Creating Web Services from RPG Applications

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Nov 3, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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IBM Software Group

© 2008 IBM Corporation

Creating Web Services from RPG Applications

Al Grega

IBM Rational Software

IBM Software Group | Rational Software

© 2008 IBM Corporation

2

What We’ll Cover …


Web Services Overview


Technical Overview


Development and Deployment


IBM i Web Services Server


Rational Web Services Wizard


Host Access Transformation Services


Summary

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© 2008 IBM Corporation

3

4GL

C/C++


Application
Created


Business
Processes/
Services


Services
Available


RPG Modules


HTML Forms


Java beans

Consumer

Provider





PHP

RPG


COBOL

Tools

Create

Assemble

Monitor

Deploy

Model

IBM i Developers Road Atlas for SOA

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4

How Did We Get Here?


Evolution of the Web


Document
-
centric =>


Application
-
centric =>


Service
-
centric

Static Web Applications

Dynamic Web Applications

Web Services

Portlet Applications

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5

(from the Wikipedia.com)


A '
Web service'

(also
Web Service
) is defined by
the
W3C

as "a software system designed to support
interoperable

machine
-
to
-
machine

interaction over a
network
"
[1]
. Web services are frequently just
Web

APIs

that can be accessed over a network, such as
the
Internet
, and executed on a remote system
hosting the requested services.



Web Service Definition

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6

What Are They?


Web services



Applications that are invoked over the Web



An implementation of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)



Contain only business logic, do not have a user interface



Self
-
contained



Self
-
describing

Internet


Web Application

Web Service

Other Applications

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7

Requirements Addressed By Web Services


Interoperability


need a common communication protocol


Between systems


Between languages


Interface Description Language


Describe the service’s interface


Clear and unambiguous


Platform independent


Retrieval of Service


Search and retrieve available services


Conventient integration at design time and runtime


Security


Protection of services


Protection of data sent to/from services




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8

Types of Web Services


Business Information: access to a database or rapidly
changing contents



Stock quotes



Currency conversion rates



Address book



Geographical data


Business Integration: implementing a function or
outsourcing a business process



Reservations system



Credit check



Payment system



Loan service



Product catalog

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9

Broker

Provider

find

2

bind/invoke

3

publish

1

Requestor

Web Service Participants


Provider:
implements a Web service


Requestor:
has a business need


Broker:
lists all available services


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10

What We’ll Cover …


Web Services Overview


Technical Overview


Development and Deployment


IBM i Web Services Server


Rational Web Services Wizard


Host Access Transformation Services


Summary

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© 2008 IBM Corporation

11

Web Services Technology Stack

Discovery UDDI, WSIL

Description WSDL

XML Messaging SOAP

Transport HTTP, JMS, FTP, SMTP

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Web services : Transport Layer


HTTP



Simple, stable, widely deployed



Travels through firewalls



Currently the most popular option for SOAP transport



HTTP is synchronous



If asynchronous transactions are required, consider using
JMS



Other choices: FTP, SMTP

Broker

Provider

SOAP

over

HTTP

Requestor

SOAP

over

HTTP

SOAP

over

HTTP

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13

Web services : Description Layer

1.
WSDL: Web Services Definition Language


XML schema (vocabulary) describing a Web service interface


Methods


Parameters


How to invoke the service


2.
Client applications use WSDL to

generate Web service client proxy


3.
Web service client proxy contains code

that invokes a Web service

Broker
Provider
Publish
WSDL
Look up
WSDL
Use WSDL to bind/invoke
2
3
1
Requestor
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14

Web services : XML Messaging Layer


SOAP is a flavor of XML


SOAP message contains a Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
or any XML document

Web service
Client
Web
service
SOAP
Server
Internet
1
2
3
6
5
4
1.
The Web service client creates and sends a SOAP message

2.
The SOAP server listens for SOAP messages. SOAP server is an application
running in an Application Server (for example, WebSphere Application Server)

