LTE EPC - IEEE Boston Section

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Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Motorola General Business
Mobile Broadband Evolution –
LTE and EPC
Srini Rao
Srini Rao
Fellow of Technical Staff
Fellow of Technical Staff
Motorola Enterprise Mobility Solutions
Motorola Enterprise Mobility Solutions
Agenda

LTE

Timeline

Overview

Applications

EPC

Overview

Interworking
and mobility

3GPP access

Non-3GPP access

QoS
and Policy

Roaming

Voice over LTE

CSFB, VoLGA, IMS VoIP/One Voice, over the top

Voice Handover

Future Directions

LTE-Advanced

Summary
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2
LTE Timeline
2005
2009
2010
2012
2006
2007
2008
2011
Trials
First LTE Launch
TeliaSonera
Trials
Deployments
Standards
Rel
8
LTE / EP
C
Rel
9
Rel
6
HSPA
Rel
7
HSPA
+
Rel
10
LTE -
Advanced
Verizon tar
get s
LTE Launch in
30 Markets
AT&T trials in
2010, Ini
tial
deploymen
t in
2011
59 LTE Network commitments in 28 countries around the world –
GSA Mar 2010
China Mobile trials TD-LTE in 2010
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Terminology

Long Term Evolution (LTE)

3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) work item known as LTE

Evolution of GSM/GPRS, WCDMA/HSPA radio networks

LTE strictly refers to air interface, often entire technology (including core
network) loosely referred to as LTE (or LTE/SAE)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

Outcome of 3GPP work item -
System Architecture Evolution (SAE)

Evolve GPRS and HSPA packet core networks to an all-IP based core

Other terms

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

Radio access network is referred to as E-UTRAN

Evolved Packet System (EPS)

End-to-end system including LTE terminals, E-UTRAN, and Core network
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LTE Drivers
UMTS-HSPA Voice and Data Traffic1

Explosive growth in mobile data traffic

Rise in adoption of broadband wireless
devices

Smart phones, modems, integrated
PCs/Laptops

Popularity of video, apps

Flat rate data plans

Need for improved cost efficiency

Expected cost per Mbps on HSPA is 14% of cost
on EDGE, and LTE would be 3% of EDGE cost2

Cost per MB expected to drop from €
0.06 for
WCDMA to €
0.03 for HSPA
and €
0.01 for LTE
(2x5 MHz)3
Source: Dr.
Klaus-Jurgen
Krath, T-Mo
bile International
1.
Source: HSPA to LTE-Advanced, Rysavy
Research / 3G Amer
icas, Sep. 2009
2.
Kris Rinne, SVP Architecture
and Planning, AT&T, 4G World,
Sep. 2009
3.
Source: Analysys
Mason, 2008, from UMTS Forum white paper Feb. 2009
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Key LTE Target Requirements1

Peak data rates (for 20 MHz, 1 Tx
and 2 Rx antennas at terminal)

100 Mbps downlink (DL)

50 Mbps uplink (UL)

Improved spectral efficiency (in bits/s/Hz)

3-4 times higher than HSPA (3GPP Release 6) DL

2-3 times higher than HSPA UL

Reduced latency

User plane latency (one way radio delay) < 5 ms

Control plane latency (idle to active) < 100 ms

Spectrum and bandwidth flexibility for deployment

Channel bandwidths 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz, asymmetric allocation
(different UL, DL BWs)

Support both paired and unpaired spectrum (FDD and TDD modes using
common air interface)

Cost efficiency

Simpler all-IP flat architectures, Self-Organizing Network (SON) capability etc.
to reduce CAPEX and OPEX
1. From 3GPP TR 25.913
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LTE Radio Interface
From UMTS Long Term Evol
utio
n (LTE)
Technology Introduction, Rohde &Schwarz, Sep 08

Multiple access scheme

OFDMA DL

SC-FDMA UL

Similar to OFDMA, more power efficient

lower peak-to-average power ratio

Adaptive Modulation and Coding

DL/UL QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Convolutional
and Turbo codes

MIMO Spatial multiplexing

(2 or 4)x(2 or 4) DL and UL

Multi-user MIMO

Peak rates up to 300/75 Mbps DL/UL for 4x4 MIMO

LSTI (LTE/SAE Trial Initiative)

