2-21-D-2003-01-0

flashyfarctateInternet and Web Development

Jul 30, 2012 (5 years and 17 days ago)

829 views



INFORMATION SOCIETY TECHNOLOGIES

(IST)

PROGRAMME






Deliverable 5


Evaluation Report in Modelling and EAI Tools




document classification

Public


Prepared for the European Commission

under Contract No. IST
-
38491 as a deliverable from

WP 2

Da
te of issue: 08/05/2003


V
ERSION
:

FINAL

DATE: 31/08/2003



CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

2

-


Project Coordinator:

LOGICDIS

LOGICDIS S.A.

Greece



Partners:

Unicorn Solutions Ltd.

Unicorn

Israel

Centro Richerche Fiat

CRF

Italy





Distribution List


All consortium members














Written by:

Kostas Votis


Reviewed by:

Nikos Bogonikolos


Approved by:

Nikos Bogonikolos



Document Change Log

Version #

Issue Date

Sections Affected

Relevant Information

0.1

18/03/2003

All

First draft of the deliverable

0.2

08/05/2003

All

Se
cond draft of the deliverable

Final

31/08/2003

All

Final draft of the deliverable




























CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

3

-


C
ONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............................

4

P
URPOSE

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

4

S
COPE

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
................

5

A
CRONYMS AND
A
BBREVIATIONS

................................
................................
................................
................................

6

R
EFERENCES

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

7

O
VERVIEW

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
........

8

STATE OF THE ART SUM
MARY

................................
................................
................................
.............................

9

O
NTOLOGY AUTHORING TO
OLS

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

9

Protégé

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

9

OilEd

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

11

D
ATA MODELING TOOLS

................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

16

MS Visio

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

16

ERWin

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

26

SilverRun

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
....

29

Comparison

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................

31

E
NTERPRISE
A
PPLICATION
I
NTEGRATION
M
IDDLEWARE

................................
................................
................................
..

32

MS BizTalk

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.

32

IBM Web
Sphere

................................
................................
................................
................................
........................

36

Tibco

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

47

UNICORN

SYSTEM

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......................

75

U
NICORN VERSION
2.0.5

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

82

S
UMMARY

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

97


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

4

-

INTRODUCTION


The aim of this
Test evaluation Summary

is the concentration on the evaluation of the
well
-
known data modelling and data integration tools, whic
h are currently in use in the
industry. Due to the relation of the project with industrial environments it is obvious that
commodity technologies and industrial tools have been studied and evaluated. A detailed
comparative study focused on the technical f
eatures, the suitability of tools for large
-
scale
industrial use, and the support for legacy data is included.

PURPOSE


As the project deal with industrial environments, commodity technologies and industrial
tools have been studied and evaluated.

Successfu
lly introducing innovations in data interoperability requires interacting with the
legacy standards and middleware that are likely to be in use in corporations and industries
for years to come.

This Test evaluation Summary concentrates on evaluating well
-
k
nown data modeling and
data integration tools currently in use in the industry. It includes a detailed comparative
study paying particular attention to the technical features as well as the suitability of tools for
large
-
scale industrial use and support fo
r legacy data standards and standard middleware and
Enterprise Application Integration environments. The types of tools, which have been
considered, are:



Ontology authoring tools: Protégé, OilEd,



Data modeling tools: MS Visio, ERWin, SilverRun,



Enterprise
Application Integration Middleware: MS BizTalk, IBM
WebSphere, Tibco



UNICORN System

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

5

-

An attempt has been made, not to solely base the comparison on companies literature and
product information, rather relevant product reviews by leading database developers
and
power users have been sighted in this report. Some evaluation softwares have also been
downloaded and tested for the comparison.

SCOPE


This report constitutes the Task 2.1of WP2 of COG project, the main objectives of which are
to:

o

Demonstrate the appl
icability of Grid technologies to industry

o

Realize the concept of an Information Grid incorporating real corporate
data

o

Give semantics to corporate data formats including legacy, relational and
XML through a detailed mapping to a central ontology.

o

Demonstr
ate the technological innovation of automatically translating
data between data formats on the Grid by way of a semantic mapping to a
central ontology

o

Publish a reusable ontology with concepts from discrete manufacturing
and specifically automotive

o

Capture

best practices in achieving above objectives and document the
methodology

o

Disseminate the methodology and results to Europe’s corporations

o

Reuse the methodology in industry


Based on the results of this task and the study of the technical features of the
Coherence
Ontological Modeling Suite, integration strategies and needs for the specified tools will be
analyzed in workpackage 2.2.. Particular attention will be given to integrating these
environments in an industrial setting in order to evaluate how they

work seamlessly, achieve
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

6

-

transparent operations for their users and be efficient for use with large legacy and open data
sets. This workpackage will also evaluate the difficulties and possible barriers of deploying
such solutions in an industrial setting.

The results of workpackage 2 will be used in work package 3 for the deployment of the
designed solution.

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVI
ATIONS






AMI:
Application Management Interface

API:
Application Programming Interface

APIs:
Application Programming Interfaces

B2B:
Business
-
to
-
Business

BPM:
Business
-
to
-
Business

EDI:
Electronic Data Interchange

EJB:
Enterprise JavaBeans

ERP:
Enterprise Resource Planning

ERX:
Entity Relationship Expert

EXCI:
External CICS Call Interface

GUI:
Graphical User Interface

JCA:
J2EE Conn
ector Architecture

JMS:
Java Message Service

JSP:
JavaServer Pages

ORM:
Object Role Modelling

OTMA:
Open Transaction Manager Access

RAM:
Random Access Memory

RDM:
Relational Data Modeller

RMI/IIOP:
Remote Method Invocation Internet Inter
-
ORB Protocol

ROI:
Return On Investment

SMS:

Systems Manager Server

SOAP:
Simple Object Access Protocol

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

7

-

SSL:
Secure Sockets Layer

UDDI:
Universal Description Discovery and Integration

UML:
Unified Modelling Language

VBA:

Visual Basic Applications

WBI:
WebSphere Business Inte
gration

WRM:
Workgroup Repository Manager

WSDL:
Web Services Description Language

XSLT:
Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations




REFERENCES





Building Ontologies in DAML+OIL”
, Robert Stevens, Chris Wroe,
Sean
Bechhofer
, Alan Rector,Carole Globe To appear in Comparative and
Functional Genomics, 2003





OilEd: a Reason
-
able Ontology Editor for the Semantic Web”
by

Sean
Bechhofer
,
Ian Horrocks
,
Carole Goble
,
Robert Stevens
.

DL2001
, 14th
International Workshop on
Description Logics, Stanford, USA, August 2001.



“XML for Business to Business e
-
commerce”

by Clive Finkelstein,
Information Engineering Services Pty Ltd. Published on
IES Web Site
,
March, 2000



“METADATA AND XML FOR BUSINESS”
by Clive Finkelstein, Informati
on
Engineering Services Pty Ltd. Published on
IES Web Site
, March, 1999



“An Introduction to the Extensible Markup Language (XML)
” by Martin
Bryant, The SGML Centre. Published on the
SGML



“Technologies for Enterprise Application Integration”

by Clive Finkel
stein,
Information Engineering Services Pty Ltd. Published on
IES Web Site
,
September, 2000



http://www.protégé.com




http://oiled.man.ac.uk/


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

8

-



http://www.unicorn.com/



OVERVIEW


The aim of this
Test evaluation Summary

is the concentration on the evaluation of the
well
-
known data modelling and data integration tools, which are currently in use in the
industry. Due to the relation of the pr
oject with industrial environments it is obvious that
commodity technologies and industrial tools have been studied and evaluated. A detailed
comparative study focused on the technical features, the suitability of tools for large
-
scale
industrial use, and

the support for legacy data is included. As it has already been described
the types of the tools, which have been considered, are:



Ontology authoring tools: Protégé, OilEd,



Data modelling tools: MS Visio, ERWin, SilverRun,



Enterprise Application Integrati
on Middleware: MS BizTalk, IBM
WebSphere, Tibco



UNICORN System

In the
State of the art summary

the results of the test are described. The results on the well
-
known data modelling and data integration tools, which are currently in use in the industry
are su
mmarized and divided in sections according to the category in which every tool
belongs. Every tool is described in individual sub
-
sections of the main four sections and after
that as a discussion of each section a comparison of the tools described is inclu
ded.



CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

9

-

STATE OF THE ART SUM
MARY


This survey is divided into four sections, which group different kinds of ontology tools,
namely: Ontology authoring tools, Data modeling tools , Enterprise Application Integration
Middleware and Unicorn system.

Each secti
on includes: Introduction, Short description of the tools to be compared, and
comparison of the tools.


ONTOLOGY AUTHORING T
OOLS


This group includes tools environments and suites that can be used for building a new
ontology from scratch or reusing existin
g ontologies. Apart from the common edition and
browsing functionality, these tools usually include ontology documentation, ontology
exportation and importation from different formats, graphical views of the ontology built,
ontology libraries, attached inf
erence engines etc.


PROTÉGÉ

Protégé 2000 is the latest tool in an established line of tools developed at Stanford University
for knowledge acquisition. Protégé 2000 has thousands of users all over the world who use
the system for projects ranging from mod
eling cancer
-
protocol guidelines to modeling
nuclear
-
power stations. Protégé 2000 is freely available for download under the Mozilla
open

source license.


Protégé 2000 provides a graphical and interactive ontology
-
design and knowledge
-
base
-
development env
ironment. It helps knowledge engineers and domain experts to perform
knowledge management tasks. Ontology developers can access relevant information quickly
whenever they need it, and can use direct manipulation to navigate and manage an ontology.
Tree con
trols allow quick and simple navigation through a class hierarchy. Protégé uses
forms as the interface for filling in slot values.


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

10

-

The
knowledge model

of Protégé
-
2000 is OKBC
-
compatible. It includes support for classes
and the class hierarchy with multipl
e inheritance; template and own slots; specification of
pre
-
defined and arbitrary facets for slots, which include allowed values, cardinality
restrictions, default values, and inverse slots; metaclasses and metaclass hierarchy.


In addition to highly usabl
e interface, two other important features distinguish Protégé
-
2000
from most ontology
-
editing environments: its
scalability

and
extensibility
.

Developers have successfully employed Protégé
-
2000 to build and use ontologies consisting
of 150.000 frames. Supp
orting knowledge bases with hundreds of thousands of frames
involves two components:

(1)

a database backend to store and query the data and

(2)

a caching mechanism to enable loading of new frames once the number of frames
in memory has exceeded the memory limit.


One of the major advantages of the Protégé
-
2000 architecture is that the system is
constructed in an open, modular fashion. Its component
-
based architecture enables system
builders to add new functionality by creating appropriate plugins. The Protégé Plugi
n
Library contains contributions from developers all over the world.


Most plugins fall into one of the three categories: (1)
backends
that enable users to store and
import knowledge bases in various formats; (2)
slot widgets
, which are used to display and

edit slot values or their combination in a domain
-
specific and task
-
specific ways, and (3)
tab
plugins
, which are knowledge
-
based applications usually tightly linked with Protégé
knowledge bases.


Current backend plugins (and standard backends) include su
pport for storing and importing
ontologies in RDF Schema, XML files with a DTD, and XML Schema files. We have
experimental support for OIL. The development of DAML+ OIL is in its final stages.


Available slot widgets include user interface components to di
splay GIF images, as well as
video and audio. A diagram widgets include user
-
interface components to display GIF
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

11

-

images, as well as video and audio. A diagram widget allows developers to build elements of
a knowledge base by drawing a diagram in which node
s and edges are themselves frames of
particular types (distinguished by shape and colour).


The most popular type of plugins are tab plugins. Currently available tabs provide
capabilities for advanced visualization, ontology merging and version management,

inferencing, and so on.


The OntoViz and Jambalya tabs, for example, present different graphical views of a
knowledge base, with the Jambalya tab allowing interactive navigation, zooming in on
particular elements in the structure, and different layouts of

nodes in a graph to highlight
connections between clusters of data.


The PAL tab provides support for the Protégé Axiom Language. PAL is a subset of KIF that
enables users to express constraints on their data for which the frame formalism itself is not
su
fficiently expressive. The PAL inference engine then analyzes the data to tell the users
which constraints the instances in the knowledge base violate and how. The Flora tab (for F
-
logic) and the Jess tab provide access to reasoning engines developed elsew
here.


The PROMPT tab provides an environment for
managing multiple ontologies
. Its
components include tools for ontology merging that help the user to find similarities between
source ontologies and to merge the ontologies; for ontology versioning, which
automatically
finds a structural “diff” between versions of an ontology; and for extracting semantically
complete subparts of an ontology and rearranging frames in different linked ontologies.


The UMLS and WordNet tabs enable users to import and integrate

elements of the
large on
-
line knowledge sources
into their ontologies



OILED


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

12

-

Oiled is a simple editor that allows the user to create and edit OIL ontologies. The main
intention behind OilEd is to provide a simple, freeware editor that demonstrates the u
se of,
and stimulates interest in, DAML+OIL. OilEd is not intended as a full ontology
development environment
-
it will not actively support the development of large
-
scale
ontologies, the migration and integration of ontologies, versioning, argumentation and

many
other activities that are involved in ontology construction. It should, however, provide
enough to allow the basic construction of OIL ontologies and demonstrate the power of the
connection to the FaCT reasoner.


Oiled has been built by The Informati
on Management Group, Department of Computer
Science, University of Manchester. The original development of OilEd was supported by
Interprice GmbH and the Free University of Amsterdam.


The knowledge model of OilEd is based on that of DAML+OIL, although thi
s is extended
by the use of a frame
-
like presentation for modeling. Thus OilEd offers a familiar frame
-
like
paradigm for modeling while still supporting the rich expressiveness of DAML+OIL where
required classes are defined in terms of their superclasses a
nd property restrictions, with
additional axioms capturing further relationships such as disjointness. The expressive
knowledge model allows the use of complex composite descriptions as role fillers. This is in
contrast to many existing frame
-
based editors
, where such anonymous frames must be
named before they can be used as models.


The main task that OilEd is targeted at is that of editing ontologies or schemas, as opposed to
knowledge acquisition or the construction of large knowledge bases of instances.

Although
functionality is provided that allows the definition of individuals, this is primarily intended
for the definition of nomimals, which are used in the DAML+OIL
one
-
of
construction.


A key aspect OilEd’s behavior is the use of the FaCT reasoner [H
orrocks et al, 99] to
classify ontologies and check consistency via a translation from DAML+OIL to the SHIQ
description logic. This allows the user to describe their ontology classes and have the
reasoner determine the appropriate place in the hierarchy fo
r the definition.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

13

-

The DAML+OIL RDF Schema (March 2001)XXXX is used for loading and storing
ontologies. In addition, the tool will read and write concept hierarchies in pure RDF and will
render ontology definitions as HTML for browsing and as SHIQ for later

classification by
the FaCT reasoner. Concept hierarchies can also be rendered in formats readable by AT&T’s
dotty tool. XXXXX


The DAML Language is being developed as an extension to XML and the Resource
Description Framework (RDF). The latest release of
the language (DAML+OIL) provides a
rich set of constructs with which to create ontologies and markup information so that it is
machine readable and understandable.



