phys1441-spring13-041013x

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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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PHYS

1441


Section
002

Lecture
#20

Wednesday
,

April 10, 2013

Dr.
Jae
hoon
Yu


Equations
of Rotational
Kinematics


Relationship
Between Angular and Linear
Quantities


Rolling
Motion of a Rigid
Body


Torque


Moment of Inertia


Announcements


Second non
-
comp term exam


Date and time: 4:00pm, Wednesday, April 17 in class


Coverage: CH6.1 through what we finish Monday, April 15


This exam could replace the first term exam if better


Remember that the lab final exams are next week!!


Special colloquium for 15 point extra credit!!


Wednesday, April 24, University Hall RM116


Class will be substituted by this colloquium


Dr.
Ketevi

Assamagan

from Brookhaven National Laboratory on
Higgs Discovery in ATLAS


Please mark your calendars!
!

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

2

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

3


f

Rotational Kinematics

The first type of motion we have learned in linear kinematics was
under a constant acceleration. We will learn about the rotational
motion under constant angular
acceleration (
α
),
because these are
the simplest motions in both cases.

Just like the case in linear motion, one can obtain

Angular
velocity

under constant
angular acceleration:

Angular displacement under
constant angular acceleration:


f

One can also obtain


f
2


0


0


0
2

2


f


0



t

0
t

1
2

t
2
v

Linear kinematics

Linear kinematics

f
x

2
1
0
2
o
x v t at
 
Linear kinematics

2
f
v



2
2
o f i
v a x x
 
o
v at

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

4

Rotational Kinematics Problem
Solving Strategy


Visualize the problem by drawing a picture.


Write down the values that are given for any of the
five

kinematic variables

and convert them to SI units.


Remember that the unit of the angle must be
in radians
!!


Verify that the information contains values for at least
three

of the five kinematic variables. Select the
appropriate equation.


When the motion is divided into segments, remember
that

the final angular

velocity of one segment is the
initial
velocity

for the next.


Keep in mind that there may be two possible answers
to a kinematics problem.

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

5

Example for Rotational Kinematics

A wheel rotates with a constant angular acceleration of 3.50 rad/s
2
. If
the angular speed of the wheel is 2.00 rad/s at
t
i
=0, a) through what
angle does the wheel rotate in 2.00s?


f


i
Using the angular displacement formula in the previous slide, one gets



t

2.00

2.00

1
2
3.50

2.00


2

11.0
r
ad

11.0
2

r
e
v
.

1.75
r
e
v
.

1
2

t
2
Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

6

Example for Rotational Kinematics
cnt

d

What is the angular speed at t=2.00s?


f


i


t
Using the angular speed and acceleration relationship

Find the angle through which the wheel rotates between t=2.00 s
and t=3.00 s.

2
t



s
rad
/
00
.
9
00
.
2
50
.
3
00
.
2




3
t










2

10.8
r
ad
.
72
.
1
.
2
8
.
10
rev
rev



i
f





t

1
2

t
2
Using the angular kinematic formula

At t=2.00s

At t=3.00s

Angular
displacement

2
.
0
0

2
.
0
0

1
2
3
.
5
0

2
.
0
0

1
1
.
0
r
a
d
2
.
0
0

3
.
0
0

1
2
3
.
5
0

3
.
0
0


2

2
1
.
8
r
a
d
Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

7

The blade is whirling with an angular velocity of +375
rad/s when

the

puree


button is pushed in.

When the

blend


button is pushed,

the blade accelerates and
reaches a

greater angular velocity after the blade has
rotated through an

angular displacement of +44.0 rad.

The angular acceleration has a

constant value of +1740
rad/s
2
.

Find the final angular velocity of the blade.

Ex. Blending with a Blender

θ

α

ω

ω
o

t

2 2
2
o
  
 


Which kinematic eq?



o
2

2




3
7
5
r
a
d
s


2

2
1
7
4
0
r
a
d
s
2


4
4
.
0
r
a
d




5
4
2
r
a
d
s
Which sign?



542rad s

Why?

Because the blade is accelerating in counter
-
clockwise!

+44.0rad

+375rad/s

?

+1740rad/s
2

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

8

Relationship Between Angular and Linear Quantities

What do we know about a rigid object that rotates
about a fixed axis of rotation?

When a point rotates, it has both the linear and angular
components in its motion.

What is the linear component of the motion you see?


v
Every particle (or
masslet
) in
an object
moves in a circle centered
at the same axis of rotation with the same angular velocity.

Linear

velocity along the tangential direction.

How do we related this linear component of the motion
with angular component?


l

r

The arc
-
length is

So the tangential speed
v


is

What does this relationship tell you about
the tangential speed of the points in the
object and their angular speed?

Although every particle in the object has the same
angular speed, its tangential speed differs and is
proportional to its distance from the axis of rotation.

The farther away the particle is from the center of
rotation, the higher the tangential speed.

The
direction
of


follows the
right
-
hand
rule.




l

t



r




t


r



t

r

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

9

Is
the
lion faster than
the
horse?

A rotating carousel has one child sitting on
the
horse near the outer edge
and another child on
the
lion halfway out from the center. (a) Which child
has the greater linear speed? (b) Which child has the greater angular
speed?