10 operators in trials

Peak rates for FDD and TDD normalized to 20
MHz > 100 Mbps DL, 30 –
50 Mbps UL

Measured end-end
round trip latencies < 30 ms

Verizon trial (10 MHz FDD)

Average rates 5-12 Mbps DL, 2-5 Mbps UL, peak rates 40-50 Mbps DL, 20–25 Mbps UL
No. of Resource blocks ranging from
6 (1.4 MHz) to 100 (20 MHz)
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LTE Frequency Bands
TDD
2400 MHz

2300 MHz
2400 MHz

2300 MHz
40
TDD
1920 MHz

1880 MHz
1920 MHz

1880 MHz
39
TDD
2620 MHz

2570 MHz
2620 MHz

2570 MHz
38
TDD
1930 MHz

1910 MHz
1930 MHz

1910 MHz
37
TDD
1990 MHz

1930 MHz
1990 MHz

1930 MHz
36
TDD
1910 MHz

1850 MHz
1910 MHz

1850 MHz
35
TDD
2025 MHz

2010 MHz
2025 MHz

2010 MHz
34
TDD
1920 MHz

1900 MHz
1920 MHz

1900 MHz
33
...
FDD
746 MHz

734 MHz
716 MHz

704 MHz
17
FDD
768 MHz

758 MHz
798 MHz

788 MHz
14
FDD
756 MHz

746 MHz
787 MHz

777 MHz
13
FDD
746 MHz

728 MHz
716 MHz

698 MHz
12
FDD
1495.9 MHz

1475.9 MHz
1447.9 MHz

1427.9 MHz
11
FDD
2170 MHz

2110 MHz
1770 MHz

1710 MHz
10
FDD
1879.9 MHz

1844.9 MHz
1784.9 MHz

1749.9 MHz
9
FDD
960 MHz

925 MHz
915 MHz

880 MHz
8
FDD
2690 MHz

2620 MHz
2570 MHz

2500 MHz
7
FDD
885 MHz

875 MHz
840 MHz

830 MHz
6
FDD
894MHz

869 MHz
849 MHz

824 MHz
5
FDD
2155 MHz

2110 MHz
1755 MHz

1710 MHz
4
FDD
1880 MHz

1805 MHz
1785 MHz

1710 MHz
3
FDD
1990 MHz

1930 MHz
1910 MHz

1850 MHz
2
FDD
2170 MHz

2110 MHz
1980 MHz

1920 MHz
1
Duplex
Mode
Do
w
nlink (DL) BS transmit
Uplink (UL) UE transmit
Operating
Band
Fro
m 3GPP TS 36.101
Verizon to deploy LTE in 700 MHz spectrum (10 + 10 MHz in Band class 13)
AT&T to deploy LTE in 700 MHz and AWS spectrum (Band class 4)
2.6 GHz TDD band being added in U.S. for Clearwire
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LTE Enables New Applications
HD Video Streaming
(720i
H264)
DL 6-8Mbps
DL Data Rate
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Video Blogging / Live video
UL SD-2Mbps / HD-6-8Mbps
UL Data Rate
Latency
MMOG (Online
Gaming)
<50msec latency
Latency
Permanent Sync
DL/UL
1-2Mbps
UL Data Rate
Cost per bit
Peer2Peer
∞Mbps
DL/UL
Data Rate
Cost per bit
Evolved Packet Core
(EPC)
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Why is Core Evolution needed?

2G/3G mobile core networks designed for low-speed, best-effort data

Increased scalability of core elements to handle significant increase in
number of connections, bandwidth, and mobility

High throughput and low latency requirements

Key aspects of EPC

All-IP flat network architecture

Separation of control and data planes

End-to-end QoS
management and service control through policy control and
charging (PCC) architecture

No circuit-switched core

Support for multiple access networks

Not covered

Protocol alternatives for S5/S8 interface GTP versus PMIPv6 –
assuming GTP
primarily for simplicity

Related topic of on-path versus off-path policy

Security –
authentication, authorization, etc.