Comparison

An important aspect when analyzing a tool is its software architecture and tool

evolution.
Both OilEd and Protégé 2000 have standalone architecture. While Protégé 2000 can be
extended with Plugins, OilEd cannot be extended. An other weak point of OilEd is that it
uses files for storing ontologies while Protégé 2000 uses DBMS (JDBC).
In addition, none
of them provide any backup management functionality.


Interoperability with other development tools, merging tools, information systems and
databases, as well as translations to and from some ontology languages, is another important
featu
re in order to integrate ontologies in applications. The interoperability with other
development tools for OilEd is FaCT, while for Protégé 2000 are PROMPT, OKBC, JESS
and FaCT. OilEd translates to OIL, RDF(S) and DAML+OIL languages, from OIL, RDF(S),
DAML
+OIL SHIQ and dotty HTML languages. Protégé 2000 translates to XML, RDF(S),
XML Schema languages from XML, RDF(S), XML Schema, FLogic, CLIPS and Java
HTML languages.


From the KR paradigm point of view, there are two families of tools: description
-
logic b
ased
tools such as OilEd and other tools such as Protégé 2000 which allow representing
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

14

-

knowledge following a hybrid approach based on frames and first order logic. Additionally,
Protégé 2000 provides flexible modeling components like metaclasses. However,
none of the
tools analyzed includes: methodological support, project management facilities, ontology
maintenance and they only provide a little support for ontology evaluation.


Before selecting a tool, it is also important to know which
inference services

are attached to
it. This includes: built
-
in and other inference engines, constraint and consistency checking
mechanisms, automatic classifications and exception handling, among others. OilEd
performs inferences using the FACT inference engine and Protégé
2000 uses PAL. OilEd is
the only one performing automatic classifications because it is based on description logic
languages. Finally none of the tools provide exception
-
handling mechanisms.


Related to the
usability

of tools only in Protégé 2000 there are

graphical editors for the
creation of concept taxonomies and relations. In addition, there is the ability to prune these
graphs and perform zooms of parts of it. Finally, none of them allows any kind of
collaborative working, while both of them provide li
braries of ontologies.

The following table shows the result of comparison in terms of the requirements for the
ontology evolution


Tools/

Requirements

Protégé

OilEd

Functionality



Elementary

+

+

composite

-

-

Supervision

-

-

Transparency

-

-

Reversi
bility

<>

-

Auditing

<>

<>

Refinement

-

-

Usability



User
-
friendly

+

+

verification

<>

<>

validation

-

-

Table 1. Evolution support within authoring tools
. Description: “
-
” means that there is no
support, “<>” states that support is partial, “+” c
orresponds to the full support.


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

15

-

The basic functionality of each authoring tool is specified as a set of elementary ontology
changes. Thus, all allows allow such modifications. Even though composite changes allow
an ontology engineer to update an ontology
without having to find the right sequence of
elementary modifications, most of the existing ontology tools do not include composite
changes. Most of the existing systems for the ontology development provide only one
possibility for realising a change, and
this is usually the simplest one. For example, the
deletion of a concept always causes the deletion of all its subconcepts. It means that users are
not able to control the way changes are performed (supervision). Moreover, users do not
obtain explanations
why a particular change is necessary (transparency).


Furthermore, there is no possibility to undo effects of changes (reversibility). Protégé has
Edit menu with Undo/Redo options, but they are disabled. Regarding the auditing
requirement, OilEd has the ac
tivity log. However, it records connections to the reasoner, not
all ontology modifications. Protégé also has the command history option, but it is useless,
since it is disabled. As known to authors, none of the existing systems for ontology
development an
d maintenance offer support for (semi
-
)automatic ontology improvement,
even though it makes the ontology easier to understand and cheaper to modify. Most of the
existing ontology authoring tools have a very similar layout. They are ergonomically correct
to

minimise human errors. Moreover, all tools can detect logical conflicts (verification), but
they do not provide enough information to analyse the sources of conflicts. However, none
of the tools provide the means to answer to the questions such as how, wh
y, what if, etc.
(validation).


Conclusions

In summary, a lot of “similar” ontology development tools exist for the building of
ontologies, but neither do they interoperate nor do they cover all the activities of the
ontology life cycle (just design and im
plementation). The lack of interoperability between all
these tools provokes important problems when integrating an ontology into the ontology
library of a different tool, or if two ontologies built using different ontology tools or
languages are integrate
d using merging tools.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

16

-


DATA MODELING TOOLS


MS VISIO



Microsoft Visio is a stand
-
alone diagramming solution that helps people visualize and
communicate ideas, information, and systems.

Visio has three main roles:



Complements Microsoft Office

Business pr
ofessionals can create
information
-
rich diagrams that complement and extend the work they do in
Office programs.



Facilitates technical design, deployment, and maintenance

Technical
professionals can diagram and document ideas, information, and systems to
facilitate IT deployments, extend the use of developer tools, and even
document facilities layouts and engineering plans.



Enables development of custom visual solutions
Visio provides the ability
to create custom shapes and stencils to support organization
al standards and
can be used to build wide
-
scale custom visual solutions.

Within each of these roles, Visio provides three key benefits. These benefits include the
ability to 1)
easily make an impact
by quickly creating and sharing professional
-
looking
dia
grams, 2)
understand ideas, information, and systems
through a broad range of task
-
specific solutions that integrate with other Microsoft products, and 3)
benefit from the
diagramming standard

using a single, customizable diagramming program that can be
de
ployed across the organization.


Easily Make an Impact

Visio provides the tools you need to quickly create and share professional
-
looking diagrams.
The familiar Microsoft Office environment makes Visio easy to learn and use and with Visio
you don’t need d
rawing expertise to create professional
-
looking diagrams. You can assemble
diagrams quickly and easily by dragging pre
-
defined Microsoft SmartShapes
®

symbols from
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

17

-

stencils onto the drawing page. Built
-
in borders, backgrounds, and color schemes help you
add

a professional look to your diagrams. Easily share diagrams by copying them into Office
documents or saving them as detailed Web pages.


Understand Ideas, Information, and Systems

Visio supports a broad range of task
-
specific diagram types, from process

flows and
organization charts, to office and building layouts, to network, web, and database topologies,
and more. Many diagrams can be generated automatically from data stored in Microsoft
Excel, Exchange Server, Microsoft SQL Server

, and other common d
ata sources. Store
data in custom property fields and generate reports, or export Visio diagrams to common
exchange formats.


Benefit From the Diagramming Standard

Visio provides a single, customizable diagramming standard that is easy for organizations
to
deploy and maintain. Visio products share a common file format, so users can exchange
diagrams across the organization, regardless of which Visio product they use. Visio Standard
and Visio Professional are based on the Visio diagramming engine, which ca
n be used to
develop custom visual solutions. Plus, organizations can perform efficient wide
-
scale
deployments with tools for installing and maintaining Visio on thousands of desktops.

The Visio family includes two products designed to meet the needs of sp
ecific groups of
users:


Microsoft Visio Standard

provides diagramming solutions that help business
professionals

such as project managers, sales and marketing professionals, HR personnel,
administrative staff, and others

visualize and share information ab
out the people, projects,
and processes they work with every day.


