GEOG 4400: Resource Use

flinkexistenceMechanics

Oct 27, 2013 (4 years and 12 days ago)

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GEOG 4400: Resource Use

Lecture 8

Energy


Energy efficiency


Energy use options


reduce energy consumption by changing energy wasting habits


improve energy efficiency by using less energy to do the same amount
of work


Per capita GNP = f( per capita energy use)


First law of thermodynamics


Second law of thermodynamics


Entropy


Energy quality vs. Energy task


World energy use vs. GNI per capita


Comparison of U. S. vs. Sweden


Comparison of MDCs vs. LDCs


Energy efficiencies


U. S. energy use by sector

Global Energy Use


World petroleum production and
consumption; petroleum flows

Energy Types


Fuel types


Petroleum


Coal


Natural gas


Hydropower


Nuclear


Synthfuelds


Coal gasification


Tar sands


Shale oil
-

kerogen


Geothermal


Hydrothermal


Geo pressurized


Dry rock

Petroleum


Coal


Natural gas


Hydropower


Nuclear


Synthfuelds


Coal gasification


Tar sands


Shale oil
-

kerogen


Geothermal


Hydrothermal


Geo pressurized


Dry rock


National Energy Policy


best alternative is to improve efficiency and
increase mix of perpetual and renewable
sources


capital expenses will limit new energy sources


develop mix of sources rather than one
centralized source


decentralize electricity and heat with locally
available resources

Nuclear Power


Four reasons why it happened


Atomic Energy Commission said it would be cheap


Should have had high capacity factor (% of time on line)


25% subsidies for first round with no overruns


U. S. contributed $1 trillion in research and development from 1952
-
1990 ($9 billion per reactor)


Price
-
Anderson Act pledged $640 million to cover nuclear
mishaps


Chernobyl cost $358 billion and 4 million people impacted (300
immediate deaths)


True cost of nuclear power


15 cents per kilowatt hour (same as a $247 barrel of oil)


plus 9 cents per kilowatt hour for waste storage and
decommissioning

Renewable Energy


Energy sources that are
continously

available
or are replaced relatively rapidly


Hydropower


Tidal power


Wind power


Photovoltaics

Energy Conservation


Alternative sources


Passive solar


Resource recovery


Biomass


Garbage


Agricultural wastes

New Ideas


Amory
Lovins


More energy of any kind vs. the right energy to do each
task cheaper


reduce energy consumption


walk


bike


wear sweater


use less energy to do the same work



insulation


tune cars


energy efficiency


useless energy to do more work


solar power

Six basic rules


convert to efficient lighting ($30 billion per year
in savings)


eliminate pure waste


passive solar design


efficiency improvements for lights, motors,
appliances, and smelters


industrial cogeneration, small hydro, wind power,
solar cells


new central power

True cost of power includes military in
Persian Gulf ($485 per barrel)