3.
The SOAP server processes the SOAP messages and passes the request to a
Web service

4.
The Web service runs the specified method and returns the result to the SOAP
server

5.
The SOAP server forwards the result back to the Web service client

6.
The Web service client parses SOAP response.

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15

Web services : Discovery


UDDI: Universal Description, Discovery and
Integration


Registry of Web Services (the White, Yellow and Green
pages)


Information categorized by company and by service type


Can be private or public


Several public UDDI registries exist


UDDI Server


Ships with IBM i


Included with WAS Express 6.0 and above


WebSphere Service Registry and Repository


Promotes reuse and eliminates redundancies


Enable
SOA governance

of your services


Optimizes the use of services in SOA by exchanging rich
service information

www.xmethods.com

www.strikeiron.com

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16

What We’ll Cover …


Web Services Overview


Technical Overview


Development and Deployment


IBM i Web Services Server


Rational Web Services Wizard


Host Access Transformation Services


Summary

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17

What are your Options on IBM i?


IBM i Web Services Server


Bundled with the IBM i Operating System


Creates web services from ILE *SRVPGM’s or *PGM’s


Rational Web Services Wizard


Bundled with Rational Developer for System i for SOA Construction
(RDI SOA)


Creates web services from RPG and COBOL ILE source code


Host Access Transformation Services


HATS Toolkit available as a free download and is bundled with RDi
SOA


Creates web services from any 5250 screen

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18

Which method do you implement?

Web Services Server

Rational

Web Services Wizard

Host Access
Transformation
Services

Where do you get
the tool

Part of the IBM i Operating
System

Bundled with RDi SOA* and
other Rational IDE’s

Free Download and

Bundled with RDi SOA* and
HATS for 5250**

Source

*SRVPGM and *PGM ILE
Batch Modules

RPG and COBOL ILE Batch
Source Code

Any 5250 screen (no code
required)

How it’s deployed

IBM Integrated Web
Application Server for i

(part of
the O/S)

WebSphere Application
Server Express (bundled
with the IBM i O/S)

WebSphere Application
Server Express (bundled
with the IBM i O/S

Where it’s deployed

On the same IBM i system as
the source ILE programs

Anywhere that WAS runs

Anywhere that WAS runs

Web Service
Standards

Tied to IBM i Operating System
(fewer updates)

Tied to WebSphere
Application Server (frequent
updates)

Tied to WebSphere
Application Server (frequent
updates)

Scalability

Vertical

Tied to IBM i Hardware

Horizontal

Can be clustered with WAS
Network Deployment

Horizontal

Can be clustered with WAS
Network Deployment

* RDi SOA is a separate chargeable product. Customers with WDSC AE licenses under maintenance may have entitlements to RDi S
OA.

** HATS 5250 is a chargeable runtime product for deploying HATS projects and can be purchased via Passport Advantage. The fre
e
download HATS toolkit provides two connections for testing purposes.

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What We’ll Cover …


Web Services Overview


Technical Overview


Development and Deployment


IBM i Web Services Server


Rational Web Services Wizard


Host Access Transformation Services


Summary

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20

IBM Web Services Server Introduction


IBM i Integrated Web service enhancements make it easy
to get started with SOA on IBM i


OS functional enhancement


Included in IBM i 6.1 (a.k.a. i5/OS V6R1)


PTF’s for i5/OS V5R4 (get SF99114)


Designed for ILE programmers


Makes Web services easier


Two parts


The ‘Web Services server’, or service provider


The ‘Web Services client’, or service requestor


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IBM i Web service enablement goals


Provide the SOA ‘Web Services’ runtime for


Service provider


Service consumer


Provide options that do not require new skills / tools to ILE
programmers


Provide a Web service development environment
independent of Rational development tools for IBM i (RDi
SOA)


Provide a Web service deployment environment
independent of WebSphere Application Server

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Service provider program requirements


Programs or service programs must be directly callable


Distinct input & output parameters


No requirements for user interface or interactive 5250 session



Program call markup language (PCML) document defining
the object location, parameters, entry points, etc.


