Genetic Engineering

filletfuchsiaBiotechnology

Dec 16, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Power to Predict

Power to Choose

Power to Manipulate

A Perfect Family?

Designer babies

Ethics Clip

Genetic Technologies


Genetic Testing


PGD


Preimplantation Genetic
Diagnosis


Cloning


DNA Databases/DNA Fingerprinting


“Savior” babies


“Designer” babies/ IVF


Genetically modified animals and plants

Ethical Questions


Should we use our powers?


For what purpose?


Should there be limitations?


What are the possible consequences?


-

Socially?



-

Economically?



-

Environmentally?

13
-
1 Changing the Living World


1. Selective Breeding


method of


improving a species by allowing

only those individual organisms with desired
characteristics to produce the


next generation

2.
Purpose


taking advantage of

naturally occurring genetic variation in
organisms to pass desired traits on

Selectively
bred


Hybridization/Inbreeding


Animals: horses, cats dogs, pigs, cows





Plants: potatoes, corn, tomatoes, oranges,
apples


Hybridization

5. Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring
together the best of both organisms.



6. Ex: Burbank combined the disease
resistance of one plant with the food
-
producing capacity of another

Russet
Burbank potato. He also hybridized the
Shasta Daisy

Hybridization


Interesting Facts


Today, somewhere around 99 percent of U.S.
corn is grown from hybrid seed.


Fungus resistance


Early maturity


Heat tolerance

Inbreeding

7. Breeding of individuals with similar
characteristics

8. Ex: Dog Breeding


Poodle, Golden Retriever







9. Risks of inbreeding


since most members of a
breed are genetically similar, there is a chance of
bringing together two recessive alleles


genetic
defect. Ex: blindness, joint deformities in
German shepherds and golden retrievers.


Inducing Mutations


10. Breeders might induce mutations to increase
genetic variation in a population that might
produce mutants with desirable characteristics
that aren’t found in the original population


Since the 1950s, over 2,000 crop varieties have
been developed by inducing mutations to
randomly alter genetic traits and then selecting
for improved types among the progeny.

Ex: Ruby Star red grapefruit

Inducing Mutations


How?


11. Mutations can be induced by using
radiation and chemicals

Bacteria
-

mutations


12. Bacteria are useful when producing
mutations because their small size enables
millions of organisms to be treated with
radiation or chemicals at the same time. This
increases the chances of producing a useful
mutant.


13: Ex: oil
-
digesting bacteria

Polyploidy Plants


14. Polyploidy Plants are produced by using drugs
that prevent chromosomal separation during
meiosis.





15.
Polyploidy Plants are desirable because they are
often stronger and larger

Manipulating DNA


Genetic Engineering
-

making changes in the
DNA code of a living organism


Biologists are now able to


rewrite an organism’s DNA


No longer limited by the


variation already in nature

Tools of Genetic Engineering

Perform the following tasks:


DNA Extraction


Cutting DNA



Separating DNA


Reading the Sequence


Making Copies


Recombination


DNA Extraction


DNA Extraction


Cells are opened and

the DNA is separated from

The other cell parts

Cutting DNA


Cutting DNA


restriction enzymes


DNA molecules are too large to be analyzed


Each restriction enzyme cuts DNA at a specific
sequence of nucleotides


Separating DNA


Gel electrophoresis

(Virtual Lab)


Mixture placed at one end of a porous gel


Electric voltage


DNA has (
-
) charge


Migrates to (+) end


Smaller DNA


faster


Compare genomes


Locate genes

Reading the Sequence


Reading the Sequence


Single strand of DNA with unknown sequence added to
test tube


DNA polymerase, A T C G


Makes one new DNA strand


Chemical dyes


tags


Gel electrophoresis


Order tells sequence of bases


Study of specific genes, compare genes w/other
organisms, learn functions of genes


Making Copies


PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction


PCR

Song

GTCA


Primers


a place for

DNA polymerase to start


DNA heated


strands separate


Cooled


Makes copies between primers


Copies also serve as templates


Millions of copies easily

Cutting and Pasting


Recombinant DNA


produced by combining DNA
from different sources


Cell Transformation



cell takes in DNA from outside
the cell. This external DNA becomes a component of
the cell’s DNA


Plasmid


small circular DNA molecule in some
bacteria