Charging
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2G/3G to LTE
Access
Packet Core
Services
GSM/GPRS
BTS
BSC
MGW
Circuit Core
MSC Server
WCDMA/HSPA
Node B
LTE/SAE
eNodeB
MME
RNC
Serving GW
PDN GW
SGSN
GGSN
PSTN
PSTN
IP
Networks
(IMS, Internet
etc.)
IP
Networks
(IMS, Internet
etc.)
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Network Architecture Overview
UE
MME
HSS
Serving
GW
PDN
GW
PCRF
IP Networks
(I
MS
, Internet etc.)
IP Networks
(IMS, Internet etc.)
S6a
S11
S1-U
S1-MME
LTE-Uu
S5
Gx
Rx
SGi
eNB
S10
X2
Mobility Management Entity

Key control and Signaling Element

Gateway Selecti
on

Idle state termi
nal location management

Bearer control
Home Subscriber Server

User subscription data
Policy and Charging Rules
Function

Gating and QoS
policy control

Flow-based charging control
Serving Gate
way

Bearer plane element interfacing
E-UTRAN

M
obility anchor for inter-eNB
and
inter-3GPP access mobility
Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway

Bearer plane element interfacing PDNs

Terminal IP address allocation

Policy enforcement

Packet filtering

Charging
Evolved Node B

Radio Resource Management

User plane IP header compression
and encryption
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UE
MME
SGSN
HSS
Serving
GW
PDN
GW
PCRF
IP Networks
(I
MS
, Internet etc.)
IP Networks
(IMS, Internet etc.)
WCDMA/
HSPA
WCDMA/
HSPA
GSM/
GPRS
GSM/
GPRS
S6a
Gr
S1-U
S1-MME
LTE-Uu
S5
Gx
Rx
SGi
Gn
eNB
S10
X2
Interworking
and Mobility –
3GPP Access (Gn/Gp
SGSN)
S12
Gn
S11

Handovers to/from 2G
/3G similar to inter-SGSN handover with

MME acting as an SGSN

PDN GW acting as a GGSN

SGSN must select a PDN GW for LTE capable terminals in 2G/3G

Model applicable for GTP base
d S5/S8 interface

HSS needs to support or interwork
with Gr
interface

Direct tunnel support via S12 interface for 3G
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UE
MME
SGSN
HSS
Serving
GW
PDN
GW
PCRF
IP Networks
(I
MS
, Internet etc.)
IP Networks
(IMS, Internet etc.)
WCDMA/
HSPA
WCDMA/
HSPA
GSM/
GPRS
GSM/
GPRS
S6a
S4
S1-U
S1-MME
LTE-Uu
S5
Gx
Rx
SGi
S3
eNB
S10
X2
Interworking
and Mobility –
3GPP Access (S4 SGSN)
S12
S11

Addition of new S3 and S4 interfaces

Support for Idle mode Signaling Reduction (ISR)

Enables EPC-only core for all 3GPP accesses, including ability to handover between
and within 2G & 3G radio networks

Direct tunnel support via S12 interface for 3G
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Interworking
and Mobility –
non-3GPP Access
(Optimized Handover for HRP
D/EV-DO)
HRPD
Hi
gh Rate Packet Data
AN
Access Node
HSGW
HRPD S
erving GW
AAA
Authentication,
Authorization, Accounting
LTE-Uu
UE
MME
HSS
Serving
GW
PDN
GW
PCRF
IP Networks
(I
MS
, Internet etc.)
IP Networks
(IMS, Internet etc.)
S6a
S11
S1-U
S1-MME
S5
Gx
Rx
SGi
eNB
AAA
HRPD
AN
HSGW
S101
S103
IOS
S2a
STa
SWx
S6b

Optimized handover supported in both idle and active states and E-UTRAN to/from HRPD

Common user subscription data in HSS

Terminal in E-UTRAN receives HRPD system info on broadcast channel or via dedicated signaling

Pre-registration (and handover signaling) using S101 interface

PDN GW acts as a common IP anchor point

User data between HSGW and PDN GW transported over S2a interface
supporting PMIPv6

