People



Organisations



Count
ries


In the modern workplace business documents are often written collaboratively
by a number of people. The usual technique for reviewing word
-
processed documents is to do it on screen rather
than via printouts, as it is far easier to email a document to

a reviewer than to print out a copy and post it.

The main
ways of collaborating are to make changes to a document and send it back to the originator for approval.


The following steps normally take place:



Email documents directly from the word processor



Use password protection and encryption of documents to prevent unauthorised access



Track and manage document changes



9.2 Keep Track of Changes

It is important that a file
-
naming convention is decided upon when collaborating on any document; this helps th
e
organisation to keep track of any changes made to the document.


The diagram shows an example of a method for naming files at different stages of a project.


The use of version numbers is shown
in the diagram
;

each time
a
document is saved and modified it is saved under
a different version number.

From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:



Methods of document sharing and digital transfer of files


Communication and the sharing of documents
between staff and external suppliers are both vital
to the business



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Web sharing
is set up so that large
files and folders can be shared for
business use. Users can access their
files from any device with Internet
access.

Files and folders can be password
protected and encrypted for
security purposes.

If it is
a word
-
processed document the Track Changes feature

can be
made use of;

this feature

stores the details of each edit, so that it can
be reversed if necessary.

The chang
es made can be reviewed by the
manager responsible for the document who can choose to accept or
reject any changes made.


The screenshot on the right shows the track changes options
available for Microsoft Word 2010.


In business it is not just word
-
proc
essing files that are worked on
collaboratively
;

when
design and manufacture are involved CAD/CAM
files and databases will also be shared and transferred between
workers.


Tracking changes is useful to
Aqua
-
Inflatables

as workers or even
customers can vie
w or modify documents from home or their
respective workplace.




9.3 Document Sharing

& Digital Transfer of Files

Cloud
computing

has had a major impact on the way that
documents can be shared and digitally transferred between
organisations
.


The screenshot on the right
has been taken
from the

www.livedrive.com/ForBusiness

website and it shows the typical
features
available in a cloud computing environment.


Cloud
collaboration
describes when

you can work on the files
in your office wherever you have an
Internet

connection to log

on. Your colleagues can also work on the same files and you
have the option to see what changes have been

made

to a file
and who made the changes.


Web
sharing
is wh
ere you can

share

files privately with other
businesses; in this case
Aqua
-
Inflatables

can allow their
manufacture
r
s to have access

to

or download the files that they
need.



Web sharing
is a
secure and
more reliable
method th
an using email to
transfer files.

Note th
at web sharing can be carried out from the
company server as well as from the cloud
.


Email



f
iles can be transferred as attached document
s

between workers
or organisations
;

this method can work well for small businesses that
don’t have a network
.

However,

it is quite an inefficient digital file
transfer method as it is time
-
consuming for the person to actually set up
the email and it is quite possible
that
the recipient
will
not receive the file
as it might end up in
a
junk email folder.

Most email

programs also have a limit on the size of any attachments they
can handle.


Shared
workspace
is an area where files are stored that can be accessed and used by more than one person,
provided that they have the correct
access rights.
A common approach in b
usiness is to create an
intranet

for the
staff to use; this allows staff to gain access to standard company templates, documents and forms as required.

There can also be shared workspace for users to store common files that they all work on.

This approach

can be
extended to include an
extranet
, where other organisations can log

on to the system and view or download files
that they have the permission to access.

Shared workspace can be either cloud based or company server based.



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Further Research

Web
Links


Managed File Transfer

www.opentext.com/2/global/products/products
-
managed
-
file
-
transfer.htm


www.goanywheremft.com/solutions/managed
-
file
-
transfer


File Transfer

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_transfer


Cloud
Collaboration

www.livedrive.com/ForBusiness


Attach
File
to
Email

www.ctdlc.org/remediation/attach.html


Web Sharing

www.ehow.com/how_6524522_create
-
share.html


Videos


Attach Files via Email

www.youtube.com/watch?v=1jGRBzGTiSc


Gladi
n
et Cloud Sharing Files

www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJaJV7jNdSY




Revision Questions

1.

Explain the term
‘c
ollaboration


and describe how files are normally shared
.

(4

marks)

2.

Explain why the track changes option would be used in
a
word
-
processed document that is being created
by several people
.

(4 marks)


3.

Describe the disadvantages of using email to

transfer files between users
.

(5

marks)

4.

Briefly describe the features tha
t web

sharing can offer a business
.

(6

marks)






?


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A

survey

is a data
-
gathering method used
to collect information
about individuals.