(a)
Linear speed is the distance traveled
divided by the time interval. So the child
sitting at the outer edge travels more
distance within the given time than the child
sitting closer to the center. Thus, the horse
is faster than the lion.

(b) Angular speed is the angle traveled divided by the time interval. The
angle both the children travel in the given time interval is the same.
Thus, both the horse and the lion have the same angular speed.

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

10

How about the acceleration?


v
t

Two

How many different linear acceleration components do
you see in a circular motion and what are they?

Total linear acceleration is

Since the tangential speed
v

is

What does this
relationship tell you?

Although every particle in the object has the same angular
acceleration, its tangential acceleration differs proportional to its
distance from the axis of rotation.

Tangential,
a
t
, and the radial acceleration,
a
r
.

a
t
The magnitude of tangential
acceleration
a
t

is

The radial or centripetal acceleration
a
r

is

r
a
What does
this tell you?

The father away the particle is from the rotation axis, the more radial
acceleration it receives. In other words, it receives more centripetal force.

a



v
t
f

v
t
0

t



r

f

r

0

t
r
v
2


r



2
r
2

r


a
t
2

a
r
2

r



2

r

2


2

r

2


4
r




r

f


0

t


r

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

11

A helicopter blade has an angular speed
of 6.50 rev/s and an

angular
acceleration of 1.30 rev/s
2
.

For point 1
on the blade, find

the magnitude of (a)
the

tangential speed and (b) the

tangential acceleration.

Ex. A Helicopter Blade



T
v

T
a



rev 2 rad
6.50
s 1 rev

  

  
  
40.8 rad s

r






3.00 m 40.8rad s 122m s

2
rev 2 rad
1.30
s 1 rev

  

  
  
2
8.17 rad s




2
3.00 m 8.17rad s

2
24.5m s
r


Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

12

Rolling Motion of a Rigid Body

What is a rolling motion?

To simplify the discussion,
let’
s
make a few assumptions

Let

s consider a cylinder rolling on a flat surface, without slipping.


A more generalized case of a motion where the
rotational axis moves together with an object

Under what condition does this

Pure Rolling


happen?

The total linear distance the CM of the cylinder moved is

Thus the linear
speed of the CM is

A rotational motion about a moving axis

1.
Limit our discussion on very symmetric
objects, such as cylinders, spheres, etc

2.
The object rolls on a flat surface

R



s

s=Rθ


s


v
CM


s

t
The condition for a

Pure Rolling motion


R
t





R

R

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

13

More Rolling Motion of a Rigid Body

As we learned in rotational motion, all points in a rigid body
moves at the same angular speed but at different linear speeds.

At any given time, the point that comes to P has 0 linear
speed while the point at P


has twice the speed of CM

The magnitude of the linear acceleration of the CM is

A rolling motion can be interpreted as the sum of Translation and Rotation

CM
a
Why??

P

P


CM

v
CM

2v
CM

CM is moving at the same speed at all times.

P

P


CM

v
CM

v
CM

v
CM

+

P

P


CM

v=R
ω

v=0

v=Rω

=

P

P


CM

2v
CM

v
CM

CM
v
t



R
t





R

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

14

Starting from rest, the car accelerates

for 20.0 s
with a constant linear acceleration of 0.800 m/s
2
.
The radius of the tires is 0.330 m.

What is the
angle through which each wheel has rotated?

Ex. An Accelerating Car



θ

α

ω

ω
o

t







2
2 2
1
2
2.42rad s 20.0 s
 
a
r

2
2
0.800m s
2.42rad s
0.330 m

o
t

2
1
2
t


484 rad

-
2.42 rad/s
2

0

rad/s

20.0

s

?

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

15

Torque

Torque is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis.
Torque,

, is a vector quantity.



Magnitude of torque is defined as the product of the force
exerted on the object to rotate it and the moment arm.

F



l
1

The line
of Action

Consider an object pivoting about the point
P

by
the force
F
being exerted at a distance
r
from

P
.

P

r

Moment arm

The line that extends out of the tail of the force
vector is called the
line of action.


The perpendicular distance from the pivoting point
P

to the
line of action

is called
the moment arm.

When there are more than one force being exerted on certain
points of the object, one can sum up the torque generated by each
force
vectorially
. The convention for sign of the torque is
positive
if rotation is in counter
-
clockwise

and
negative if clockwise
.

l
2

F
2

1 2
  
 

1 1 2 2
Fl F l
 




sin
F r

 
Fl


Magnitude of the Force


Lever Arm

Unit?

N m

Wednesday, April 10,
2013

PHYS 1441
-
002, Spring 2013
Dr. Jaehoon Yu

16

The tendon exerts a force of magnitude

790 N

on
the point P
. Determine the torque (magnitude

and
direction) of this force about the ankle joint

which is
located 3.6x10
-
2
m away from point P.

Ex. The Achilles Tendon



cos55





2
720 N 3.6 10 m cos55

 
790 N


F
2
3.6 10 m


2
3.6 10 cos55

 




2 2
3.6 10 sin 90 55 2.1 10
m
 
    
First, let’s find the lever arm length

So the torque is

Since the rotation is in clock
-
wise



3.6x10
-
2
m


7
2
0

N


3
.
6

1
0

2
m


s
i
n
3
5

1
5

N

m



15
N

m