Microsoft Visio Professional

helps technical professionals

IT, developer, and engineering
professionals

visualize existing ideas, information, and systems and prototype new ones.
Visio Prof
essional also includes the business diagramming solutions found in Visio
Standard.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

18

-

Visio products share a common file format, so users can exchange diagrams, regardless of
which Visio product they use. Visio Standard and Visio Professional also include th
e Visio
diagramming engine for developing custom visual solutions.


Design Goals

The design goals for Visio 2002 correspond to the three themes above and include the
following: increased visual impact, tighter integration with other applications, and impr
oved
deployment, maintenance, and customization.

Visio 2002 helps you easily make an impact with tools for creating better
-
looking diagrams
than ever and sharing them in the context of your everyday business communications. The
Visio 2002 product line is
also easier to learn and use, with many classic Office features, as
well as new features shared with Office XP. And a number of online resources make it easier
to increase your productivity.

Lines and text are smoother than in previous versions, and gradie
nt fills appear clearer when
viewed electronically.

Visio now supports over 16 million colors per document.

In addition
it provides built
-
in access to clip art installed with Microsoft Office, as well as tens of
thousands of images, sounds, and videos avai
lable online. You can enhance Visio diagrams
by importing images or photos directly from a scanner or digital camera and crop, group, or
change the fill, border, shadow, or transparency of imported graphics within Visio.

Diagrams saved as Web pages incl
ude a custom properties viewer, built
-
in navigation, and
improved hyperlink positioning. Multiple hyperlinks can be displayed for a single shape.
Double
-
click a diagram within an Office document, and get access to more Visio tools for
making updates and re
visions.

The Choose Drawing Type dialog opens when Visio is launched to help users visualize and
access the appropriate diagram template. The Getting Started Tour provides an introduction
to Visio, a sample diagram library, and the basic steps involved in
creating Visio diagrams.
Answer Wizard Help enables users to type questions directly into the Ask a Question box. A
list of related Help topics appears, including links to new and updated topics on the Web.
The Find Shape tool provides search capabilities
for installed shapes as well as additional
shapes available on the Web. Download new shapes by dragging them from the results pane
onto the page. The Find Shape tool provides search capabilities for installed shapes as well
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

19

-

as additional shapes available o
n the Web. Download new shapes by dragging them from the
results pane onto the page. The Pan and Zoom, Custom Properties, and Drawing Explorer
windows can be merged into a single, page
-
tabbed window and docked in the stencil pane to
provide additional work
space. Users can now search diagrams for information contained in
custom properties, shape names, and user
-
defined cells, in addition to shape text.

Visio has the new Office XP new look for improved usability and overall experience. Menus
include the same
personalization options that make Office applications easy to learn,
prominently featuring the most
-
used items and keeping others easily accessible. The task
pane helps users open or start documents, view the contents of the clipboard, perform
searches, or

insert clip art (Office XP required for clip art integration). Common Office tools
such as AutoCorrect behaviour, familiar keyboard shortcuts, and the Office spelling checker
are now built in to Visio.

Visio articles, tips and tricks, product updates, and

add
-
on solutions on the Microsoft Office
Tools on the Web site help business users increase their productivity. Technical Visio
articles are available through MSDN
®
, TechNet, and the Microsoft Knowledge Base.


More Integrated

Individual Visio solutions h
elp you better understand ideas, information, and systems
through tighter integration with other products and technologies. Many solutions have been
improved to be easier to use and to help you work more effectively.

Visio Standard and Visio Professional

import dates and tasks from Microsoft Project to
create Visio timelines and Gantt charts. Export dates and milestones in a timeline to create a
Gantt chart, and vice versa. Display an unlimited number of custom properties on
organization charts. Users can
change which properties are displayed after the diagram has
been generated. Create maps of small areas and other locations requiring detailed
documentation. New shapes represent curved walls and office cubicles. Resize office layout
shapes using new dimens
ion labels or by specifying custom property values. Doors and
windows automatically fall into place when dropped on a wall shape. Individual CAD
entities can be converted into Visio shapes.


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

20

-

In
Visio Professional

new shapes represent Exchange objects in Mi
crosoft Active
Directory

. Users have increased control over discovery and layout. A new List window
enables easy navigation by displaying Web site elements in a tree view. Users can generate a
complete report of all the links in a Web site, including brok
en links. The reporting tool can
identify changes in a Web site since it was last diagrammed. Users can work more quickly
by adding new fields consecutively to database tables or software classes. Users can reverse
engineer and diagram schema for SQL Serve
r 2000, in addition to other databases. Building
a database diagram from the Tables window is faster than in previous versions. Also, users
no longer need to drag tables from the Tables window to create a diagram after reverse
engineering a database Users
can reverse engineer and diagram Microsoft Visual Basic
®

6
and Visual C++
®

6 projects. Support for Visual Basic 7, Visual C++ 7, and Visual C#


will
be provided through a service release when Microsoft Visual Studio
®
.net becomes available.
New shapes repre
sent curved walls; any flat wall can be transformed into a curved wall.
Users can easily change the curvature of curved wall shapes. Visio automatically cleans up
wall intersections, reducing the amount of cleanup required in creating building plans. Users

can automatically populate floor plans with data stored in Active Directory, Exchange, Excel
spreadsheets, Access databases, or other ODBC
-
compliant data sources. Visio enables users
to automatically assign colors to shapes, such as offices in a floor pla
n, based on custom
property values. Visio now enables users to see all model space views supported by
AutoCAD paper space. The process engineering solution now displays component
information in the Custom Properties window, eliminating the need for an exte
rnal database.
Engineers can manually tag process
-
engineering components and selectively retag them.
Tags can also be generated based on component custom property data. Users get enhanced
control of pipe layout with support for junctions, as well as splitt
ing and healing of pipe
segments by valves and other process engineering components.

Visio features several improvements that make it a stronger diagramming standard than ever.
A streamlined product line simplifies purchase decisions for organizations, whi
le other
improvements enable improved customization and tighter interoperability. Finally, familiar
deployment technologies enable organizations to deploy and maintain Visio on thousands of
desktops.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

21

-

Visio Standard

Designed for business professionals. Inc
ludes Visio 2000 Standard solutions,
plus new and improved features.

Visio Professional

Designed for business and technical professionals. Includes Visio
Standard, plus all solutions formerly available in Visio Professional and Visio Technical.

Visio Stand
ard and Visio Professional are available in 13 languages: English, French,
German, Japanese, Korean, Italian, Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, traditional Chinese,
simplified Chinese, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish. Visio Network Tools is available in
English, F
rench, German, and Japanese.

The new XML file format enables interoperability with other XML
-
enabled applications and
facilitates storage and exchange of diagram
-
based information, including data not associated
with a page or shape Over 90 new Automation p
roperties and methods provide access to
more Visio diagram data. Visio enables developers to extend and enhance Visio
programmatically through COM add
-
ins. Developers can extend and enhance Visio
functionality using built
-
in Visual Basic for Applications (
VBA) 6.3. Microsoft
Authenticode® technology allows developers to digitally sign the VBA projects in their
solutions using a digital certificate that identifies the developer as a trusted source. If a
signed project has been altered, a user can choose to d
isable macros in a Visio document.
Administrators and/or users have the option of removing Visual Basic for Applications from
Office installations on a user, group, or organization
-
wide basis.