Serving GW forwards packets destined to terminal via S103 interface to HSGW
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Interworking
and Mobility –
Non-3GPP Access (Generic)
LTE-Uu
UE
MME
HSS
Serving
GW
PDN
GW
PCRF
IP Networks
(IMS, Internet etc.)
IP Networks
(IMS, Internet etc.)
S6a
S11
S1-
U
S1-MME
S5
Gx
Rx
SGi
eNB
Trus
ted
Non-3GPP
(WiMAX,
CDMA)
Trus
ted
Non-3GPP
(WiMAX,
CDMA)
S2a
STa
SWx
Untrusted
Non-3GPP
(WiFi
etc.)
Untrusted
Non-3GPP
(WiFi
etc.)
ePDG
SWa
S6b
S2b
SWn
AAA
SWm
ePDG
evolved Packet Data Gateway

Trusted (e.g. WiMAX, CDMA) versus untrusted
(e.g. public WiFi) Non-3GPP networks

Trusted access networks connect to PDN GW via S2a similar to optimized HRPD

For untrusted
networks, terminal connects to ePDG
using IPSec
t
unnels

ePDG
interfaces to PDN GW via S2b usi
ng PMIPv6

Network based
versus client based mobility

For client based mobility, terminal connects to PDN GW via S2c interface (not shown) using DSMIPv6
or MIPv4
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QoS
Concepts

EPS Bearer is a logical aggregate of one or more IP flows

IP flows (aka
service data flows or
SDFs) may belong to one or more
services

EPS Bearer provides connectivity to Packet Data Networks (PDNs)

Bearer extends from UE to PDN GW

All Service data flows within a b
earer receive same level of QoS

Default bearer
established when UE connects to a PDN

Remains in place as long as the PDN connection is aliv
e

Provides UE with low latency al
ways-on IP connectivity to PDN

QoS
level of default bearer assigned based on subscription

Dedicated bearers are setu
p when new IP flow
s that require specific
packet forwarding treatment are started

Dedicated bearers can be Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) or non-GBR

Default bearer is always non-GBR
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EPC Bearer Model (GTP based S5/S8)
PDN GW
Service Data Flows
eNB
UE
Service Data Flows
UL Packet Filter
R
adio Bearer
S1 Bea
rer
Application / Service Layer
S5/S8 B
earer
S GW
DL P
acket Fil
ter
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QoS
Parameters

QoS
Class Identifier (QCI)

A scalar value mapped to specific bearer
level packet forwarding treatment

e.g. scheduling weights, queue
management thresholds, link lay
er
protocol configuration etc.

9 standardized values of QCI defined

Each bearer assigned one and only one
QCI

Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP)

Decision to accept or reject due to resource
limitations (typically GBR bearers)

Decision (e.g., by eN
B) which bearer(s) to
drop (e.g. at handover)

Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) and Maximum
Bit Rate (MBR)

Apply to GBR bearers

In Release 8, MBR equals G
BR

Aggregate Maxim
um Bit Rate (AMBR)

APN-AMBR total bit rate allowed for a
user for all non-GRR bearers associated
with an APN (Access Point Name)

UE-AMBR total bit rate allowed for a user
for all non-GRR bearers

separate UL and DL values of AMBR
QCI
Resource
Ty
pe
Priority
Packet Delay
Budget
Packet Er
r
or
Los
s
Rate
Example Ser
vices
1
2
100
ms
10-2
Conversational Voice
2
GBR
4
150
ms
10-3
Conversational Video (Live Streaming)
3
3
5
0
m
s
10-3
Real Time Gaming
4
5
300
ms
10-6
Non-Conversational Video (Buf
f
ered Streaming)
5
1
100
ms
10-6
IMS Signalling
6
6
300
ms
10-6
Video (Buf
f
ered Streaming)
TCP-based (e.g., w
ww, e-mail, chat, ftp, p2p file
sharing, progressive video, etc.)
7
Non-GBR
7
10
0
ms
10-3
Voice, Video (Live Streaming), Interactive Gaming
8
8
300
ms
10-6
Video (Buf
f
ered Streaming)
TCP-based (e.g., w
ww, e-mail, chat, ftp, p2p file
9
9
sharing, progressive video, etc.)
From 3GPP TS 23.203
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Policy and Charging Control (PCC)
PCRF Policy and Charging Rules Function
PCEF
Policy and Charging Enforcement Function
SPR
Subscription Profi
le Repository
AF
Application Function
OFCS
Offline Charging System
OCS
Online Charging System
PCEF
PDN GW
UE
MME
HSS
Serving
GW
PCRF
IP Networks
(IMS, In
ternet etc.)
IP Networks
(IMS,
Internet etc.)
S6a
S1-U
S1-MME
LTE-Uu
S5
Gx
Rx
SGi
S3
eNB
S10
X2
SPR
Sp
AF
OCS
OFCS
Gy
Gz
S11