Survey data is
rele
vant

to Aqua
-
Inflatables if it
increases the chances of
achieving their goals.

10
.0
Survey Data Relevance







10.1 Factors Affecting Relevance of Survey Data

In this section the factors affecting the relevance of the customer survey data
from 2005 are investigated.


The

relevance and
quality of the information
obtained in the customer
preference survey
will have a direct bearing on the success of any
marketing

and
in the value of any
decisions

made.



The main factors that affect the quality of information are described
in the table
below:



Feature

Example

Comment

Accurate

Information can be used for
either marketing or
decision
-
making, but it
needs to be accurate.

A mail merge marketing letter with
inaccurate postcodes will not reach the
intended audience and increase company
sales
.

Customer addresses
taken from a
survey conducted years ago
are
not likely to be accurate.

Relevant

I
nformation obtained from
the survey should be
relevant
, so that it helps the

business

to achieve
its
goals
.

I
f
Aqua
-
Inflatables

are

planning to build a
new type of boat
,

they would be interested
in facts from
a
survey, such as how often
customers upgrade or buy a new boat.

Customer habits change over time
and nowadays many people
would like to buy the latest boats
or technology, so t
he old survey
responses may not be relevant.

Up to date

Information needs to be
up

to

date when it is presented.

A survey carried out many years
ago
cannot
have included questions about the latest
boat technology or navigation accessories.

The 200
5

survey
may

be of little
use for researching new
boat
designs as there will be no data
on the latest technology.


To summarise, the survey data collected by
Aqua
-
Inflatables

in 2005 is not very relevant for either marketing or
decision
-
making purposes, as

detailed in the table above.


10.2 Advantages & Disadvantages of Surveys

Some of the main advantage
s

and disadvantages of using survey
s

for data collection are
shown in the table below.


Survey Advantages

Survey Disadvantages



A survey can be easily
managed by email, mobile
devices or over the Internet.



Data can be created from a survey’s results faster
than by interviewing or other methods.



A survey is an efficient method of gaining data
from a large number of people.



People may not give accura
te answers.



People may answer questions to show themselves
in a positive light.



Some ‘strength of choice’ answer options are
subje捴ive and may mean different things to
different people.

From Aqua
-
Inflatables pre
-
release material:



Factors affecting the relevance of survey data


The company was started in 2003 and keeps customer
data, including a customer
preference survey from
2005.



The staff use a range of specialist and general purpose
project management softw
are to help them with this

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Further Research

Web Links


Survey Methodology

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Survey_methodology


Survey Accuracy

www.awpresearch.com/id40.htm


Creating Questionnaires

www.samplequestionnaire.com/


Tips for
Writing Effective
and
Relevant Surveys




help.surveymonkey.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/134/~/tips
-
for
-
writing
-
effective
-
and
-
relevant
-
survey
-
questions
.


Videos


Questionnaires & Surveys

www.youtube.com/watch?v=
-
Plaf27PYUY


Interviews & Questionnaires

www.youtube.com/watch?v=31yalQIVvRY


How to
Write
a
Questionnaire
or
Survey

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsZySkZ8bRo




Revision Questions

1.

Define the term

survey


and
give example of
when survey data is relevant
.

(4 marks)

2.

Describe
two

advantages and
two

disadvantages of using a survey for data collection
.

(8 marks)

3.

List
three
factors that affect the quality of information from a survey
.

(3 marks)

4.

Describe an example where inaccurate data might cause a marketing campaign to fail
.

(2 marks)







?


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Self
-
Entry Revision Sheets





































Working
from home


Software Options


Licensing Legislation


Teleworking


Distributed
Databases


Distributed Database Theory



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Cloud
Computing
& Thin
Cloud Computing Services


Thin Client Computing


At Aqua
-
Inflatables


Advantages & Disadvantages



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Survey Data
Relevance


Main Relevance Factors


Survey Advantages & Disadvantages


Electronic
Communicat
ion

Online Communication Methods


Intranet & Extranet


Email



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Business
Website
Features

Company Use of Website


Company Use of Blogs


Company Use of Forums


Online Catalogues


Online Data Security


Embedded Sources & Expert Systems



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Project
Management


Use of Gantt Charts


Project Management


Project Planning Methods & Software


Computer
Hardware
Specification
s

Computer
System Requirements


Core Computer Components


Computer Spec Selection



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Software
Applications


Language Translation Software


Use of CAM


Use of CAD


Collaborativ
e Working


Collaboration Overview


Tracking Changes


Document Sharing & Data Transfer