The Auto Update utility analyzes a user’s Visio installation,
recommends relevant updates,
and makes them immediately available for download and installation. Users can choose to
save their current files at the time an error occurs in an application. As a result, users spend
less time recreating their diagrams. For a
dded assurance and diagnostic help, users can
prompt Visio to automatically report application errors to Microsoft. Users can choose to
safely shut down a non
-
responding application while initiating recovery of the document.
Users can choose how often file
s are automatically saved. If an error occurs, the recovered
file is opened, and users have the option of discarding the file, saving it over the original, or
saving it as a separate file.

Like Office, Visio can be deployed using Windows
®

Installer technol
ogy. Windows Installer
simplifies desktop management. End users can install additional Visio features on demand

features are added only as needed or as disk space allows. IT administrators can use Install
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

22

-

on Demand to determine which features to deploy to
different groups of users, thus
improving manageability. In addition, the self
-
repair feature reduces support costs

Visio
detects and fixes missing or corrupt files, so users don’t waste time troubleshooting. Visio
uses the Office Installation Wizard, whic
h provides control over customized installations,
including silent and unattended installations. Systems Manager Server (SMS) support
simplifies installation. Organizations can create packages for automatic deployment to
specified user groups on the local
network and at remote sites System administrators can
more effectively install and run Visio in a secure Windows environment. Features such as
install on demand and detect and repair are now accessible to users without local
administrator privileges. Multi
ple, concurrent users will benefit from improved Terminal
Server support.

This Web
-
based tool guides administrators through specific scenarios to
ease deployment efforts.


Microsoft Visio Standard 2002

Microsoft Visio Standard 2002 offers a wide range of
specialized business solutions to help
you understand and communicate how your organization works.

With Visio Standard, you can easily visualize projects, processes, and people using precision
drawing tools, task
-

and application
-
specific diagram types, a
nd intelligent SmartShapes
symbols.

Visio Standard comes with familiar Microsoft Office features and integrates seamlessly with
other Microsoft applications. You can integrate diagrams seamlessly into Microsoft
PowerPoint® presentations, Microsoft Excel s
preadsheets, and Microsoft Word documents.
You can also publish them as Web pages to share over the corporate intranet or the Internet.
These features make Visio Standard the most versatile diagramming software product
available.






Benefits

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

2
3

-

Document an
d share ideas visually.

Quickly assemble diagrams using predefined shapes

Visualize people, projects, and processes.

No matter what your area of expertise, Visio has
a diagram for you. Create flowcharts, organization charts, timelines, office layouts, and

more. Even generate diagrams from data stored in Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access, and
Microsoft Project.

Work in a familiar environment.

Become productive quickly using skills developed using
other Office programs. Visio 2002 features the same look and
feel as Microsoft Office XP
and includes many common Office behaviors. Easily create and revise Visio diagrams in
place within other Office programs

Disadvantages

Although this product makes nice charts, etc., it lacks the ability to adapt well to changes
in
paper size, relocation of objects and will put objects well outside the page limits if you let it.
Once you get past the need for manually positioning objects, the output is pretty good.

System Requirements

Visio Standard 2002

To use Microsoft Visio Sta
ndard the recommended system is Windows 2000 Professional on
a computer with a Pentium III processor and 128MB of RAM. The minimum system
requirements include:

Windows operating system

Microsoft Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition,
Windows Millennium, Mi
crosoft Windows NT® 4.0 with Service Pack 6 or greater, or
Windows 2000. On systems running Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6, the version of
Internet Explorer must be upgraded to at least 4.01 with Service Pack 1.

Random Access Memory
RAM requirements fo
r Microsoft Visio depend upon the
operating system used, plus an additional 16 MB of RAM for Visio: for Windows 98 and
Windows 98 Second Edition, 24 MB of RAM for the operating system; for Windows Me, 32
MB of RAM for the operating system; for Windows NT W
orkstation or Server 4.0, 32 MB
of RAM for the operating system; for Windows 2000 Professional, 64 MB of RAM for the
operating system. Operating system RAM requirements assume default Windows
installations, and running additional utilities or applications
may require additional RAM.

Storage requirements

Hard
-
disk space requirements will vary depending on configuration.
110 MB of available hard
-
disk space is required for the default configuration of Microsoft
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

24

-

Visio. Custom installation choices may require mo
re or less hard
-
disk space. A CD
-
ROM
drive is required for installation.

Monitor

VGA (640x480) or higher
-
resolution monitor. Super VGA (800x600)
recommended. 256 colors required.

Pointing device

Microsoft Mouse, Microsoft IntelliMouse®, or compatible poin
ting device.

Processor

Pentium 166 MHz or higher processor.

Additional requirements

for specific features Some Microsoft Visio features have
additional requirements:



Modem

9600 baud modem; 14,400 or higher baud recommended.



Internet

Some Internet functiona
lity may require Internet access and payment of a
separate fee to a service provider; local and long distance telephone toll charges may
apply.


Microsoft Visio Professional 2002

Overview

The first Microsoft
-
developed version of Visio, Visio Professional 2
002 provides
diagramming solutions that help business and technical professionals document and
communicate a broad range of ideas, information, and systems. Diagrams created in Visio
Professional provide valuable insights into existing technical systems an
d help individuals
and teams more effectively develop new ones. When used to augment text and numbers,
Visio diagrams make a message more concise, help people remember main points, and
transcend cultural and technical barriers.

Benefits

Comprehensive tech
nical diagramming and drawing.

Take advantage of specialized
diagram types to create network, Web site, database, and software diagrams. In addition,
Visio Professional 2002 delivers the facilities management diagrams and engineering
schematics previously

available in Visio Technical. All diagrams in Visio Standard are also
supported.

Intelligent, precise diagrams and drawings.

Diagrams incorporate detailed data and reflect
accurate dimensions. Improved reporting capabilities enable flexible data export,
and a new
XML file format facilitates customization and interoperability.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

25

-

Easy
-
to
-
use, integrated environment.

Visio Professional provides a familiar Microsoft
Office environment and many Office features. Quickly and easily visualize existing systems,
than
ks to integration with many Microsoft technologies.


System Requirements


Visio Professional 2002

To use Microsoft Visio Professional the recommended system is Windows 2000 Professional
on a computer with a Pentium III processor and 128MB of RAM. The mini
mum system
requirements include:

Windows operating system

Microsoft Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows
Millennium, Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6 or greater, or Windows 2000. On systems
running Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6, the
versio
n of Internet Explorer must be
upgraded to at least 4.01 with Service Pack 1.

Random Access Memory

RAM requirements for Microsoft Visio depend upon the
operating system used, plus an additional 48 MB of RAM for Visio: for Windows 98 and
Windows 98 Second E
dition, 24 MB of RAM for the operating system; for Windows Me, 32
MB of RAM for the operating system; for Windows NT Workstation or Server 4.0, 32 MB
of RAM for the operating system; for Windows 2000 Professional, 64 MB of RAM for the
operating system. Ope
rating system RAM requirements assume default Windows
installations, and running additional utilities or applications may require additional RAM.

Storage requirements
Hard
-
disk space requirements will vary depending on configuration.
170 MB of available ha
rd
-
disk space is required for the default configuration of Microsoft
Visio. Custom installation choices may require more or less hard
-
disk space. A CD
-
ROM
drive is required for installation.

Monitor
VGA (640x480) or higher
-
resolution monitor. Super VGA (8
00x600)
recommended. 256 colors required.

Pointing device
Microsoft Mouse, Microsoft IntelliMouse, or compatible pointing device.

Processor
Pentium 200 MHz or higher processor.