Created by CRTRPGMOD, CRTBNDRPG, CRTCBLMOD,
CRTBNDCBL commands


Options PGMINFO (*YES), INFOSTMF (IFS location)


5250 or WDSC RSE interface


Can also embed PCML data within the program object, for instance


CRTRPGMOD PGMINFO(*PCML *MODULE) {V6R1}


H PGMINFO(*PCML:*MODULE) {V5R4}


PROCESS OPTIONS PGMINFO(PCML MODULE)

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Use Web Administration for i5/OS

http://hostname:2001/
or go directly

http://hostname:2001/HTTPAdmin

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Create the application server

Click on the Create New Web Services Server link

The Web Services
Server is part of the
IBM i Operating
System

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Select the Install a new Web service option

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Specify the program for the service interface

Identify the ILE batch
module (*SRVPGM
or PGM) that you
want to create a web
service from

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Specify the Web service name

Give your service
name. Remember
this is the name that
will be used by
service requestors.

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What ILE procedure's should be externalized as a Web service?

Choose the ILE
procedures to use
and identify what you
want to be input or
output parameters
(or both).

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Specify the user profile for the Web service

Define what user
(authority & access)
will be identified with
this web service.

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Configure library list for the Web service

Make sure to specify
the libraries with all
the objects that your
web service will need
to access.

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Review the application server, service configurations,
and Web service operations

Double check your
work and click Finish.
The Web Service will
be created
automatically and a
web service server
instance will be
started.

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32

Managing and testing the IBM i Web service

You can test your
web service with the
web delivered web
services test client.

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Testing the Web Service

View your WDSL

Web Service Output
and XML

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What We’ll Cover …


Web Services Overview


Technical Overview


Development and Deployment


IBM i Web Services Server


Rational Web Services Wizard


Host Access Transformation Services


Summary

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35

Web Service Wizard in RDi SOA


Web Services wizard in RDi SOA generates a Web Services
wrapper for a program or service program procedure


Program or procedure must be able to run as batch


Generated Web Service wrapper is deployed onto WebSphere Application
Server or the Integrated Web Application Server for IBM i Operating System


Does not have to be deployed onto the same server as the program or service
program

Example program to
be called

Start the wizard by
right
-
clicking on
member in the RSE
and selecting Web
Services > Create Web
Service

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36

Web Service Wizard



Select the
blue hyperlinks

to
change the Web Application
Server, Web service runtime,
J2EE version, or Web project




The Service project and
Service EAR projects are the
location where wizard
generates files related to the
Web Service




If a Service project or EAR
project does not exist, it will be
created for you!

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37

Configuring the Web Service
-

Edit Program/Parameters



Selecting the Program (CUSTINFO),
you can change the library, program
type and program name


Make sure you check the program
type: *PGM or *SRVPGM!


Expand the program to see program
parameters


Selecting a parameter to change its
usage (input, output, both), data type,
length, and CCSID

-
File name shows the Program source
file the wizard was launched from (ILE
RPG, COBOL, and PCML are valid)

-
Browse files to select a different file

-
The default Runtime configuration is
taken from the i5/OS RSE connection

-

Click Browse to choose an existing
configuration (.config file)

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Editing the Runtime Configuration

Default sign
-
on
information is taken
from the i5/OS RSE
connection

Alternatively, can
specify use of program
call Java Connection
Architecture connector
for sign
-
on and
connection
management.


Additional libraries can be specified that are added to
the library list at runtime


Library list from the job description is still used


Additionally a current library and initial command can
be set.