Policy con
trol

gating control –
allow or block IP flows

QoS
c
ontrol –
provide authorized QoS
(eg. QoS
class, bit rates etc.) decision to PCEF which
enforces it

Char
ging control –
onl
ine and offline

PCC rule includes SDF template, precedence, gate
status, QoS
control info (QCI, ARP, bit rates etc.),
char
ging control info

PCC enables a centralized mechanism for
service-aware QoS
and charging control

PCRF controls
dynamic policies based on

subscription info from SPR, Session info from
AF, operator provisioned policies, access
network info from PCEF etc.

alternatively, static policies can also be
provisioned in PCEF
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Policy Control Use Case for IMS Voice
PCEF
PDN GW
UE
MME
HSS
Serving
GW
PCRF
IP Networks
(IMS, In
ternet etc.)
IP Networks
(IMS,
Internet etc.)
S6a
S11
S1-U
S1-MME
LTE-Uu
S5
Gx
Rx
SGi
S3
eNB
S10
X2
SPR
Sp
AF
(P-CSCF)
OCS
OFCS
Gy
Gz
4. Policy

Decision
6. Bearer
binding
1. Application Signaling (SIP/SDP)
2. App Info
3. Subscription I
nfo
5. PCC rule
6. Activate / modify bearer
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Network Architecture for Roaming (Home Routed)
LTE-Uu
UE
MME
HSS
Serving
GW
PDN
GW
hPCRF
IP
Netw
orks
(IMS,
Internet)
IP
Netw
orks
(IMS,
Internet)
S6a
S11
S1-MME
S8
Gx
Rx
SGi
S1
-U
eNB
Trusted
Non-3GPP
(WiM
AX,
CDMA)
Trusted
Non-3GPP
(WiM
AX,
CDMA)
S2a
STa
SWx
Untrusted
Non-3GPP
(WiFi
etc.)
Untrusted
Non-3GPP
(WiFi
etc.)
ePDG
SWa
S6b
S2b
SWn
SWm
vPCRF
S9
Gxb
Gxc
AAA
Proxy
SWd
Gx
a
AAA
Home Network
Visited Network

Serving GW in visited network and PDN
GW in home connected via S8 interface

All traffic for the terminal IP connection routed via home network

No direct policy control across home/visited network boundary

Only through interaction between home PCRF and visited PCRF via S9 interface

vPCRF
may accept or reject (not modify) policy decisions made by hPCRF

If S8 is based on GPRS Tunneling Protoc
ol (GTP), vPCRF
and S9 are not required
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Network Architecture for Roaming (Local Breakout)
LTE-Uu
UE
MME
HSS
Serving
GW
hPCRF
IP
Netw
orks
IP
Netw
orks
S6a
S11
S1-MME
S5
Gx
Rx
SGi
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S1
-U
eNB
Trusted
Non-3GPP
(WiMAX,
CDMA)
Trusted
Non-3GPP
(WiMAX,
CDMA)
S2a
SWx
Untrusted
Non-3GPP
(WiFi
etc.)
STa
Untrusted
Non-3GPP
(WiFi
etc.)
ePDG
SWa
S6b
S2b
SWn
SWm
S9
Gxb
Gxc
SWd
Gxa
AAA
Home Network
Visited Network
Rx
Visited IP
Net
works
Visited IP
Net
works
AAA
Proxy
PDN
GW
vPCRF

Both Serving GW and PDN GW in visited network

Traffic routed from terminal to IP network directly

Application Function (AF) may be in Home or Visited network

If AF is in visited network, Rx signaling transported to home PCRF via visited PCRF
using S9 interface
Voice Options for LTE

LTE/SAE networks have no circuit core

Initial roll-outs likely will support data only devices such as
USB dongles

Voice based on legacy circuit core

CS (Circuit Switch) Fallback (CSFB)

Voice over LTE via Generic Access Network (VoLGA)

Voice based on IMS

3GPP Multimedia Telephony (MMTel) / One Voice

Over the top VoIP
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Circuit Switch Fallback (CSFB)