Additional requirements for specific features
Some Microsoft Visio features hav
e
additional requirements:

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

26

-

Modem
9600 baud modem; 14,400 or higher baud recommended.

Internet
Some Internet functionality may require Internet access and payment of a separate
fee to a service provider; local and long distance telephone toll charges may ap
ply.


ERWIN


While

ER
win

is strictly a data modeling tool, Logic Works also publishes
BP
win
, an IDEF
process tool, and a number of products related to the design, coding, and implementation of
database application systems.
ER
win

and
BP
wi
n

both connect to L
ogic Works'
ModelMart

repository product for shared model storage and access.

While there is still no way to perform selective de
-
normalization, the new “logical only”
property on entities, attributes, and relationships allows substantial differentiation o
f logical
and physical models. Views are provided, albeit incompletely, in an attractive and simple
approach. The primary editor interfaces have been refreshed and simplified.

ERWin has introduced separate logical and physical models. This is accomplished

by
treating the two model forms as different representations of the same content.


For example, many
-
to
-
many relationships now appear immediately in the physical model as
associative tables when Physical Model is selected from the menu drop
-
down list. An

associative table can have columns added which will not be represented in the logical many
-
to
-
many relationship. Logical Model can also be chosen to permanently convert the
relationship into an associative entity.

The biggest benefit of the separation of
logical and physical diagrams is probably how the
various editors are simplified. Since there are fewer properties to be shown (i.e., either
logical or physical, but not both), the new editor formats are less cluttered. However, this
separation makes no pr
ovision for meaningful de
-
normalization, which is the only real
reason for having separate diagram forms. Columns cannot be moved or replicated in the
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

27

-

physical with any link to their source attributes in the logical model. Furthermore, since both
logical a
nd physical models work from the same underlying metadata, logical data cannot be
propagated into multiple physical models (for different database products, configurations, or
trial versions) without a crude "save as" or copy. Either of those, of course, w
ill break the
links of the new model from its origin.

Logical Only / Physical Only Properties

ER
win

3.5

adds a new detail feature buried as a checkbox on the object definition editors. A
logical model object (entity, attribute, relationship) can be specifi
ed as Logical Only. This
will suppress that object in the physical model. In a symmetrical fashion, there is a
Physical
Only

property for tables, columns, and physical relationships (foreign key references). These
setting options may seem trivial but they
provide several valuable capabilities. Objects can
be marked as
Logical Only,

if they are in process and not yet ready for exposure to the real
world. On the physical side,
Physical Only

provides a poor man's de
-
normalization if you
want to manually repres
ent column moves and replications without forcing the same form in
the logical model. This is also useful to model technical columns and tables from the
physical side without cluttering up the logical side.

Views

It is slick and simple: just grab the
View

table

tool from the tool box, drop a view symbol
into a physical model and connect it to its source tables with the
View relationship

tool. The
resulting view is immediately and dynamically populated with columns from the source
tables.

Unfortunately, se
veral of the most important elements in a view are
NOT

provided. The
WHERE

clause is left to the user to code. There is no provision for
GROUP BY
,
HAVING
,
or
ORDER BY
, all of which are fundamental to any SQL query.


Application

Erwin provides imported entr
y of entity and attribute names directly on the diagram surface.
One can click a new entity onto the canvas and just start typing, go back into the editors later
to add the details. This is very simple and natural for free
-
form “white
-
board” style input. O
f
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

28

-

course ERWin still allows very easy attribute movement with the toolbox hand icon. One
can navigate from the attributes of an entity to the descriptive properties of that entity but not
the other way around. Adding an attribute in the editor imposes anot
her dialog box on top,
rather than accepting entry into a grid or list. The multiple Display levels and Editor styles
remain Erwin’s most confusing aspects.

Every window is organized differently. Many options, even important concepts, only appear
as obscur
e buttons nested several windows deep. Some are now only available from the right
mouse menu. There is no apparent design pattern or template from which new features are
added or old ones enhanced.

Erwin’s manuals and help are generally excellent, well
-
org
anized, well written, and
providing extensive discussions of concepts with examples. Feature creep has gotten ahead
of the indexing (both printed and on
-
line) so it is often a goose chase to look up a specific
feature. But the explanation will probably be
clear and complete.


Usability

ER
win

has taken a beating recently on this issue and consequently the company that provide
it has done substantial rework on the interface for
3.5
. ERwin provides improved entry of
entity and attribute names directly on the d
iagram surface. You can click a new entity onto
the canvas and just start typing. Go back into the editors later to add the details. This is very
simple and natural for free
-
form "white
-
board" style input. Of course
ER
win

still allows
very easy attribute m
ovement with the tool box hand icon.


Nonetheless, we think that ER
win

is still neither pretty nor friendly once you dive into the
dreaded editors. You can navigate from the attributes of an entity to the descriptive
properties of that entity but not the o
ther way around. Adding an attribute in the editor
imposes another dialog box on top of the one you're in, rather than accepting entry into a
grid or list. The multiple Display levels and Editor styles remain ER
win
's most confusing
aspects.

Every window is

organized differently. Many options, even important concepts, only appear
as obscure buttons nested several windows deep. Some are now only available from the right
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

29

-

mouse menu. There is no apparent design pattern or template from which new features are
ad
ded or old ones enhanced.


On the other hand, ER
win
's manuals and help are generally excellent
-

well organized, well
written, and providing extensive discussions of concepts with examples. Feature creep has
gotten ahead of the indexing (both printed and o
n
-
line) so it is often a goose chase to look up
a specific feature. But when you find it, the explanation will probably be clear and complete.


SILVERRUN

SilverRun is an integrated business process and data modelling solution for handling an
enterprise's e
ntire portfolio of models
-

from business process models to conceptual, logical
or physical data models, application packages or data warehouse. This breadth of
functionality is delivered in a highly intuitive, easy
-
to
-
learn, easy
-
to
-
use graphical
environm
ent. SilverRun products are available on Microsoft Windows, OS/2, Macintosh and
SUN Solaris.


SilverRun products exist in both standalone (SilverRun Professional series) and team
modelling configurations (SilverRun Enterprise Series) to support enterprise
-
level modelling
efforts. The SilverRun Professional Series includes four modules for the analysis stage of the
application development life cycle: Entity Relationship Expert (ERX), Relational Data
Modeller (RDM), Business Process Modeller (BPM), and Workgr
oup Repository Manager
(WRM). The SilverRun Enterprise series, which includes an on
-
line, relational database
repository, supports ERX, RDM and BPM in a team modelling, repository
-
based
environment.


Furthermore, SilverRun is a large and deep set of tools
for database modeling and
engineering. At the moment SilverRun is perhaps uniquely positioned among CASE tools.
Yet SilverRun offers serious enterprise features generally found in much more expensive
server based tools (e.g., ADW, LBMS’s Systems Engineer).

SilverRun integrates the three
classic fundamental data design components based on a common presentation approach and
shared design definitions:

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

30

-

BPM Module
: Discovery of requirements, definitions, and structures via data flow
diagramming.

ERX Module
: Con
ceptual modeling via Chen style Entity
-
Relationship diagrams.

RDM Module
: Advanced relational schema design and DDL generation.


Each of these three modules is a separate product, licensed per seat. Since the per module
cost is about the same as the total
cost of Erwin, SilverRun can be somewhat more
expensive, depending on configuration and user population. Nonetheless the cost difference
alone is moderate and hardly a deterrent to enterprise scale users who may desire
SilverRun’s benefits.