They add additional time to each call to setup the
environment, Use job description settings instead,
where possible

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39

Testing the Web Service: Web Services Explorer


After the Web Service is generated you can:


Test the Web Service


Deploy the Web Service


Generate a client


1. Select
WSDL
operation

2. Enter a Customer ID

3. Go!

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40

Testing the Web Service: Web Services Explorer


Tips on Handling data
structure arrays


Many RPG Web Services need
to return data structure arrays


Return all parts within
specified price range


However, RPG does not have
varying dimensional arrays


You have to prototype the
maximum expected


But you don’t want to return
empty elements from the
Web service


Add parameter to prototype


Input value is number of
elements in array


Output value is number of
elements returned


Use Program Call Bean + Web
services wizard to generate code


Paper to be published shortly


4. Results are shown in Status Pane

5. Click on
Source
to view the SOAP request and
response messages




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41

What We’ll Cover …


Web Services Overview


Technical Overview


Development and Deployment


IBM i Web Services Server


Rational Web Services Wizard


Host Access Transformation Services


Summary

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© 2008 IBM Corporation

42

HATS Web Service creation overview







Create a HATS project


Setup Development environment


Define host connections


Create Macros


Navigate host screens


Define input parameters & output data


Connect, data, disconnect macros

Optionally Set up session pooling

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HATS Web Service Creation Overview
-

Continued


Test the Web Service with the Web
Services Explorer


Create an Integration Object


Defines the programming interface to the
macro


Create Web Service


Web Service files


Web Service Definition Language (WSDL)
file

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Create a new HATS Project

Create a
new
HATS
Project

Give the project a name



Click Next

A HATS Project must be created even
though you will
not

be transforming
5250 screens.

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Create a HATS macro to capture input and output data

Click

To Start
Macro

Click Finish to
Start recording

Name
the
Macro

HATS includes a Host Terminal that
allows you to see before and after shots
of screen transformations. It also
includes a Macro recording tool.


A
macro

is a script that drives through
and interacts with the green screen
applications.



Developer define “screens”
within the macros by identifying
screen recognition criteria and
actions to perform when the
screen is reached.



Developer links screens together
to define the flow of the macro.

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Extract Actions allow you to define output parameters

1
st
: Rope off
Customer
Name Info

2nd: Press
Add Extract
Action button

3rd: Give the
extract action
a name screen

Last
Click
Finish



Prompt and
Extract Actions
allow you to grab
5250 screen
data and use
them as input
and output
parameters for
your web
services later.

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47

Change the Flow with Visual Macro Editor

The new Visual Macro Editor (VME)
simplifies macro creation, debug and
execution activities:



Allows for easier handling of
alternate / error flows.



Helps decrease the number of logic
and flow problems (since the flow
can be clearly analyzed by both
developers, expert users, and
business analysts).


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48

Create an Integration Object

An
Integration Object (IO)

is a
Java class that encapsulates a
macro.



Integration Objects
can be
called directly from Java
Server Faces (JSF), Struts,
or standard JSP Web pages.



Integration Objects can also
be used in Enterprise Java
Beans (EJBs) or
Web
Services
.

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49

Create the Web Service and WSDL File

Last
Click
Finish



HATS uses the same web services
wizard as RDi SOA in out last
example. This provides a consistent
interface for creating web services
for Interactive or batch RPG
applications.

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50

Test the web service

Click Go to call
the web service

Double
-
Click
Status Line to
see the results
from the web
service

The Web Service Explorer is the
same as RDi SOA too.

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51

What We’ll Cover …


Web Services Overview


Technical Overview


Development and Deployment


IBM i Web Services Server


Rational Web Services Wizard


Host Access Transformation Services


Summary

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© 2008 IBM Corporation

52

Consuming Web Services from RPG


Overview


Based on Apache AXIS C++ Version 1.5+


Consists


Tools


Convert service’s WSDL to C/C++ APIs


SOAP client


ILE Service Program


Supported today


Packaged with 5733
-
XT1


V5R1, V5R2, V5R3, V5R4


V6R1


i5/OS SS1 Option 3


Supports


C, C++, RPG, COBOL


Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
-

document
literal only


Web Services Invocation (WSI) 1.1 basic profile
compliance


Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

StockQuote.wsdl

<wsdl:message name="
getQuoteRequest
">


<wsdl:part element="
impl:getQuote"
name="parameters
"/>


</wsdl:message>


<wsdl:message name="
getQuoteResponse
">


<wsdl:part
element="
impl:getQuoteResponse
"
name="parameters"/>


</wsdl:message>


<wsdl:portType name="StockQuote">


<wsdl:operation name="getQuote">


<wsdl:input
message="impl:getQuoteRequest"
name="getQuoteRequest"/>


<wsdl:output
message="impl:getQuoteResponse"
name="getQuoteResponse"/>


</wsdl:operation>


</wsdl:portType>

Sample client


requester code view

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53

Web Services Client for ILE

Developer generates stubs using Qshell script:

/QIBM/Proddata/OS/WebServices/V1/client/bin/wsdl2ws.sh

GetQuote.wsdl
-
lc

ogetQuote.Stubs

WSDL passed into
tool that generates
C/C++ stubs

C/C++ stubs

WSDL

1.
Stub Generation


Creating a Web Services Proxy
(“intermediary” for ILE RPG, COBOL )

2.
Compile and Bind

3.
Run the application

Generated StockQuote.h (C stub header file)

extern void* get_StockQuote_stub(const char*
pchEndPointUri);

extern void destroy_StockQuote_stub(void* p);

extern int get_StockQuote_Status(void* pStub);

extern xsdc__float getQuote(void* pStub,
xsdc__string Value0);

Your RPG program calls this
C/C++ Stub passing
parameters which in turn
gets passed to the web
service via the AXIS C++
Client

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54

Consuming Web Services from EGL


Pre
-
requisites


An EGL project or EGL Web project


An EGL deployment descriptor


A Web Services Description Language (WSDL) file that
describes the service you want to use, located somewhere in
your workspace


Steps


Import or copy the service WSDL to your EGL project


Add the WebSphere 6.x ServerType Option to the Build File


Generate the services descriptor file


In the client process
-

code a variable based on the
<serviceName> type


Add a Bindservice property with the appropriate bindkey


Code the call to the ServiceVar.function


passing parameters


More Information at the EGL Cafe


http://ibm.com/rational/eglcafe



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55

System i Sandbox

Launched May 2008

Examples and best practices provide

low
-
risk, practical, hands
-
on

path to understanding. Includes:

Full version software trials

‘Try online’ hosted
environments

Tutorials

Online Resources

System z Sandbox

Launched 2/26


Examples and best practices provide

low
-
risk, practical, hands
-
on

path to understanding. Includes:

Enterprise Modernization Sandbox

Full version software trials

‘Try online’ hosted
environments

Tutorials

Online Resources



Rational Developer for System z



Rational Business Developer



Rational Transformation Workbench



Host Access Transformation Services



Rational Application Developer



Rational Developer for System i



Rational Business Developer



Rational Host Access Transformation Services



Databorough xAnalysis

http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/downloads/emsandbox/

Easy and fun way to quickly try practical scenarios guided by self
-
paced exercises

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56

7 Key Points to Take Home

1.
Web services are applications that are invoked over the Web

2.
Web services do not have a user interface and return
information in form of XML

3.
Web services are the lowest common denominator in
heterogeneous application to application connectivity

4.
When building Web services, focus on designing an interface
for maximum interoperability and implementing business logic

5.
Use Rational and WebSphere Tools to generate and test Web
services

6.
IBM i has everything you need to deploy web services from RPG
applications


Internal IBM Integrated Web Application Server for i and WAS Express

7.
RDi SOA provides the tools you need to build web services from
RPG Applications


Remote System Explorer, HATS toolkit and the Web Services Wizard




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57

Resources


Demonstrations


http://rational.dfw.ibm.com/whidemo/


Integrated Web Services for i5/OS


http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/software/iws/


Web Services Wizard


http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/ws
-
dw
-
ws
-
wsat1.html


HATS Web Services


http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/websphere/library/techarticles/
0504_hardison/0504_hardison.html


EGL Cafe


http://ibm.com/rational/eglcafe


IBM Technical Information and Examples


http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/

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58

Your Turn!

How to contact me:

Al Grega

algrega@us.ibm.com

IBM Software Group | Rational Software

© 2008 IBM Corporation

59

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