Motion occurs when an object changes
position
Relative motion
—
motion that is not obvious
If sitting in desk, not moving relative to the desk
or school; but are moving relative to the other
planets & Sun
Unbalanced forces cause changes in motion
Relative to frame of reference
DISTANCE
How far something has
traveled
Scalar Quantity
—
described
by magnitude (numerical
value); 10m
Distance standard unit = m
DISPLACEMENT
Distance & direction of an
object’s change in position
from the starting point
Vector Quantity
—
both
magnitude & direction; 10
m, East
4m X 2m
Distance?
Displacement?
SPEED
How long it takes to go a
certain distance
Standard Unit
—
m/s
On a graph, slope is equal
to speed
Speed (velocity) =
distance / time
v=d/t
ACCELERATION
How long it takes to go
from being at 1 speed to
another
Standard Unit
—
m/s
2
Acceleration = final velocity
–
Initial Velocity/time
a =
v
f
–
v
i
/time
SPEED
Distance and object travels
per unit of time
Speed = distance/time
VELOCITY
Speed & direction of a
moving object
•
S = d/t or V= d/t
•
Standard Unit
–
m/s
•
Speed = distance/time
Product of an object’s mass & velocity
Momentum = Mass x Velocity or p = m x v
Standard units
–
kg x m/s
Mass & velocity together represent the force
needed to stop an object in motion
Force is needed to start & stop an object’s motion
Work is the transfer of energy when applied
force makes an object move in the direction
of the applied force
Formula
–
work = force x distance
Standard units
–
Work = joule (J)
Force = Newton (N)
Distance =
meter (m)
Power is the amount of work done in a certain
amount of time
Formula
–
Power = work/time or P = W/t
Standard units
–
Power = Watt (W)
Time = Second
An object will remain at rest, or continue to
move at a constant velocity (speed) unless a
net force acts on it
Net force on an object is equal to its mass
times its acceleration
For every force acting on an object, the
object will exert an equal, yet opposite, force
For every action there is an equal & opposite
reaction
—
ie
. rocket
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