In addition,
an optional Enterprise version of SilverRun (RDM only to date) joins the big
leagues by working directly over a relational database dictionary. Standard versions capture
a model snapshot in a proprietary file local to the user. A product facility is provid
ed to
manage the reconciliation of multiple models. The Enterprise version, on the other hand,
displays each object live from its shared RDBMS dictionary (in Oracle, Sybase,…), which
handles locking, updates, and global refresh at the object level. Based o
n its solid foundation
in methodology, depth of features, and modular integration, SilverRun is a strong leader in
the CASE data
-
modeling field.


SilverRun’s style is bulky, clumsy, and slow to the point that it inhibits, rather than enables,
design inspir
ation. Menus are very long and intimidating without obvious choices. Tool
pallets contain overlapping and confusing icons. Accessing graphic objects requires
knowledge of specific tool behaviors. “Connectors” are defined separately from
“Directions”. A num
ber of its internal rules are only enforced by batch procedures, rather
than as real
-
time validations. SilverRun understanding is encumbered by jargon unknown in
the standard lexicon of data modeling.


At a more general level, the methodology framework imp
osed by SilverRun’s ERX module
is out of date and incomplete. The Chen style Entity
-
Relationship modeling in the ERX
module forces the dated notion of ‘relationships’ as objects separate and distinct from
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

31

-

entities
-
a concept which has been discarded by most

practitioners in favor of the more
streamlined and understandable Information Engineering technique.


SilverRun’s sub
-
typing is implemented only at the physical level (RDM “Choises”) and
offers no flexibility in mapping conceptual sub
-
types into normaliz
ed or de
-
normalized
tables. Candidate keys are not supported, although their common weak side effect of
“alternate keys” are. There is no facility in the ERX module to model purely conceptual
entities, which externalize an attribute definition without gene
rating a table.


SilverRun provides multi
-
platform desktop support, excellent on
-
line help, extensive printed
documentation, good user support policies and a robust, reliable code that performs well.


COMPARISON

It is difficult to say which of the tools th
at we have described before are the best data
modeling tools. Every tool has its advantages and disadvantages.

While performing some tests, ERwin actually shut down abnormally, losing all unsaved
work. The simplest way to cause this was to create a domain
in the Explorer view
underneath an existing domain while the list was sorted hierarchically. Apparently due to an
error in the code, a “ghost” domain would be created at the top level. Any attempt to delete
the extra domain resulted in immediate shut down.

A number of functions either didn’t work
at all or didn’t work as indicated in the documentation. For example, drawing a reference
from a parent “entity” to a child is supposed to “auto
-
migrate” the parent PK column to
become a child FK column, if the opt
ion is turned on in the model properties. For identifying
references, it worked fine, but for non
-
identifying references, nothing migrated. ERwin has
always had a slightly more cumbersome interface, with a general lack of graphic
functionality. The interfa
ce has improved in 3.5 version, adding a number of very nice
features, such as the Explorer view and graphic. However, the general impression of the
interface is still clumsy with graphic anomalies and unstable code. The user interface is the
first experie
nce users have with the product, therefore, it cannot be overemphasized how
important a robust user interface is to the overall acceptance of the tool.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

32

-

However, Visio has a more sophisticated user interface and functions that are easier to find
and use for

the novice. With its advanced control over graphics and its stronger reporting
facility, Visio produces better quality documentation than Erwin and SilverRun.
Additionally Visio is including reverse engineering and DDL creation. It’s also one of the
few t
ools that supports object role modeling (ORM) for conceptual design. ERwin seems to
lack some of the higher
-
end documenting capabilities to be expected in an enterprise
-
level
modeling tool. Additionally, ERwin has some very compelling features with
denorma
lization management and better naming convention tools.
SilverRun is a suite of
tools designed to support ER and business process modeling, as well as UML and code
generation and can support high levels of integration into third party tools. In conclusion

we
can say that both of these data modeling tools are very popular and provide the user with a
many useful functions.


ENTERPRISE APPLICATI
ON INTEGRATION MIDDL
EWARE


MS BIZTALK

Biz Talk Server 2002 lower the cost of implementing integration solutions by r
educing the
complexity of enterprise application integration. It provides organizations with the server,
tools, adapters, and vertical accelerators needed to integrate and automate their business.

BizTalk Server adapters.

BizTalk Server adapters are addit
ional software components that
enable BizTalk Server to integrate with third
-
party applications from companies like SAP,
J.D. Edwards, and PeopleSoft. Microsoft produces two adapters which can be licensed, one
for MOSeries and one for SAP. It also provides

an adapter which can be downloaded for
Web Services. In addition, third
-
party companies provide hundreds of additional BizTalk
Server adapters.

BizTalk Server accelerators.

Microsoft offers three BizTalk Server accelerators

Microsoft BizTalk Accelerator

for HIPAA, Microsoft BizTalk Accelerator for Suppliers, and
Microsoft BizTalk Accelerator for RosettaNet

Benefits

BizTalk Server provides companies with three main benefits:

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

33

-



Integration of enterprise applications.

Today's agile businesses need to make
be
tter decisions more quickly. By achieving a unified view of their data and
applications both within their organization and with their business partners, these
business can increase their revenues and decrease their cost of operation. Data and
transformatio
n services and the application integration features in BizTalk Server
2002 can provide businesses with the tools they need to achieve this unified view.



Automation of business processes.
To remain agile, businesses must be able to
integrate their data, ap
plications, and business partners in an automated, predictable
way so they can achieve the return on investment that application integration can
bring. BizTalk Orchestration Designer and BizTalk Orchestration Engine provide
organizations with business proc
ess automation, enabling their businesses to run
predictably.



Development of operational excellence.

To realize real return on investment, it
must be possible to rapidly deploy and easily manage an integration solution. This
flexibility can reduce the cos
t and complexity associated with application integration.
BizTalk Server 2002 introduces SEED, a revolutionary new technology for
automating the integration of business partners over the Internet.

Functionality

BizTalk Server enables businesses to achieve

application integration through five key
processes: document transport and routing, data transformation, application integration,
process automation, and scalability and manageability services. Each process is achieved
through receive functions, channels,

ports, schedules, and tools.



Receive functions are the starting point for documents submitted to BizTalk
Server.



Channels modify the structure of these documents as well as manage
encryption, digital signatures, and logging.



Messaging ports send docume
nts to schedules or to external organizations
and trading partners.



Schedules orchestrate business processes.



BizTalk Server 2002 tools enable the receive functions, channels, messaging
ports, and schedules to run.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

34

-

Receive Functions

BizTalk Server is ca
pable of receiving documents submitted through a wide variety of
medium, including Internet standard technologies such as HTTP, SMTP and SOAP, as e
-
mail attachments, through the message bus, programmatically through exposed API’s, and
through adapter compo
nents. BizTalk Server receive functions monitor HTTP, MSMQ
message queues, and file locations for incoming business documents. They are responsible
for submitting the received documents on to a channel, the second step in the process.
BizTalk Server Admini
stration components are used to configure receive functions. It also
exposes a Component Object Model (COM) interface, Interchange, which enables any
COM

compatible application, such as ASP .NET, the .NET Framework, Microsoft
SharePoint Portal Server or Mi
crosoft Exchange Server, to submit business documents
directly to a channel. Through the freely downloadable BizTalk Adaptor for Web Services
developers can create Web Services that provide synchronous access to BizTalk Server
applications without writing
code.