Use legacy CS domain for voice in 2G/3G
(GSM, WCDM
A, CDMA1x)

MSC upgraded to interface with EPC

new SGs
interface with MME for GSM/WCDMA

S102 interface between MME and 1x Interworking
Solution (1xCS IWS) for CDMA

paging request delivered via LTE

paging response etc. and
call originations via
2G/3G

Feature in 3GPP Rel
8 standard

Supported by NTT DoCoMo, KDDI and others

Optimizations to address call setup delays in Rel
9
(for CDMA) and Rel
1
0 for GSM/WCDMA
CS Voice
CS Voice
Signaling
EPC
2G/3G

Core
SGs
MSC
MME

Suitable for initial stages of LTE deployment prior to IMS introduction

Dual RX terminal alternative to new interface requirements

SMS also supported over LTE using the in
terfaces with 2G/3G MSC

No fallback to 2G/3G needed

Handover of conc
urrent LTE data sessions depe
nd on 2G/3G network capability
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Voice over LTE via Generic Access (VoLGA)

Based on 3GPP UMA/GAN standard
for voice over WiFi

VoLGA
Access Network Controller
(VANC) is a modification of GANC

CS signaling and bearers tunneled
over IP

Developed in VoLGA
Forum, not a
3GPP standard

Driven by T-Mobile
VoIP
EPC
2G/3G

Core
MSC
VANC
CS Voi
ce
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IMS based VoIP (MMTel
/ One Voice)

SIP based VoIP for terminals in LTE using
IMS Multimedia Telephony (MMTel)
standard

Support for voice call handover to CS
domain in 2G/3G for broader coverage

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SR-VCC)

One Voice
profile defined to promote a
standardized solution for initial
deployment of cellular IMS based VoIP
network

Supported by several Operators including
AT&T and Verizon
VoIP
EPC
2G/3G

Core
MSC
MME
IMS
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Voice Handover Mechanisms

Single Radio Voice Call Continuity
(SRVCC)

VoIP call on LTE to circuit voice call on
GSM, W
CDMA or CDMA 1x

Enhanced MSC server with Sv
interface
to MME in GSM/WCDMA

1xCS Interworking
Solution (1xCS IWS)
in CDMA1x with S102 interface to MME

Call anchored on IMS (SCC-AS)

Network layer mechanism
VoIP
EPC
2G/3G
Core
Sv
MSC
MME
IMS
CS Voice
CS Voice
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Voice Handover Mechanisms Cont’d

IMS based Service Centralization and
Continuity (SCC)

VoIP call on WLAN to circuit voice call on
UTRAN/GERAN or CDMA 1x

Calls anchored on IMS SCC-AS

Application layer mechanism

when access networks do not provide
support for
voice handovers

Terminal makes handover decisions
VoIP
WiFi/WiMAX
2G/3G
Core
MSC
IMS
CS Voice
CS Voice
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LTE-Advanced

Key feature of 3GPP Release 10, targeted for March 2011

Wider Bandwidth

Support for bandwidths larger than 20 MHz (40 MHz, 100 MHz)

Carrier Aggregation –
aggregate two or more component carriers

Peak data rates of 1 Gbps
DL, 500 Mbps UL

UL and DL Transmission Schemes

Beamforming, MIMO enhancements

Coordinated Multi-Point Tx
and Rx (CoMP)

Improve coverage, cell edge throughput and/or system efficiency

Relaying

Relay Nodes forward traffic/signaling between eNB
and terminals

Improve coverage of high data rates, extend coverage to shadowed
areas etc.

LTE-Advanced submitted by 3GPP as candidate for ITU-R IMT-Advanced 4G
technology solution in October 2009
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Summary and Conclusion

LTE technology is being proven to meet or exceed initial target
requirements

Large ecosystem of operators, vendors etc. committed to LTE

Commercial network deployments planned 2010 and beyond

EPC represents an efficient all-IP packet core

Supports delivery of mobile Internet services with QoS
over broadband radio
networks

Supports multiple access technologies (all 2G/3G cellular, WiMAX, WiFi
etc.)
and mobility between these access networks

LTE and EPC can cost effectively address the demands of future mobile
broadband growth
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