IN-NETWORK VS CENTRALIZED PROCESSING

flangeeasyMobile - Wireless

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 27 days ago)

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IN
-
NETWORK VS CENTRALIZED PROCESSING

FOR

LIGHT DETECTION SYSTEM

USING

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS




Presentation by,





Desai, Bhairav





Solanki, Arpan

Outline


Introduction


Algorithm and Methodology


Formation of routing topology


In
-
network aggregation


Centralized aggregation


Experiments and Results


Conclusion


References

Introduction

Databases Vs Sensor Networks


Range Queries


much better idea for sensor
networks


Additional operators have to be added for
Query Language e.g. epoch and duration


Continuous long running Queries


Data Centric Networking


Combination of Querying, storage and routing
techniques


Works efficiently if we use the combination as
application specific rather than generalized
like traditional IP based techniques.

Challenges


Volatile System


Append Only Streams


High Energy cost of communication


Variable data arrival rate at different nodes


Limited Storage on nodes


Centralized Processing

In Network Processing


Objective


Implementing In
-
network aggregation in real
environment for a Data
-
centric application



Comparing In
-
network and Centralized
aggregation approach

Algorithm

and

Methodology

Topology Formation


Collection Tree Protocol


Base Station


Root of the Collection Tree


EXT
node

= EXT
parent

+ EXT
link to parent



where EXT root = 0


Detecting Routing Loops

In
-
network Aggregation



Data aggregation at in
-
network nodes



Steps required to overcome change in topology

Network Behavior

Two phases


Node discovery phase


Discovery of topology


Assigning time interval



Aggregation phase


Sense


Aggregate


Forward

Assigning time interval

Calculate time interval

Where


T
node



Time duration of a node


D


Total depth of the tree


L
node



Level of the node in the routing tree


T


Total epoch duration

Processing Plans

(b) Non
-
sensing intermediate node

(a) Sensing leaf node

(c) Sensing intermediate node

Node Operation (Sensing leaf nodes)

Node Operation (Sensing intermediate nodes)

Node Operation (Non
-
sensing intermediate nodes)

Nodes divided in groups

Change in topology

Consequences

Node

Before

After

Parent

Level

Parent

Level

20

11

3

1

2

30

2

2

3

2

32

31

3

33

4

Causes change in depth of the tree

That’s why topology reformation is required

Centralized Aggregation


No discovery of topology



No assignment of time interval



No steps to overcome change in topology



Aggregation of data at the base
-
station

Node Operation (Sensing leaf nodes)

Node Operation (Sensing intermediate
nodes)

Node Operation (Non
-
sensing intermediate nodes)

Job of the base station



Collect data from all the nodes



Perform aggregation

Experiments

and

Results

In
-
network aggregation

In
-
network aggregation

In
-
network aggregation

In
-
network aggregation

In
-
network aggregation

In
-
network aggregation

Centralized aggregation

Comparing both approaches

Comparing Bytes Transmitted

Conclusion


Lesser number of Hop counts



Low amount of bytes transmitted



Lower energy consumption

References


C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust
Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks,
In Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International
Conference on Mobile Computing and Networks (MobiCO
, August 2000)


David Gay, Phil Levis, Rob Von Behren, Matt Welsh, Eric Brewer, and David Culler, “The nesC


language: A holistic approach to networked embedded systems,” in SIGPLAN Conference on


Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI’03), June 2003.


J. Heidemann, F. Silva, C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, D. Estrin, and D. Ganesan, “Building


Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks with Low
-
Level Naming,” Proceedings of the ACM


Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP), October 2001.


Wendi Heinzelman, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Hari Balakrishnan, Energy
-
Efficient


Communication Protocols for Wireless Microsensor Networks, Proc. Hawaaian Int'l Conf. on


Systems Science, January 2000.


Z. Cheng and W. Heinzelman, “Flooding Strategy for Target Discovery in Wireless Networks,”


Proceedings of the Sixth ACM International Workshop on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of


Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM), September 2003.


D. Braginsky and D. Estrin, “Rumor Routing Algorithm for Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of


ACM WSNA, September 2002.

References


J. Bonfils and P. Bonnet, Adaptive and Decentralized Operator Placement for In
-
Network Query


Processing, Telecommunication Systems
-

Special Issue on Wireless Sensor Networks, January


2004


S. Madden, M.J. Franklin, J.M. Hellerstein, and W. Hong, TAG: a Tiny AGgregation Service for


Ad
-
Hoc Sensor Networks, 5th Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation


(OSDI 2002), December 2002


Y. Yao and J. Gehrke, The cougar Approach to In
-
Network Query Processing in Sensor


Networks, SIGMOD, March 2002


S. Madden, R. Szewczyk, M.J. Franklin, and D. Culler, Supporting Aggregate Queries Over Ad
-


Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks, Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, June 2002


S. Ganeriwal, R. Kumar, and M. B. Srivastava, Timing
-
Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks,


Proceedings of ACM SenSys’03, November 2003


TinyOS Mailing list, http://www.tinyos.net/


TinyOS Naming Conventions, http://www.tinyos.net/tinyos
-
1.x/doc/tutorial/naming.html


(TinyOS Introduction 2003)


Getting Started with TinyOS and nesC, http://www.tinyos.net/tinyos
-
1.x/doc/tutorial/lesson1.html


(Dissemination Protocol 2004)


Dissemination, http://www.tinyos.net/tinyos
-
2.x/doc/html/tep118.html


References


(Collection Protocol 2004)


Collection, http://www.tinyos.net/tinyos
-
2.x/doc/html/tep119.html


(The Collection Tree Protocol 2004)


CTP
-
Collection Tree Protocol, http://www.tinyos.net/tinyos
-
2.x/doc/html/tep123.html


“Networking Wireless Sensors” by Bhaskar Krishnamachari. Cambridge University Press, 2005


“Wireless Sensor Networks


An Information Processing Approach” by Feng Zhao, Leonidas


Guibas. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2004