Channels

Once an incoming document is received into the system, it often needs to be transformed to
meet specific business or application formats. Channels can perform a number of operations,
including document transformation and logging. A BizTalk S
erver channel is set up to
receive incoming documents that conform to a specific document definition, which defines
the ordering of the business data within the document. When the document arrives through a
receive function, a channel can log the whole doc
ument or any portion of it to the BizTalk
Document Tracking database for later analysis, or transform the document to conform to the
schema of the target application. BizTalk Messaging Manager is used to manage channels in
a graphical user interface (GUI).

In addition, two other BizTalk Server applications can be
used to set up the artifacts used in BizTalk Server channels:

BizTalk Editor
, which creates document definitions as an XML representation of business
documents originally defined as flat files, XML
, or Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).

BizTalk Mapper
, which graphically creates the transformation between two business
documents and saves it in an Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) map.

Messaging Ports

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

35

-

After documents are received

and mapped to the format of the target application, they need
to be delivered either directly to that application or to a business process that manages
delivery to multiple target applications. BizTalk Adapters enable BizTalk Server to integrate
with many

standard technologies as well as third
-
party applications without additional
development work. Messaging ports also push documents to schedules, which manage
business processes that target a number of applications. There is a many
-
to
-
one relationship
betw
een channels and ports. Dozens of channels can send documents to a single messaging
port, which is particularly useful when business documents are sent from a variety of
applications to a single target application.

Schedules

BizTalk Server schedules orche
strate the automation of business processes by receiving
documents from a messaging port then calling COM components, other BizTalk Server
messaging channels, or XML Web services (this capability is provided in the BizTalk Server
2002 Toolkit for Microsoft

.NET). BizTalk Server schedules are created in a graphical
environment called BizTalk Orchestration Designer, which is based on Microsoft Visio®.
The BizTalk Orchestration Designer consists of two panels on the design surface, the
business analyst panel,
and the developer panel. This enables organizations to separate
process from implementation. It also facilitates the rapid creation and alteration of business
processes.

Within a schedule, a business analyst can draw a business process that consists of dec
isions,
loops, and actions, such as receiving a purchase order, sending a purchase order into an
enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, and so on. In addition, by sending its output to
another BizTalk Server messaging channel a schedule may deliver its

document to other
schedules. This enables complex business processes to be segmented into manageable
processes that can be maintained separately.

Tools

BizTalk Server provides a set of sophisticated graphical tools that businesses can use to
build, transf
orm, manage, track, and analyze business documents. The BizTalk Server tools
were designed to simplify the common tasks required to integrate applications and business
systems, and ensure the desired functionality is achieved.

BizTalk Server includes the f
ollowing graphical tools:

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

36

-

BizTalk Orchestration Designer

enables users to visually define and build robust,
distributed business processes.



BizTalk Editor

enables users to define schema for XML, EDI, and flat files.



BizTalk Mapper

enables users to link d
isparate schemas and define steps for
successful document transformations.



BizTalk Messaging Manager

is a wizard
-
based tool that enables users to
manage the details of business
-
process transactions.



BizTalk Server Administration

enables administrators to

perform common
administrative tasks such as adding and removing servers.



BizTalk Document Tracking

enables users to track documents as they move
through various stages of the business process.



BizTalk SEED Wizard

enables rapid partner enablement through

the creation
and use of SEED packages.



IBM WEBSPHERE


IBM WebSphere software is characterized by features such as




high performance



reliability



scalability



security


The basis of the IBM WebSphere platform is provided by the IBM WebSphere
applicatio
n server, a stable server for your e
-
commerce applications. It supports
industry standards for software such as Java, Enterprise JavaBeans and JavaServer
Pages files and enables high
-
performance interactions with corporate databases and
transaction systems
. The IBM WebSphere platform comprises IBM WebSphere MQ,
a middleware product, with the help of which you can integrate your e
-
commerce
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

37

-

applications into back end systems. That is decisive for quick, secure customer
transactions and efficient consistent pr
ocesses, such as in ordering.


WebSphere is infrastructure software for dynamic e
-
business, delivering a proven,
secure and reliable software portfolio. Providing comprehensive e
-
business
leadership, WebSphere evolves to meet the demands of companies faced

with
challenging business environments such as the need for increasing operations
efficiencies, strengthening customer loyalty, and integrating disparate systems.


Leading customers toward dynamic e
-
business means WebSphere provides answers
to these chall
enging business environments. WebSphere is the only e
-
business
platform that can provide everything you need to build, deploy and integrate your e
-
business, including: Foundation & Tools, Business Portals, Business Integration and
Transaction Servers & Too
ls.




WebSphere Capabilities

Foundation&Tools




Open Services Infrastructure


WebSphere Application Server

lets you deploy a core operating environment for a
reliable foundation capable of high volume, secure transactions and Web services.


Applicat
ion Development

WebSphere Studio

lets you deliver a rapid and efficient response to business needs
through new e
-
business application
s.


Enterprise Modernization


WebSphere Host Integration

and
WebSphere Studio

let you leverage existing
business assets and skills to satisfy new e
-
business requirements.


Business Portals


Interactive User Experience

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

38

-


WebSphere Portal

helps people interact in a personalized way with diverse business
resources.


Access On Demand


WebSphere Everyplace

and
WebSphere Voice

let you easily access information
a
nd take action anywhere, anytime, using any choice of devices.


Selling and Channel Management


WebSphere Commerce

helps you optim
ize marketing, business relationships and
channel management to maximize e
-
commerce revenue.

Business Integration


Business Integ
ration

lets you realize the benefits of end
-
to
-
end integration through
five core capabilities: model, integrate, connect, monitor and manage.


IBM Webshphere Application Server version 5.0

Today, building an e
-
business on demand that can extend your marke
t reach and
maximize your return on investment (ROI) means more than simply Web
-
enabling
content and applications. To participate in the next chapter of e
-
business, it is vital to
integrate these applications with existing data stores, other applications a
nd Web
services that exist in heterogeneous environments, in multiple programming models
and on different sides of firewalls.


IBM WebSphere
®
Application Server, Version 5.0 is a comprehensive Java

2
Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) 1.3 and Web services technology
-
based
application server that integrates enterprise data and transactions with today’s e
-
business world. Through a rich application deployment environment, you can build,
manage and de
ploy dynamic e
-
business applications, handle high
-
transaction
volumes and extend back
-
end business data and applications to the Web. IBM
WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment offers advanced Web services
that can operate across disparate applicat
ion frameworks and business
-
to
-
business
(B2B) applications, and provides virtually any
-
to
-
any connectivity with transaction
management and application adaptability. With multiple configuration options,
WebSphere Application Server supports a wide range of
scenarios, from simple
CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G
RID
TM



-

39

-

administration of a single server to a clustered, highly available, high
-
volume
environment with edge of
-

network services. These specialized configuration options
give you the flexibility to respond to an ever
-
changing marketplace

w
ithout
the
costs of migrating to a different technology base. As the foundation of the
WebSphere platform and the core J2EE and Web services configuration, IBM
WebSphere Application Server, Version 5.0 is optimized for ease of administration
in a single
-
se
rver deployment environment.


This configuration is recommended for organizations that need to build and deploy
message
-
oriented, departmental applications and Web services but don’t require
failure bypass or workload distribution. This configuration is a
lso available with a
restricted development
-
only license to allow enterprises using third
-
party
development tools to effectively build and test applications for WebSphere
Application Server.


Leverage existing software assets

In today’s business environme
nt, it’s more important than ever to take full advantage
of your existing IT resources from hardware to personnel. With its commitment to
open standards and extensible connectivity features, WebSphere Application Server
can greatly improve your ability to